Words Their Way Spelling Inventories Pearson School

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Center for Research in Educational,Policy Words Their Way. The University of Memphis,325 Browning Hall Spelling Inventories. Memphis Tennessee 38152,Toll Free 1 866 670 6147,Reliability and Validity Analyses. February 2007,Allan Sterbinsky PhD,Center for Research in Educational Policy. Words Their Way Spelling Inventories,Reliability and Validation Study.
Introduction, Words Their Way WTW is an approach to spelling and word knowledge that is based on. extensive research literature and includes stages of development and instructional levels that are. critical to the way students learn to read It compliments the use of phonics spelling and. vocabulary instruction that are often used in schools Included in the WTW approach is a set of. three inventories that assess student ability in key areas These three inventories include the. Primary Spelling Inventory the Elementary Spelling Inventory and the Upper Level Spelling. As with all educational instruments it is essential to evaluate the reliability and validity of. the instruments to ensure that educators and policymakers base their instructional and policy. decisions on instruments that measure what they purport to measure Additionally if the. instruments are to be used to gauge changes in student knowledge then it is critical that the. instrument be reliable With reliable instruments educators can be sure that changes in test scores. reflect changes in student knowledge rather than any instability in the instrument itself For these. reasons the Center for Research in Educational Policy CREP at The University of Memphis was. asked to conduct a reliability and validity study of all three inventories using data from students in. a variety of grades and backgrounds Results of the reliability measured in two different ways. and validity both in predictive and concurrent contexts analyses are discussed in the next sections. The school district that agreed to participate in this reliability and validity study included a. total of 10 902 students Of these students 49 were female and 51 were male Across the. district approximately 8 N 847 were identified as eligible for special education services The. sample of participating students came from seven schools within the district These schools served. a total of 4290 students, Of the seven schools that agreed to participate in the research study two were middle. schools and five were elementary schools As seen in Table 1 the size of the schools ranged from. a low of 426 students to a high of 1 098 students The two middle schools and three of the. elementary schools served primarily Hispanic students 55 to 76 Hispanic The two. remaining elementary schools served primarily Caucasian students 51 to 71 Caucasian All. schools were located in a suburban environment and the percentage of students eligible for free or. reduced priced lunches ranged from a low of 35 to a high of 74 across the schools. Participating Schools, School A School B School C School D School E School F School G. Middle Elem Elem Elem Elem Elem Middle,Teachers 0 9 1 5 4 5 0. Grades 1 2,Teachers 0 6 1 6 2 4 0,Grades 3 4,Teachers 3 3 1 3 0 0 1.
Grades 5 6,Teachers 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,Grades 7 8,Total 1 098 481 632 531 628 426 494. students in,Percent 1 2 0 6 2 5 1 5 1 4 2 1 1 0,Percent Asian 3 6 2 7 1 3 1 7 2 2 2 8 2 4. Percent 5 7 9 4 6 5 4 7 5 7 4 5 6 7,Percent 54 8 11 6 75 6 68 2 67 2 37 8 67 6. Percent 32 8 71 3 13 6 21 7 21 7 50 9 20 9,Free Reduced 56 36 74 62 67 35 73. Urbanicity Suburban Suburban Suburban Suburban Suburban Suburban Suburban. Instrumentation, Words Their Way Instruments The research study included three separate spelling.
