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d temperatures of 22 selected refrigerators,e number of milligrams of tar in 28 cigarettes. f number of pages in your statistics book, g marriage status of the faculty at the local community college. h list of 1247 social security numbers, i the ratings of a movie ranging from poor to good to excellent. j the final grades A B C D and F for students in a chemistry class. k the annual salaries for all teachers in Utah,l list of zip codes for Chicago. m the nationalities listed in a recent survey,n the amount of fat in grams in 44 cookies.

o the data listed on the horizontal axis in the graph. Five Top Selling Vehicles,Vehicles sold in thousands. Ford F Series Chevrolet Silverado Dodge Ram Ford Explorer Toyota Camry. Series1 62 41 28 26 31, 7 Decide which method of data collection you would use to collect data for the study. observational study experiment simulation or survey. a A study of the salaries of college professors in a particular state. b A study where a political pollster wishes to determine if his candidate is leading in. c A study where you would like to determine the chance getting three girls in a. family of three children, d A study of the effects of a fertilizer on a soybean crop. e A study of the effect of koalas on Florida ecosystem. 8 Identify the sampling technique used random cluster stratified convenience. systematic, a Every fifth person boarding a plane is searched thoroughly. b At a local community College five math classes are randomly selected out of 20. and all of the students from each class are interviewed. c A researcher randomly selects and interviews fifty male and fifty female teachers. d A researcher for an airline interviews all of the passengers on five randomly. selected flights, e Based on 12 500 responses from 42 000 surveys sent to its alumni a major.

university estimated that the annual salary of its alumni was 92 500. f A community college student interviews everyone in a biology class to determine. the percentage of students that own a car, g A market researcher randomly selects 200 drivers under 35 years of age and 100. drivers over 35 years of age, h All of the teachers from 85 randomly selected nation s middle schools were. interviewed, i To avoid working late the quality control manager inspects the last 10 items. produced that day, j The names of 70 contestants are written on 70 cards The cards are placed in a bag. and three names are picked from the bag, 9 Explain what bias there is in a study done entirely online.

10 A local newspaper ran a survey by asking Do you support the development of a. weapon that could kill millions of innocent people Determine whether the survey. questions is biased and why,1 a population all American households. sample collection of 1353 American households surveyed. b population all elementary school children, sample collection of 2625 elementary school children surveyed. c population all people entering the mall within the assigned 3 hour period. sample every 6th person entering the mall within the 3 hour period. 2 a statistic part of 300 000 graduates are surveyed. b parameter all assembly line employees were included in the study. c statistic 360 credit cards were examined not all. 3 a population all readers of USA Today sample volunteers that responded to the. survey population parameter percent who have at least one caffeinated drink among. all readers of USA Today sample statistic percent who have at least one caffeinated. drink among those who responded to the survey, b population all starts in the galaxy sample the few stars selected for measurements. population parameter mean average of distances between all stars and Earth. sample statistics mean of distances between the stars in the sample and Earth. 4 a descriptive 6 a nominal 8 systematic,b inferential b nominal cluster. c inferential c ratio stratified,d inferential d interval cluster.

5 a qualitative e ratio random,b qualitative f ratio convenience. c quantitative g nominal stratified,d qualitative h nominal cluster. e quantitative I ordinal convenience,j ordinal random. 7 a survey,b observation,c simulation,d experiment. e simulation,9 It is limited to people with computers.

10 Yes it tends to encourage negative responses,2 1 Frequency Distributions and Their Graphs. The following data set lists the midterm scores received by 50 students in a chemistry. 45 85 92 99 37 68 67 78 81 25,97 100 82 49 54 78 89 71 94 87. 21 77 81 83 98 97 74 81 39 77,99 85 85 64 92 83 100 74 68 72. 65 84 89 72 61 49 56 97 92 82, Construct a frequency distribution frequency histogram relative frequency histogram. frequency polygon and cumulative frequency graph ogive using 6 classes. The heights in inches of 30 adult males are listed below. 70 72 71 70 69 73 69 68 70 71,67 71 70 74 69 68 71 71 71 72.

