WOMEN IN SCIENCE San Diego Supercomputer Center

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I N T R O D U CT I O N, he women scientists profiled here span several appropriate as these fields are also developing. centuries and several nationalities Despite many significant computational components. barriers women all over the world have The common thread running through their stories is. participated in unraveling the secrets of nature since the their record of accomplishment Each was able to make a. dawn of civilization As historian of science Naomi significant contribution and each achieved recognition in. Oreskes said recently The question is not why there her field To one degree or another all of these women. haven t been more women in science the question is faced obstacles to their scientific work that arose simply. rather why we have not heard more about them Most because they were women Many were hardly permitted. of the women whose stories are told here in fact were to get an education some were allowed to work only. active in recent times when the sciences had already without the pay or privileges accorded to men doing the. become professionalized endeavors same work Engaging in normal scientific collaborations. This publication stems from a project undertaken at the was an impossibility for some and a great difficulty for. San Diego Supercomputer Center SDSC in early 1997 others barred as they were from the milieux in which. when a new wing was added to the center s building It male scientists met and conversed. featured a classroom designed for workshops in the most But these women in science were also women. advanced computational and visualization techniques specifically situated in time and place They also. The classroom was furnished with 16 new Silicon struggled in common with their male counterparts. Graphics workstations against fascism racism and discrimination based on. The machines had Internet addresses which were strings class and ethnicity Some achieved such pinnacles as the. of numbers but since humans misremember numbers Nobel Prize while others have been nearly lost to. they all needed memorable names as well To recognize history We find that in simply naming some computers. the several educational programs that SDSC directs at we have been privileged to enter a rich historical. girls and young women interested in careers in the territory one little enough explored and we invite you. sciences we named each machine after a woman who to share it with us. had a career in or made a significant contribution to a. scientific discipline Brief biographies were written for ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. each woman selected and these were put on the walls of. Many individuals helped gather the information and pictures. the classroom They were also gathered in this pamphlet. presented here Those whom we are delighted to thank include. which we hope to distribute to audiences beyond our. Bonnie Bird Executive Secretary The Royal Astronomical Society. computational laboratory Clare Bunce and the PRstaff at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Many of the women celebrated here were mathemati Lynda Claassen Steve Coy and Bradley Westerbrook UCSD. cians physicists or astronomers all fields strongly Libraries Mandeville Special Collections Deborah Day Archivist. related to the computational sciences But there are also Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD Leo Dolenski Bryn. two biologists two biochemists a geological pioneer a Mawr College Patrice Donoghue Assistant Curator Harvard. University Archives Joyce Hansen Austin Hansen Collection. doctor and an industrial psychologist which is also. Schomburg Center Leon and Cynthia Pitts Harkleroad Cornell. University Department of Mathematics and Cornell Theory. Specifically these were Indigo 2 Killer Impact workstations with Center Dorothy Kaupe San Diego Historical Society Purdue. R10000 processors 128 Mbytes of memory apiece fast Ethernet cards University Technical Information Service Ruth Sime Sacramento. and videoconferencing hardware A significant discount obtained City College Hugh Torrens Keele University Agnes T ska. from Silicon Graphics Inc enabled SDSC to inaugurate the new Mathematics Department California State University Fresno and. classroom Tom Zinnen Pam Peters and Vivian Lee Ward Access Excellence. These include a Girl Scout Science Interest Group and an ongoing Web Site We also wish to acknowledge our colleague Anke. program directed at young and minority high school level women Kamrath who asked for help in naming the machines and our. see the SDSC web site for more information leader Ann Redelfs Director of External Relations at SDSC for. http www sdsc edu Education her steady encouragement MM and LS. WOMEN IN SCIEN CE 1,INTRODUCTION 1, Rosalind Elsie Franklin 1920 1958 Pioneer Molecular Biologist 3. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin OM 1910 1994 A Founder of Protein Crystallography 4. A d m i ral Grace Murray H o p p e r 1906 1992 Pioneer Computer Scientist 5. Maria Goeppert Mayer 1906 1972 Nobelist in Physics 6. Helen Sawyer Hogg 1905 1993 A Gift of Stars 7, R zsa P ter 1905 1977 Founder of Recursive Function Theory 8. Roger Arliner Young 1899 1964 Lifelong Struggle of a Zoologist 9. May Edward Chinn 1896 1980 Physician 10, Emmy Noether 1882 1935 Creative Mathematical Genius 11. Lise Meitner 1878 1968 A Battle for Ultimate Truth 12. Lillian Moller Gilbreth 1878 1972 Mother of Modern Management 13. Annie Jump Cannon 1863 1941 Theorist of Star Spectra 14. Rosa Smith Eigenmann 1858 1947 First Woman Ichthyologist of Any Accomplishments 15. Ada Byron Countess of Lovelace 1815 1852 Analyst Metaphysician and Founder of Scientific Computing 16. Mary Anning 1799 1847 Finder of Fossils 17, Sophie Germain 1776 1831 Revolutionary Mathematician 18.