inventories the Primary Spelling Inventory the Elementary Spelling Inventory and the Upper. Level Spelling Inventory The Primary Spelling Inventory is comprised of 26 spelling words. ranging from fan to riding The Elementary Spelling Inventory includes 25 words ranging. from bed to opposition Finally the Upper Level Spelling Inventory is comprised of 31. words including switch and succession, In proctoring these tests administrators called out the words to the students used the. words in sentences and then repeated the words Students then spelled the words on a sheet of. California Standards Tests As part of the state mandated STAR Standardized Testing. and Reporting program in California the English Language Arts ELA tests are administered to. students in the second through 11th grades during the spring of each academic year The tests are. composed of subtests including the Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development Reading. Comprehension Literary Response and Analysis Written Conventions and Writing Strategies. Additionally the English Language Arts Cluster 6 Writing Applications is administered in grades 4. and 7 The California Standards Tests also include an ELA scale score and performance levels. CST ss ELA and the CST pl ELA respectively which are included as separate scales in this. A total of 1 944 Words Their Way tests were completed at the participating schools during. the fall of 2005 as seen in Table 2 Some students in the sample completed multiple inventories. e g primary and elementary A total of 647 students completed the Primary Spelling Inventory. 862 completed the Elementary Spelling Inventory and 442 completed the Upper Level Inventory. Data from these students were analyzed using indices of item difficulty item discrimination and. Cronbach s alpha internal consistency, During the spring of 2006 901 students from these schools participated in the test retest. reliability portion of this study Students were asked to complete a primary elementary or upper. form of the instruments and one week later the same students were asked to complete the same. instrument again The first spring 2006 test was treated as the pretest while the second Spring. 2006 test was treated as a posttest Together the scores from the test administrations provided an. estimate of the test retest reliability of the instruments. During the spring of 2006 students in California were required to participate in. standardized tests which included the students in this district These tests were proctored via the. state mandated protocols and test results for each student were made available to the researchers. Student names and other identifiers were withheld from researchers to protect the confidentiality of. data but a unique identifier was used to link WTW test results with those from the standardized. tests Results from a total of 685 students 52 female 48 male were linked in the database. including 133 in the second grade 181 in the third grade 165 in the fourth grade and 192 in the. fifth grade Results from approximately 14 students in higher grades were available but were not. used in the validation study due to insufficient sample size for those grades. Validity estimates were calculated using both a predictive and concurrent design The Fall. 2005 first administration of the Words Their Way instrument was used as a predictor and the. Spring 2006 administration of the California Standards Test as the criterion The next validity. estimate concurrent validity used the Spring 2006 second administration as the predictor and the. Spring 2006 administration of the California Standards Test as the criterion Additionally validity. estimates were derived from all students in the study and an additional validity estimate was. derived from a subsample of these original students who were not identified as ELL SPED or. Gifted Reporting predictive and concurrent results for both samples provides educators and. policymakers with clear evidence of the validity of the instruments within both a predictive and. concurrent context, Number of Students Participating by School Grade and WTW Version. School WTW Version Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8,A Primary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,A Elementary 0 0 0 0 0 149 0 0. A Upper 0 0 0 0 0 149 0 0,B Primary 94 73 59 0 0 0 0 0.
B Elementary 0 32 81 59 77 0 0 0,B Upper 0 0 0 0 79 0 0 0. C Primary 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0,C Elementary 0 18 0 28 23 0 0 0. C Upper 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 0,D Primary 53 47 54 0 0 0 0 0. D Elementary 0 31 54 75 80 0 0 0,D Upper 0 0 0 0 80 0 0 0. E Primary 67 9 34 0 0 0 0 0,E Elementary 0 0 32 0 0 0 0 0.
E Upper 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,F Primary 57 31 50 0 0 0 0 0. F Elementary 0 29 48 0 0 0 0 0,F Upper 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. G Primary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,G Elementary 0 0 0 0 0 46 0 0. G Upper 0 0 0 0 0 47 46 9, Data from the first administration of the three inventories was analyzed using estimates of. item difficulty item discrimination and internal consistency Cronbach s alpha Item difficulty. was calculated by identifying the percent of students who correctly spelled each word Higher. numbers in the item difficulty index identify items that are easier for students to spell Lower. numbers identify items that are harder for students to spell. Item discrimination was also analyzed The purpose of item discrimination is to provide an. index of how well an individual item discriminates between students who scored relatively high on. the total test score versus those who scored relatively low For this index lower numbers indicate. that an item does not differentiate between higher and lower performers on the overall test Higher. numbers however indicate that the item has substantive ability to differentiate between higher and. lower overall performers on the test, Finally the data from the first administration was analyzed to estimate the internal.
