Wireless Technology via Satellite Communications thesis

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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No 0704 0188. Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response including the time. for reviewing instruction searching existing data sources gathering and maintaining the data needed and completing. and reviewing the collection of information Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this. collection of information including suggestions for reducing this burden to Washington headquarters Services. Directorate for Information Operations and Reports 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway Suite 1204 Arlington VA 22202. 4302 and to the Office of Management and Budget Paperwork Reduction Project 0704 0188 Washington DC 20503. 1 AGENCY USE ONLY Leave blank 2 REPORT DATE 3 REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED. September 2001 Master s Thesis,4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING NUMBERS. Wireless Technology via Satellite Communications for Peacekeeping Operations. 6 AUTHOR S Andre T Harrell, 7 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME S AND ADDRESS ES 8 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION. Naval Postgraduate School REPORT NUMBER,Monterey CA 93943 5000. 9 SPONSORING MONITORING AGENCY NAME S AND ADDRESS ES 10 SPONSORING MONITORING. N A AGENCY REPORT NUMBER, 11 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or. position of the Department of Defense or the U S Government. 12a DISTRIBUTION AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b DISTRIBUTION CODE. Approved for public release distribution is unlimited. 13 ABSTRACT maximum 200 words, How can reliable information be shared amongst international military and non governmental organizations in support of.
peacekeeping operations This thesis examines a wireless alternative to enhance existing communication infrastructures as a primary. means of information exchange When assessing the need for wireless and making a determination of its use a study of its markets. trends future growth policies and regulations must be taken into consideration Wireless technology via satellite communications. can offer a great advantage of information exchange for mobility deployed organizations requiring extensive geographical coverage. such as peacekeeping operations With the emergence of higher transmission rates and technological options i e video conferencing. Wide Area Networking internet accessibility voice fax data transfer etc for satellite communication the examination of wireless. technology and the options it presents becomes paramount Peacekeeping efforts involve the coordination and collaboration of. civilian military organizations that depend exclusively on information exchange for rapid response and operational readiness The use. for wireless as a necessary communication requirement will aid in the achievement of these objectives. 14 SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF, Wireless Technology Satellite Communication Very Small Aperture Terminal VSAT Peacekeeping PAGES. Operations Non Governmental Organizations Code Division Multiple Access CDMA Time Division 109. Multiple Access TDMA Personal Earth Station PES 16 PRICE CODE. 17 SECURITY 18 SECURITY 19 SECURITY 20 LIMITATION, CLAS SIFICATION OF CLASSIFICATION OF THIS CLASSIFICATION OF OF ABSTRACT. REPORT PAGE ABSTRACT,Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UL. NSN 7540 01 280 5500 Standard Form 298 Rev 2 89,Prescribed by ANSI Std 239 18. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK, Approved for public release distribution is unlimited.
WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY VIA SATELLITE COMMUNICATION,FOR PEACE KEEPING OPERATIONS. Andre T Harrell,Captain United States Marine Corps. B S Jacksonville University 1993,Submitted in partial fulfillment of the. requirements for the degree of, MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK, How can reliable information be shared amongst international military and non.
governmental organizations in support of peacekeeping operations This thesis examines. a wireless alternative to enhance existing communication infrastructures as a primary. means of information exchange When assessing the need for wireless and making a. determination of its use a study of its markets trends future growth policies and. regulations must be taken into consideration Wireless technology via satellite. communications can offer a great advantage of information exchange for mobility. deployed organizations requiring extensive geographical coverage such as peacekeeping. operations With the emergence of higher transmission rates and technological options. i e video conferencing Wide Area Networking internet accessibility voice fax data. transfer etc for satellite communication the examination of wireless technology and the. options it presents becomes paramount Peacekeeping efforts involve the coordination. and collaboration of civilian military organizations that depend exclusively on. information exchange for rapid response and operational readiness The use for wireless. as a necessary communication requirement will aid in the achievement of these. objectives,THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK,TABLE OF CONTENTS. I INTRODUCTION 1,A PURPOSE 1,B BACKGOUND 1,C RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 5. D THESIS ORGANIZATION 6,E METHODOLOGY 6,F EXPECTED BENEFITS OF THIS THESIS 6. II FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY 9,A OVERVIEW 9. B BACKGROUND 9,C BASICS OF WIRELESS 10,1 Transmitter 10.
2 Receiver 11,3 Radio Frequency Spectrum 11,a Concerns for Radio Frequencies 11. b Frequency Reuse 13,c Technological Interest 16,D TRENDS OF TELECOMMUNICATION 17. E COMPARISON BETWEEN WIRE AND WIRELESS 19,1 Radiation 19. 2 System Architecture 20,3 Reconfigurability and Mobility 21. F POLICY AND REGULATION IN WIRELESS 22,G THE FUTURE OF WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS 25.
III SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS 29,A BROADBAND SATELLITE SYSTEMS 29. 1 Broadband Satellite Frequency Allocations 30,2 Space Segment 31. 3 Ground Segment 34,4 Control Segment 37,B DESCRIPTION OF EXISTING COMMERCIAL SYSTEM 38. 1 INTELSAT 38,a INTELSAT Space Segment 38,b INTELSAT Ground Segment 40. c INTELSAT Services 41,2 EUTELSAT 41,a EUTELSAT Space Segment 41.
b EUTELSAT Ground Segment 42,c EUTELSAT Services 42. 3 PANAMSAT 43,a PANAMSAT Space Segment 43,b PANAMSAT Ground Segment 44. c PANAMSAT Services 44,4 INERSPUTNIK 44,a INTERSPUTNIK Space Segment 45. b INERSPUTNIK Ground Segment 45,c INERSPUTNIK Services 46. C DESCRIPTION OF FUTURE SYSTEMS 46,1 ASTROLINK 47,2 CYBERSTAR SKYNET 48.
3 SKYBRIDGE 48,4 SPACEWAY 49,5 TELEDESIC IOC 50,D ISSUES AND CONCERNS 52. 1 Interoperability 52,2 Vulnerability 53,3 Security 54. 4 Congestion 55,5 Latency and Quality of Service 55. IV IMPLICATIONS OF WIRELESS FOR PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS 59. A OVERVIEW 59,B COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM 59,1 Fundamental Concept 59. 2 Use of VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminals 60, 3 PES Personal Earth Station Send and Receive Capability 61.
C BENEFITS AND CONCERNS OF BROADBAND SATELLITES 64. 1 Benefits 64,2 Concerns 65,3 Market Trends 66,V CONCLUSION 67. A OVERVIEW 67,1 Research Question 67,B PROJECTION OF WIRELESS IN PEACE OPERATIONS 67. 1 Evaluation of Technology 67,2 Market Trends 68,C LIMITATIONS OF THESIS 68. D FOLLOW ON RESEARCH 69,APPENDIX A MARKETS 71,A DEMAND 71. 1 Economics 74, 2 Sunk Investment and the Comfortable Status Quo 74.
3 Obsolete Technology Has a Way of Coming Back 75,B MARKET FACTORS THAT WILL SERVE AS A BRAKE ON. RAPID SHIFTS IN THE FIELD OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS 79. 1 Need for New Frequency Allocations for Digital Cellular and. 2 Vested Frequency Allocations for Radio Television Military. Systems 79,3 Consumer Acceptance Rates 79,4 System Availability and Security 80. C WORLDWIDE MARKET ASSESSMENT OF WIRELESS,TELECOMMUNICATIONS 81. D KEY MARKET TRENDS 82,LIST OF REFERENCES 85,INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 89. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK,LIST OF FIGURES.
Figure 1 1 Basics of a Wireless System 10, Figure 1 2 Cellular Coverage for Conventional Mobile Radio Service From Ref 1 14. Figure 1 3 PCS Microcells From Ref 1 14, Figure 1 4 Cellular Coverage for LEO Mobile Satellite System From Ref 1 15. Figure 3 1 C band Transponder Frequency Plan for Thaicom 2 Satellite From Ref. Figure 3 2 VSAT Antenna From Ref 27 35, Figure 3 3 VSAT Network Star Topology From Ref 27 36. Figure 3 4 Ku band Spot Beam Antenna Coverage From Ref 21 40. Figure 3 5 Intelsat VIII Series From Ref 21 40, Figure 3 6 EUTELSAT W4 Satellite Antenna Footprint From Ref 21 42. Figure 3 7 PANAMSAT Constellation From Ref 19 43,Figure 3 8 The Teledesic Satellite From Ref 42 51.
Figure 4 1 VSAT Direct PC Diagram From Ref 44 61,Figure 4 2 PSET Network From Ref 44 63. Figure A 1 Worldwide Revenues of Telecommunications Estimated From Ref 1 72. Figure A 2 The Negroponte Flip From Ref 10 73,Figure A 3 The Pelton Merge From Ref 7 73. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK,LIST OF TABLES, Table 1 1 Key Frequency Bands for Wireless Communication 12. Table 3 1 SHF Satellite Communications Frequencies From Ref 29 30. Table 3 2 Characteristics of Satellite Orbits From Ref 31 32. Table 3 3 Emerging Wideband Satellite Systems From Ref 43 52. Table A 1 High and Low Forecast Basic Shifts in the U S Telecommunications. Service Mix Net Estimate Gains or Losses by Household 1994 2000. From Ref 1 75, Table A 2 High and Low Forecast Basic Shift in OECD Telecommunications. Service Mix Net Estimated Gains or Losses by Household Through 2000. Wireless Technology Satellite Communication Very Small Aperture Terminal VSAT Peacekeeping Operations Non Governmental Organizations Code Division Multiple Access CDMA Time Division Multiple Access TDMA Personal Earth Station PES 16

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