FURTHER READING 19,CREDITS 20,ROSALIND ELSIE,BORN LONDON ENGLAND JULY 25 1920. DIED LONDON ENGLAND APRIL 16 1958,Pioneer Molecular Biologist. techniques In 1951 she returned to England as a, research associate in John Randall s laboratory at King s. College Cambridge, It was in Randall s lab that she crossed paths with. Maurice Wilkins She and Wilkins led separate research. groups and had separate projects although both were. concerned with DNA When Randall gave Franklin, responsibility for her DNA project no one had worked.
on it for months Wilkins was away at the time and, when he returned he misunderstood her role behaving. as though she were a technical assistant Both scientists. here is probably no other woman scientist with as were actually peers His mistake acknowledged but. much controversy surrounding her life and work never overcome was not surprising given the climate for. as Rosalind Franklin Franklin was responsible for women at Cambridge then Only males were allowed in. much of the research and discovery work that led to the the university dining rooms and after hours Franklin s. understanding of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid colleagues went to men only pubs. DNA The story of DNA is a tale of competition and, But Franklin persisted on the DNA project J D Bernal. intrigue told one way in James Watson s book The, Double Helix and quite another in Anne Sayre s study called her X ray photographs of DNA the most. Rosalind Franklin and DNA James Watson Francis beautiful X ray photographs of any substance ever. Crick and Maurice Wilkins received a Nobel Prize for taken Between 1951 and 1953 Rosalind Franklin came. the double helix model of DNA in 1962 four years after very close to solving the DNA structure She was beaten. Franklin s death at age 37 from ovarian cancer to publication by Crick and Watson in part because of. the friction between Wilkins and herself At one point. Franklin excelled at science and attended one of the few. Wilkins showed Watson one of Franklin s,girls schools in London that taught physics and. crystallographic portraits of DNA When he saw the,chemistry When she was 15 she decided to become a.
scientist Her father was decidedly against higher picture the solution became apparent to him and the. education for women and wanted Rosalind to be a social results went into an article in Nature almost. worker Ultimately he relented and in 1938 she enrolled immediately Franklin s work did appear as a supporting. at Newnham College Cambridge graduating in 1941 article in the same issue of the journal. She held a graduate fellowship for a year but quit in A debate about the amount of credit due to Franklin. 1942 to work at the British Coal Utilization Research continues What is clear is that she did have a. Association where she made fundamental studies of meaningful role in learning the structure of DNA and. carbon and graphite microstructures This work was the that she was a scientist of the first rank Franklin moved. basis of her doctorate in physical chemistry which she to J D Bernal s lab at Birkbeck College where she did. earned from Cambridge University in 1945 very fruitful work on the tobacco mosaic virus She also. After Cambridge she spent three productive years 1947 began work on the polio virus In the summer of 1956. 1950 in Paris at the Laboratoire Central des Services Rosalind Franklin became ill with cancer She died less. Chimiques de L Etat where she learned X ray diffraction than two years later. WOMEN IN SCIENCE 3,DOROTHY CROWFOOT,HODGKIN OM,BORN CAIRO EGYPT MAY 12 1910. DIED SHIPSTON ON STOUR ENGLAND,JULY 29 1994,A Founder of Protein Crystallography. Oxford described in the memoirs of her many students. as an unfailingly joyful and productive environment. The challenges were always huge as every new, technique seemed to reach limits that constrained the. size of protein that could be successfully solved and. each protein tackled presented special problems of its. own Hodgkin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. in 1947 after publishing the structure of penicillin and. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964 for. her solution of vitamin B 12 The solution of the insulin. structure came in 1969 after many years of struggle. cientific biographers do not in general find much, Hodgkin and her collaborators produced a more refined. correlation between good character and great,solution in 1988 one that took full advantage of.
