Work related musculoskeletal disorders

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European Agenc y for Safety and Health at Work,A EUROPEAN CAMPAIGN ON MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS. Work related musculoskeletal disorders,Prevention report. Work related musculoskeletal disorders prevention report. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,Zinta Podniece. In co operation with, Terry N Taylor Head of Working Environment Information Unit European Agency for Safety and Health at. Topic Centre Working Environment,Esa Pekka Takala FIOH Finland.
Geoffrey David Valerie Woods RCHE United Kingdom,Ferenc Kudasz FJNCPH OMFI Hungary. Swenneke van den Heuvel Birgitte Blatter TNO Netherlands. Danuta Roman Liu CIOP PIB Poland, Lieven Eeckelaert Rik Op De Beeck Freddy Willems Prevent Belgium. Konstantina Lomi Theoni Koukoulaki ELINYAE Greece,Adriano Papale ISPESL Italy. Gisela Sj gaard AMI Sweden, Isabel Lopes Nunes Jos Miquel Cabe as DEMI Portugal. Dietmar Reinert Rolf Peter Ellegast Dirk Ditchen BGIA Germany. Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers. to your questions about the European Union,Freephone number.
00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11, Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be. More information on the European Union is available on the Internet http europa eu. Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2008. ISBN 978 92 9191 162 2, European Agency for Safety and Health at Work 2008. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Belgium,PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE FREE PAPER. Work related musculoskeletal disorders Prevention report. EUROPEAN AGENC Y,FOR SAFETY AND,TA B L E O F CO N T E N TS. Foreword 5,H E A LT H,Executive Summary 7,1 Introduction 11.
2 Evidence on the effectiveness of work related interventions 15. Introduction 16,Methods 22,Results 25,Discussion 31. Conclusions 33,References 35, 3 Examples of practical workplace interventions 39. Introduction 40,Technical interventions 42, Redesign of a conveyor belt in the automotive industry 42. Redesign of a sewing workplace 45, Redesign of a crane operator seat in the waste incineration industry 50. Translation and cultural adaptation of a patient handling assessment tool 53. Redesign of a demoulding workstation in the production of resin statuettes 56. Raised bricklaying in construction 60,Redesign of an ice cream packing workstation 64.
Redesign of a hand packing line in the pharmaceutical industry 67. Organisational and administrative interventions 74. Ergo Sheets in the manufacture of health care products 74. Ergo Guide concept in the pharmaceutical industry 77. Intervention at a hypermarket checkout line 80,Intervention in a distribution centre 83. Ergonomic Improvement Teams in the pharmaceutical industry 86. Behavioural modification 92, Worksite physical activity intervention among tax office employees 92. Muscular fitness project in the chemical industry 95. Conclusions 98,References 100,4 Overall conclusions 103. Work related musculoskeletal disorders Prevention report. EUROPEAN AGENC Y,FOR SAFETY AND,H E A LT H, Musculoskeletal disorders MSDs are the most common work related health problem. in Europe affecting millions of workers Across the EU27 25 of workers complain of. backache and 23 report muscular pains MSDs are the biggest cause of absence. from work in practically all Member States In some states 40 of the costs of workers. compensation are caused by MSDs and up to 1 6 of the gross domestic product. GDP of the country itself They reduce company profitability and add to the. government s social costs, The challenge of work related health problems including musculoskeletal disorders.
has been recognised and addressed at the European level by the adoption of a number. of EU directives strategies and policies and by the establishment of dedicated EU. bodies such as the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work to support. occupational safety and health OSH activities across Europe Creating more and better. quality jobs is an important EU objective and was reinforced at the Lisbon Council in. 2000 Successful prevention of MSDs the most commonly reported and costly work. related health problem in Europe would greatly contribute to achieving this objective. Community OSH strategies European social partners Member States and experts have. also identified the prevention of MSDs as a priority area to improve workers health and. well being In general there is a good momentum in Europe to tackle the problem. Many problems can be prevented or greatly reduced through employers complying. with existing safety and health law and following good practice However there are. specific actions that have to be taken if MSDs are to be tackled effectively The. Administrative Board of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work therefore. decided to dedicate the 2007 European Campaign Lighten the Load for Safety and. Health at Work to work related musculoskeletal disorders. Work related musculoskeletal disorders Prevention report. Lighten the Load follows on from the first campaign run by the Agency in 2000 which. focused on the same topic Musculoskeletal disorders are complex work related health. H E A LT H, conditions due to their multifactorial aetiology various risk factors and their. combinations and the existence of numerous intervention methods Therefore it is. FOR SAFETY AND, difficult to communicate information about them to target audiences in a. comprehensive way In order to succeed there is a need for continued long term efforts. The European MSDs Campaign in 2007 seeks to promote an integrated management. EUROPEAN AGENC Y, approach to tackling MSDs embracing both elements the prevention of MSDs and. the retention rehabilitation and reintegration of workers who already suffer from MSDs. This report supports the Campaign by providing information on the first element of. the above approach and is aimed at all those who have influence on the prevention. of work related MSDs It evaluates the effectiveness of interventions in the workplace. and provides practical examples illustrating successful prevention of MSDs. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all our European partners as well as. Agency and Topic Centre Working Environment staff who have contributed to the. compilation of this report,Jukka Takala,European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. February 2008, Work related musculoskeletal disorders Prevention report.