69 71 68 67 73 74 70 71 69 68, Construct a frequency distribution frequency histogram relative frequency histogram. frequency polygon and cumulative frequency graph ogive using 5 classes. 2 2 More Graphs and Displays,Weights of Carry On Luggage in Pounds. for a random sample of 40 passengers returning from a vacation to Hawaii. 30 27 12 42 35 47 38 36 27 35,22 29 17 3 21 0 38 32 41 33. 26 45 18 43 18 32 31 32 19 21,33 31 28 29 51 12 14 21 18 26. The following table represents a recent survey of 500 people that answered the following. question How long do you spend on home telephone after 5 pm. Time Number,Less than 1 2 hr 296,1 2 hr to 1 hr 83.

more than 1 hr 121, What will most likely cause you to be late to your early morning class. Cause Frequency,snoozing after alarm 20,car trouble 3. too long over breakfast 15,last minute studying 18. finding the right clothes 12, Example 4 The following table gives mean daily caloric intake all residents and infant. mortality rate per 1 000 births for nine countries. Country Mean daily calories Infant mortality rate,Afganistan 1523 154.

Austria 3495 6,Colombia 2678 24,Ehtiopia 1610 107,Germany 3443 6. Liberia 1640 153,New Zealand 3362 7,Turkey 3429 44. U S 3671 7, Example 5 You have been in the walking jogging exercise program for 20 weeks and. for each week you have recorded the distance in miles you covered in 30 minutes. Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10,Distance 1 5 1 4 1 7 1 6 1 9 2 0 1 8 2 0 1 9 2 0. Week 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20,Distance 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 4 2 7.

2 3 Measures of Central Tendency, The top 14 speeds in mph for Pro Stock drag racing over the past two decades are. 181 1 202 2 190 1 201 4 191 3 201 4 192 2,201 2 193 2 201 2 194 5 199 2 196 0 196 2. The scores of the top ten finishers in a recent golf tournament. 71 67 67 72 76 72 73 68 72 72, The ages of 21 cars randomly selected in a student parking lot. 12 6 4 9 11 1 7 8 9 8 9 13 5 15 7 6 8 8 2 1 5, You are taking a class in which your grade is determined from. Quizzes 15 total,Exams 3 15 each,Homework 10, Your scores are average quiz mean 85 exams 78 81 92 homework mean 85 and.

your final 89, a If the minimum average for B is 87 did you get B at the end of the semester. b What if the quiz mean was not given but the quiz scores are given as 10 12 8 2 9 7. out of 12 points each and only best 4 quizzes count towards your grade. The average starting salary for 50 employees at a company is given. 10 with high school diploma 27 000 each,25 with BA BS degree 35 000 each. 10 with MA MS degree 47 000 each,5 with Ph D degree 59 500 each. How would you find the starting mean salary for these employees. Would you add the 4 amounts and divide by 4 Explain. Approximate the mean of the grouped data,Heights of Males inches Frequency. 2 4 Measures of Variation, Sample annual salaries in thousand dollars for public elementary school teachers are.

26 0 19 9 17 8 31 4 38 6 28 7 25 0, The heights in inches of ALL 10 adult males in an office are. 70 72 71 70 69 73 69 68 70 71, Midterm scores for 20 random students in a class of 100. 82 45 37 98 100 74 87 89 63 76,75 61 43 99 86 86 75 92 65 80. What is the meaning of s sample standard deviation. The mean value of land and buildings per acre from a sample of farms is 2 400 with a. standard deviation of 450 Which of the following prices acre would be considered. 3 325 2 450 3 200 1 490 1 675 2 950, A random sample of the age of employees in a City Hall. Age frequency,Assuming that the ages are normally distributed.

a what percentage of the City Hall employees are between 31 8 and 68 4 years old. If there are 120 employees in a City Hall approximately how many of them are. a between 31 8 and 56 2 years old,b older than 68 4. How long will it take you to graduate from college These are responses from a sample. of students on campus, Assuming the bell shaped distribution normal distribution. What percentage of students will need,a more than 7 9 years to graduate. b between 3 5 and 5 7 years to graduate,c more than 1 3 years to graduate. The mean time in a women s 400 m dash is 57 07 s with a standard deviation of 1 05 s. a Apply Chebychev s Theorem to the data using k 3 Explain the meaning of the values. that you find, b If there is a sample of 350 women about how many would have time between 54 97 s.

