World Beef Cattle Production EOLSS

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Vol I World Beef Cattle Production S L Boyles Jose M Pellegrino. 7 2 Factors affecting Eating Satisfaction,7 2 1 Marbling. 7 2 2 Maturity,7 2 3 Preparation Method, 8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Product compared to Competitors. 9 By Products Useful to Humans,Bibliography,Biographical Sketches. Ruminants have ability to use the products of photosynthesis They can convert high. fiber feeds into essential amino acids and B complex vitamins Cattle utilize much of. the land that is not suitable for cultivation Cattle can consume many by products that. have little or no value for human consumption Cattle are a familiar domesticated. species throughout human history Cattle and their products have been vital. commodities for trade among nations Many breeds of cattle have evolved over time. All have attributes they may be needed in particular environments Heritable traits such. as growth rate meat yield reproductive performance and milk production are important. in commercial cattle production Cattle are found in most areas of the world Their. numbers and importance to the economy varies from country to country Cattle can be. maintained in different production systems The meat and by products of cattle. production are useful to humans and many different facets of our lives. 1 Introduction, Ruminants such as cattle have the ability to transform cellulose into high quality human. food The major contribution of ruminant animals to the human population is their use for. food Approximately 80 85 of the nutrients consumed by cattle and other ruminant. animals come from forages and nutrient sources that are not suitable as food for humans. More than 800 million acres of range and pastureland are utilized in animal production. This is land that is generally too dry too wet too rough or too high to be cultivated. of total land of agricultural of agricultural land. Geographical Region that is land that is that is permanent. agricultural cultivated pasture,World 35 32 68,Developed Countries 36 34 66.
Developing Countries 34 30 70,Africa 37 20 80,Asia 38 46 54. Europe 49 59 41,Oceania 61 9 91,North America 27 47 53. South America 31 17 83,Source adapted from http apps fao org. Table 1 Characteristics of agricultural land in various geographical regions. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Vol I World Beef Cattle Production S L Boyles Jose M Pellegrino. Plants supply over 80 of the total calories consumed in the world Animals supply one. third of the protein consumed worldwide Meat milk and fish are about equal sources of. animal protein supplying respectively 35 34 and 27 of the world supply of total. Cattle consume many by products of the food industry and reduce residue waste disposal. problems along with conserving nutrients for human food Less than one half of the dry. matter produced by crops is edible by humans The remaining stalks leaves and residues. can be converted to human food by cattle About two thirds of grain milling by products. are fed to animals More than 25 of all food by products are used as a source of energy. protein and other nutrients in animal feeds More than half of the by product of fruit and. vegetable processing go into livestock feed An example of these materials include potato. residues corn cannery waste sugar beet pulp grain screenings oil seed residues brewer s. grains cottonseed residues rice bran wheat bran and bakery wastes. Ruminants will become even more important when crops are introduced for industrial. purposes that do not have any human food use An example would be oil from crambe. seed which is used as a lubricant and in photographic film production The meal cannot be. used by monogastric animals but can be used by beef cattle. The word cattle comes from the Old French word chattel which means possession It is. believed that cattle were first domesticated in Europe and Asia during the Stone Age It is. generally thought that cattle were domesticated after sheep goats pigs and dogs Remains. of domesticated cattle dating back to 6500 BC have been found in Turkey Some. authorities date the domestication of cattle as early as 10 000 years ago other assume half. that amount of time Modern domestic cattle evolved for a single early ancestor the. aurouch It is believed that a poacher killed the last surviving member of the species in. 1627 on a hunting reserve near Warsaw Poland, Cattle were not natives of the Western Hemisphere The first cattle to reach the Americas.
were brought by Columbus on the second voyage made in 1493 to the West Indies. Spaniards and other explorers continued to introduce cattle to North Central and South. America throughout the sixteenth century, Early cattle provided meat milk and labor to their owners The international trade in beef. cattle and their products generally consists of four phases 1 trade in hides and tallow 2. trade in preserved meats 3 trade in live cattle and 4 trade in fresh and frozen meats. These phases are also listed in typical progression of origin All phases of the trade are. carried out at the present time with the trade in fresh and frozen meat being the most. economically important,2 1 Trade in Hides and Tallow. Probably the first recorded instance of the shipment of animal products from the New to the. Old World is that of a cargo of 1281 hides from Buenos Aires in 1616 valued at about 117. pounds sterling While Australia and New Zealand were not able to export live animals. successfully during the age of sail power the trade in hide and tallow formed the basis of. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Vol I World Beef Cattle Production S L Boyles Jose M Pellegrino. their international livestock trade for a considerable period of time until meat preservation. techniques were perfected,2 2 Cured Preserved and Tinned Meats. The preservation of meat by salting and drying is almost as old as civilization itself Sailors. and solders of both ancient and medieval nations existed upon such meats Although salting. beef is not as easy as pork to cure it can be preserved in most climates by observing certain. precautions The most common method of preserving beef was to pickle it in strong brine. The hermetically sealed container caused a revolution in the beef industry The use of the. tin can in preservation of beef was begun in Australia in 1847 This product was readily. sold to maritime businesses Canned meat was a welcome relief from the old salt horse. and pickled beef to which sailors had been accustomed. 2 3 Exports of Live Cattle, A limited trade in live meat animals developed in some areas such as between European.