EUROPEAN AGENC Y,EXECUTIVE SUMMARY,FOR SAFETY AND, Work related musculoskeletal disorders MSDs are impairments of body structures. such as muscles joints tendons ligaments nerves bones or a localised blood. circulation system caused or aggravated primarily by the performance of work and by. H E A LT H, the effects of the immediate environment where the work is carried out Most work. related MSDs are cumulative disorders resulting from repeated exposures to high or. low intensity loads over a long period of time The symptoms may vary from. discomfort and pain to decreased body function and invalidity Although it is not clear. to what extent MSDs are caused by work their impact on working life is huge MSDs. can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity sickness. absence and chronic occupational disability, The aim of this report is to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace. and to provide practical examples with respect to successful prevention of MSDs It. focuses mainly on the developments that have taken place since the previous. European MSDs Campaign in 2000,Workplace Interventions. A systematic review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of preventive. measures found that the number of good quality studies had increased during this. period compared with the number found in reviews conducted in previous decades. The main findings of the literature review were as follows. There is strong evidence that technical ergonomic measures can reduce the. workload on the back and upper limbs without the loss of productivity and. moderate evidence that these measures can also reduce the occurrence of MSDs. There is moderate evidence that a combination of several kinds of interventions. multidisciplinar y approach including organisational technical and. personal individual measures is better than single measures However it is not. known how such interventions should be combined for optimal results. Work related musculoskeletal disorders Prevention report. There is some evidence that a participative approach which includes the workers in. the process of change has a positive effect on the success of an intervention. H E A LT H, Physical training can also reduce the recurrence of back pain and neck shoulder.
pain In order to be effective however the training should include vigorous exercise. FOR SAFETY AND,and be repeated at least three times a week. There is limited scientific evidence that a reduction in daily working hours can. reduce MSDs and that extra pauses for recovery can often be added in an industrial. EUROPEAN AGENC Y,setting without loss of productivity. There is strong evidence that training on working methods in manual handling is. not effective if it is used as the only measure to prevent low back pain. There is no conclusive evidence to support back belt use to prevent work related. low back pain, No scientific studies have been found that conflict with the approach adopted by. the EU Directives on manual material handling or on working with computers. Case studies,Fifteen case studies are presented from a range. of occupations and sectors across Europe in,order to share the good practice examples with.
respect to prevention of MSDs Among others,the case studies cover the health care. pharmaceutical and construction sectors and,the sewing waste and food industries. The report shows that interventions to tackle the,risks of work related musculoskeletal disorders. such as technical organisational and,behavioural measures can yield many benefits. Not only can the working conditions and the,satisfaction and motivation of workers improve.
and the rate of sick leave due to musculoskeletal,disorders decline there may also be a positive. influence on overall safety process capacity,production output product quality etc In this. regard most of the case studies emphasise that,Peter Rimmer. Work related musculoskeletal disorders Prevention report. EUROPEAN AGENC Y, the cost benefit ratio of an ergonomic intervention is a crucial factor for its approval. and success, The case studies demonstrated that the principles that are important for successful.
implementation of workplace interventions include,FOR SAFETY AND. participatory approach the involvement of the workers and their representatives. throughout the process,H E A LT H, multidisciplinary approach collaboration of people with expertise in different areas. e g ergonomics engineering psychology etc when assessing and monitoring. workplace risks and searching for solutions, sponsorship from the management so that appropriate resources are made. available to improve the working environment, if solutions proposed by good practice examples are used in another workplace. they should be tailored to its specific conditions. European Agenc y for Safety and Health at Work,A EUROPEAN CAMPAIGN ON MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS.
INTRODUCTION, Work related musculoskeletal disorders Prevention report. Pain discomfort and loss of function in back neck and extremities are common. among working people These ailments are commonly termed musculoskeletal. H E A LT H, disorders MSDs For the purpose of this report work related MSDs are defined as. impairments of bodily structures such as muscles joints tendons ligaments nerves. FOR SAFETY AND, bones or a localised blood circulation system that are caused or aggravated primarily. by the performance of work and by the effects of the immediate environment where. the work is carried out,EUROPEAN AGENC Y, Most work related MSDs are cumulative disorders resulting from repeated exposure. to high or low intensity loads over a long period of time However MSDs can also be. acute traumas such as fractures that occur during an accident The symptoms may. vary from discomfort and pain to reduced body function and invalidity. MSDs cause harm and suffering to the worker as well as financial loss owing to. invalidity treatment costs and lost income They also have an enormous negative. impact on society as a whole At the workplace level the disorders result in costs due. to reduced human capacity and disturbances to production The costs to society are. increased due to the need for treatment and rehabilitation in addition to the. compensation costs paid through social insurance,According to a European survey carried.
out in 31 countries in 2005 up to 25 of,the workers in the EU27 reported back. pain and 23 muscular pain European,Foundation for the Improvement of. Living and Working Conditions 2007,About 235 million people were. employed in these 31 countries at the,time of the survey meaning that at least. 60 million workers reportedly suffer from,MSDs in Europe.
Work related musculoskeletal disorders Prevention report E U R O P E A N A G E N C Y F O R S A F E T Y A N D H E A L T H A T W O R K 7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Work

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