and 59 17 s, In a random sample 10 students were asked to compute the distance they travel one way. to school to the nearest tenth of a mile The data is listed. 1 1 5 2 3 6 5 0 4 8 1 8 2 2 5 2 1 5 0 8, a Using Chebychev s Theorem approximate the percentage of students travel between 0. and 6 76 miles one way to school, b If there are 25 000 students on campus approximate the number of students who travel. between 0 and 6 76 miles one way to school, SAT verbal scores are normally distributed with a mean of 489 and a standard deviation. of 93 Use the Empirical Rule also called 68 95 99 7 Rule to determine what percentage. of the scores lie,a between 303 and 582,b above 675.

c If 3 500 students took the SAT verbal test about how many received between 396 and. 675 points,Example 10, The batting averages of Sammy Sosa and Barry Bonds for 13 recent years. Sosa x 0 279 s 0 033,Bonds x 0 312 s 0 027,Which player is more consistent Why. Example 11, Which data set has the highest a mean b standard deviation. i 0 9 ii 0 iii 10 9,1 5 8 1 5 8 9 11 5 8,2 3 3 7 7 2 3 3 7 3 12 3 3 7 7. 3 2 5 3 2 5 6 13 2 5,4 1 4 14 1,Example 12, Data entries a b c d Mean of a b c d is x and the standard deviation is s.

What will happen to the mean and standard deviation if we add 5 to each data entry. What will happen to the mean and standard deviation if each data entry is 3 times larger. 2 5 Measures of Position,The ACT math scores of 15 high school seniors. 18 15 25 24 21 17 32 30 20 27 28 24 18 27 28, In a random sample 18 students were asked how far away in miles from campus do. 4 2 3 7 15 4 12 7 0 5 0 4 3 1 6 13 8,14 0 11 3 8 2 4 0 12 9 20 5 18 7 5 2 1. The heights in inches of 20 women are listed below. 70 71 65 60 62 68 67 68 70 73,60 61 61 65 64 68 69 69 63 65. a Find the height that corresponds to 65th percentile. b What percentile corresponds to the height of 70, c Find the height that corresponds to 27th percentile.

11 5 9 8 3,12 3 9 7 7 6, a Find the score that corresponds to 44th percentile. b What percentile corresponds to the score of 135, c What is the score that corresponds to 11th percentile. John is taking biology and math On the biology exam the mean is 82 with a standard. deviation of 6 and on the math exam the mean is 78 with a standard deviation of 3. John received 85 on the biology exam 80 on the math exam. Use z scores to determine on which test he performed better What would you say if John. scored 92 on the math exam What would you say if John received 79 on the biology. exam and 76 on the math exam,3 1 Basic Concepts of Probability and Counting. 1 You have a red and black six sided dice, a Develop the sample space that results from rolling these two dice. b Find all possible outcomes of getting at least 5 with the black die. c Is getting the sum of 4 a simple event, 2 a How many pairs of letters from the English alphabet with replacement are.

possible Disregard the difference between uppercase and lower case letters. b How will your answer change if replacements are not allowed. c What if we make a difference between the uppercase and lowercase letters without. replacement, 3 The phone numbers in U S consists of 10 digits 3 digits area code 7 digits local. number How many different telephone numbers are possible within each area code. assuming that the local number cannot begin with 0 or 1. 4 Restaurant menu has 5 appetizers 10 main dishes 4 desserts 5 drinks If you would. like to order all 4 how many different meals can you order. 5 Utah license plate contains 6 characters 1 letter followed by 3 numbers followed by 2. letters letters and numbers can repeat, a How many different license plates can the state of Utah issue. b What happens if letters and numbers cannot be repeated. 6 2 coins a dime and a nickel are tossed Find the probability that a both coins land. heads up b you get 1 head and 1 tail, 7 A card is drawn from a standard deck of playing cards Find the probability. a the card drawn is an ace,b the card drawn is a diamond. WORKSHEET Extra examples Chapter 1 sections 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 Identify the population and the sample a A survey of 1353 American households found that 18 of the households own a computer b A recent survey of 2625 elementary school children found that 28 of the children could be classified obese c The average weight of every sixth person entering the mall within 3 hour period was

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