countries in the eighteenth century and probably even before that The importation of live. animals favored the introduction of contagious diseases many of which were prevalent in. Europe at that time,2 4 The Fresh Meat Trade, Mechanical refrigeration became a reality very early in the nineteenth century The first. British patent was issued in 1819 Between this date and 1876 the year in which the. carrying of fresh meat in ocean going vessels was begun on commercial scale the British. Government granted no less than 137 distinct and separate patents on mechanical. refrigeration Mr Thomas S Morse established the first artificial freezing unit in Sidney. Australia in 1861 T C Eastman made the world s first successful shipment of chilled beef. in October 1875 from New York to England,2 5 World Events can alter Beef Marketing. With the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in the summer of 1915 sources of beef were. temporarily altered Although North America was at the time exporting an almost. negligible amount of beef to Europe the interference of the War with all international trade. caused a severe business depression in the continent The recovery in the cattle business. however came very quickly With the realization that World War I would last a long time. came the recognition that North America but six to nine days distant from Europe would. be called upon to furnish large amounts of meat for the Allied soldiers South America and. Australia were much farther away and extensive trade with them would have required. many ships badly needed for military cargos at that particular time With the introduction. the submarine to sea warfare and the enormous loss of shipping resulting from torpedoes. the advantages possessed by North America were pronounced It was not possible to keep. ships in both North and South Atlantic adequately protected Consequently all possible. protection was afforded ships between Europe and North America and little or none for. ships to and from South American ports All surplus meat in North America met with a. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Vol I World Beef Cattle Production S L Boyles Jose M Pellegrino. ready sale to European countries despite the fact that meat could be had for a much lower. price in South American and Australia Upon the end of hostilities previous export import. routes were resumed, The classic definition of a breed is animals that through selection and breeding have come. to resemble one another and pass those traits uniformly to their offspring However breed is. perhaps a more elusive term as indicated by Dr Jay Lush in The Genetics of Populations. He stated A breed is a groups of domestic animals termed such by common consent of. the breeders a term which arose among breeders of livestock created one might say for. their own use and no one is warranted in assigning to this word a scientific definition and. in calling the breeder wrong when they deviate from the formulated definition It is their. work and the breeder common usage is what we must accept as the correct definition. Probably the most convenient and complete set of pictures and discussion of breeds is. located at the Oklahoma State University web site For the sake of brevity a subset of these. breeds are described with additional detail in this section This should not infer that the. other breeds are not important For example the N dama cattle are important in West Africa. These animals have through centuries developed a resistance to trypanosomiasis or. sleeping sickness spread by the tsetse flay which is fatal to most other breeds of cattle. Another example would be Bos indicus Bos taurus crosses for milk production in some. tropical regions, Breed selection by producers is based on the following criteria 1 marketability in the.
area 2 cost and availability of seedstock 3 climate 4 quality and quantity of. feedstuffs 5 how the breeds used in crossing programs complement one another and 6. personal preference,Aficander American White Park Amerifax. Amrit Mahal Antolian Black Andalusian Black,Andalusian Grey Angeln Angus. Ankole Ankole Watusi Argentine Criollo,Astruian Moutain Alberes Alentejana. American Astruian Valley Aubrac,Austraialn Friesian. Aulie Ata Australian Braford, Australian Lowline Ayrshire Australian Milking Zebu.
Bachaur Baladi Baltata Romaneasca,Barka Barzona Bazadais. Beefalo Beefmaker Beefmaster,Belarus Red Belgain Blue Belgian Red. Belmont Adaptaur Belmont Red Belted Galloway,Bengali Berrendas Bhagnari. Blanco Orejinegro Blonde d Aquitaine Bonsmara,Boran Braford Brahman. Brahmousin Brangus Braunvieh,Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS.
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Vol I World Beef Cattle Production S L Boyles Jose M Pellegrino. British White Brown Swiss Cachena,Canadienne Canary Island Canchim. Carinthian Blond Caucasian Channi,Charbray Charolais Chianina. Chinese Black and,Cholistani Corriente,Costeno con Cuernos Dajal Damascus. Damietta Danish Jersey Danish Red,Dangi Deoni Devon. Dexter Dhanni Dolafe,Droughtmaster Dulong Dutch Belted.
Dutch Friesian East Anatolian Red Enderby Island,English Longhorn Estonian Red Evolene. Fighting Bull,Cracker Pinewoods,Fjall Galician Blond Galloway. Gaolao Gascon Gelbray,Gelbvieh German Angus Germain Pied. Gir Glan Gloucester,Greek Shorthorn Guernsey Guzerat. Hallikar Hariana Harton,Hays Converter Hereford Herens.
Highland Hinterwald Holstein,Holando Argentina Horro Hungarian Grey. Icelandic Illawarra Indo Brazilian,Irish Moiled Israeli Holstein Israeli Red. Istoben Jamaica Black Jamaica Hope,Jamaica Red Jaulan Jersey. Kangayam Kankrej Karan Fries,Karan Swiss Kazakh Kenwariya. Kerry Kerigarh Khillari,Kholmogory Krishna Valley Kurdi.
Kuri Latvian Brown Limousin,Lincoln Red Lithuanian Red Lohani. Luing Main Anjou Malvi,Mandalong Marchigiana Masai. Mashona Meuse Rhine Yssel Mewati,Milking Devon Milking Shorthorn Mirandesa. Mongolain Morucha Murboden,Murray Grey Nagori N dama. Lelore Nguni Nimari,Normande Norwegian Red Ongole,Orma Boran Oropa Parthenais.
Philippine Native Polish Red Polled Hereford,Ponwar Piedmontese Pinzgauer. Qinchuan Ratien Gray Rath,Rathi Red Angus Red Brangus. Red Pied Friesian Red Poll Red Polled Ostland,Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS. AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Vol I World Beef Cattle Production S L Boyles Jose M Pellegrino. Red Sindhi Red Steppe Reggiana,Retinta Rojhan Romagnola. Romosinuano Russian Black Pied RX3,Sahiwal Salers Salorn.
Sanhe Santa Cruz Santa Gertrudis,San Martinero Sarabi Senepol. I World Beef Cattle Production S L Boyles The international trade in beef cattle and their products generally consists of four phases 1

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