consistency of the overall instrument using Cronbach s alpha This statistic is appropriate for use. with dichotomous variables e g word correct or incorrect. Primary Spelling Inventory, As can be seen in Table 3 the item difficulty ranged from a high of 96 3 fan to a low of. 16 1 clapping The index of discrimination ranged from a low of 6 3 fan to a high of 77 7. shine Analysis of the reliability of the Primary Spelling Inventory using Cronbach s alpha. procedure indicated an overall reliability coefficient of 9341 Individual items were then examined. to determine if deletion of any items would substantively improve the overall reliability index No. item was recommended for deletion on the basis of the impact on coefficient alpha It is however. recommended that results from the item difficulty and item discrimination indices be used to. consider continued inclusion or exclusion of individual items from the instrument. Primary Spelling Inventory Item Difficulty and Index of Discrimination N 647. Index of Mean St Alpha if Item,Item Item Difficulty Discrimination Dev Deleted. blade 44 8 66 70 448 498 930,camped 35 4 63 90 354 479 930. clapping 16 1 29 30 178 563 935,coach 32 9 58 40 329 470 929. crawl 19 8 37 80 198 399 931,dig 90 3 18 20 903 297 934.
dream 41 9 75 80 419 494 928,fan 96 3 6 30 963 189 935. fright 29 5 56 80 295 457 929,growl 26 6 45 40 266 442 931. gum 87 8 22 10 878 328 934,hope 61 2 65 10 612 488 931. pet 92 3 12 00 923 267 934,riding 40 8 43 40 408 492 933. rob 82 8 13 70 828 377 935,chewed 24 3 46 50 243 429 930.
shine 52 7 77 70 527 500 929,shouted 33 7 64 30 337 473 930. sled 79 0 24 10 790 408 935,spoil 24 6 47 10 263 604 933. stick 62 9 57 30 629 483 932,third 28 3 51 90 283 451 930. thorn 55 6 54 30 556 497 932,tries 23 6 41 60 236 425 931. wait 33 7 59 30 337 473 930,wishes 41 0 69 70 410 492 929.
Elementary Spelling Inventory, For the Elementary Spelling Inventory the item difficulty indices ranged from a high of. 98 9 bed to a low of 15 0 opposition see Table 4 The index of discrimination ranged from a. low of 2 2 bed to a high of 65 3 carries Examination of the internal consistency of the. instrument yielded an overall reliability coefficient of 915 Cronbach s alpha Examination of the. alpha levels if an item was deleted indicated that no items should be removed solely on the basis of. the change in alpha levels Results from the item difficulty and item discrimination indices should. however be used to consider continued inclusion or exclusion of individual items from the. instrument, Elementary Spelling Inventory Item Difficulty and Index of Discrimination N 856. Index of Mean St Alpha if Item,Item Item Difficulty Discrimination Dev Deleted. carries 49 4 65 30 494 500 910,favor 55 8 64 20 558 497 909. chewed 66 8 59 10 668 471 908,throat 44 6 59 10 446 497 911.
pleasure 32 8 57 70 328 470 911,bottle 68 2 57 50 682 466 909. spoil 67 5 56 20 675 469 909,confident 32 7 52 20 327 469 911. serving 58 4 51 50 584 493 911,float 73 0 50 60 730 444 909. marched 79 6 38 20 796 403 910,bright 80 8 35 50 808 394 910. civilize 19 3 35 30 193 395 913,fortunate 17 4 33 10 174 379 913.
shower 83 5 32 80 835 371 910,ripen 59 6 31 80 596 491 916. cellar 16 4 29 20 176 524 917,train 85 0 27 80 850 357 911. opposition 15 0 27 30 149 357 914,place 89 0 22 50 890 313 911. lump 88 7 21 80 887 317 913,when 92 8 14 40 928 259 913. drive 92 8 13 40 928 259 913,ship 96 7 6 30 967 178 915.
bed 98 9 2 20 989 102 916,Upper Level Spelling Inventory. The item difficulty for the Upper Level Spelling Inventory ranged from a high of 88 2. shaving to a low of 7 2 correspond The index of discrimination ranged from a low of 12 3. Words Their Way Spelling Inventories Reliability and Validation Study Introduction Words Their Way WTW is an approach to spelling and word knowledge that is based on extensive research literature and includes stages of development and instructional levels that are critical to the way students learn to read It compliments the use of phonics

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