science There are a few exceptions Historians have. computational techniques that can now reduce the time. unanimously agreed for example that Charles Darwin. for protein solutions from years to months or weeks. was a particularly admirable even lovable figure a. collegial scientist devoted father faithful supporter of Hodgkin was the first of four daughters of John and. young colleagues sincere honest and without personal Grace Crowfoot Her father was an archaeologist. enemies working for the Ministry of Education in Cairo and her. mother an accomplished artist was an expert on Coptic. The Darwin of our age is certainly Dorothy Crowfoot textiles Dorothy married Thomas Hodgkin an expert in. Hodgkin In the words of colleague Max Perutz African Studies in 1937 and they had three children. Nobelist for his solution of the hemoglobin molecule. she was a great chemist a saintly gentle and tolerant Hodgkin s role in the arena of science policy and. lover of people and a devoted protagonist of peace In a international relations was a constant complement to her. short space it is impossible to discuss both the own scientific work The entire family distinguished. significance of her science and the scope of her tireless itself over more than three decades by working in the. public arena for the cause of world peace She belonged. activity for world peace, to many international peace organizations and owing to. Concentrating first on her contributions to science she is Cold War restrictions was not permitted to obtain a. known as a founder of the science of protein U S visa until 1990 Although she was over 80 and. crystallography She and her mentor J D Bernal were extremely crippled by rheumatoid arthritis she lost no. the first to successfully apply X ray diffraction to crystals time in making a grand tour of U S institutions to. of biological substances beginning with pepsin in 1934 discuss insulin the history of crystallography and its. Hodgkin s contributions to crystallography included future Her talks drew standing room only crowds at. solutions of the structures of cholesterol lactoglobulin every stop She suffered a stroke and died in 1994. ferritin tobacco mosaic virus penicillin vitamin B 12. and insulin a solution on which she worked for 34, Guy Dodson Jenny P Glusker and David Sayre Eds 1981. years as well as the development of methods for Structural studies on molecules of biological interest A volume. indexing and processing X ray intensities After the work in honour of Professor Dorothy Hodgkin Oxford The. with Bernal she established her own laboratory at Clarendon Press. 4 SAN DIEGO SUPER COMPUTER CENTER,AD M I RAL G RA C E. MU RRAY H O P P E R,BORN NEW YORK NEW YORK DECEMBER 9 1906. DIED ARLINGTON VIRGINIA JANUARY 1 1992,Pioneer Computer Scientist.
he new discipline of computing and the sciences appointed to. that depend upon it have led the way in making the Harvard. space for women s participation on an equal faculty as a. basis That was in some ways true for Grace Murray research fellow. Hopper and it is all the more true for women today and in 1949. because of Hopper s work she joined the, Grace Brewster Murray graduated from Vassar with a newly formed. with Bernal she established her own laboratory at Oxford described in the memoirs of her many students as an unfailingly joyful and productive environment The challenges were always huge as every new technique seemed to reach limits that constrained the size of protein that could be successfully solved and

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