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Studies by MTDC and the UM Lab show that during, Featured wildland fire suppression the energy cost for firefighters. Topic is about 5 000 kilocalories per day Constructing fireline. by hand a common physical task for wildland firefighters. has an energy cost of 7 5 to 10 kilocalories per minute This. means a Snickers bar about 250 kilocalories is completely. used in 25 to 30 minutes of building fireline During arduous. work on the fireline studies show that muscle stores of. carbohydrates decrease in proportion to the duration of the. specific activity Inadequate feeding during fireline shifts. Shift Food in the National decreases the availability of carbohydrates and leads to. Contract decreased work performance The following guidelines for. Research conducted by MTDC and the UM Lab during macronutrients are recommended for wildland firefighting. the 2005 to 2007 fire seasons shows that regular snacking 2 7 to 4 5 grams of carbohydrate per pound of body. and supplemental feeding throughout the day shift food weight per day. enhance work output during the prelunch period and late 0 5 to 0 8 grams of protein per pound of body weight. in the work shift with total work output increased by 15 per day. to 20 percent These studies also indicated that wildland 20 to 35 percent of total energy intake in fat. firefighters consider intermittent feeding to be beneficial By these standards a 165 pound firefighter would. The U S Department of Agriculture Forest Service need 1 674 to 2 790 kilocalories of carbohydrate 310 to 496. modified the national lunch contract to include shift food kilocalories of protein and 1 000 to 1 750 kilocalories of fat. and implemented the change during the 2010 fire season per day a total of 2 984 to 5 036 kilocalories a day. To assess the effectiveness of the change MTDC collected On average the Medano Fire lunches provided 8 5. and recorded shift food lunches from the Medano Fire items per lunch with 2 066 kilocalories The lunches had. for 14 consecutive days We analyzed the lunches for 1 192 kilocalories 57 percent of the total kilocalories of. macronutrient carbohydrate fat and protein content and carbohydrate 252 kilocalories 12 percent of protein and. compared the lunches with recommendations for athletic 675 kilocalories 32 percent of fat The macronutrient. performance made by the UM Lab the American College breakdown is consistent with the recommendations of the. of Sports Medicine and the American Dietetic Association UM Lab team members after they conducted multiple field. Finally we sent a questionnaire to firefighters to assess the studies on ways to improve the lunches table 1 The number. new lunches from their viewpoint The 2010 wildland fire of items in the lunches was below the recommended 10 to. nutrition contract provided a strong foundation for meeting 14 A higher number of items allows for more frequent eating. the macronutrient needs of wildland firefighters With small throughout the shift and helps to maintain blood glucose and. modifications and continued assessments the contract and increase self selected work output. fire lunches will continue to improve, Table 1 Macronutrients Needed by Wildland Firefighters in a Shift Food. Remember Contents of a Average Recommended,Shift Food Lunch Amount Amount. Carbohydrates are the primary macronutrient,Items 8 5 10 to 14. used during exercise Carbohydrates sugars eaten,Kilocalories 2 065 75 2 000 to 2 500.
during exercise are converted to glucose for energy. Carbohydrate in grams 298 31 300 to 375,Protein in grams 63 56 63 to 78. Fat in grams 75 88 66 to 83,We have to look at daily macronutrient needs to. understand the specific needs of firefighters These needs. are based on the intensity frequency and duration of a job. Beyond macronutrient needs knowing firefighter wanted to know which items firefighters preferred to have in. perceptions of the foods provided in a shift food lunch is their lunches figure 3 The top choices included tuna packets. important The best scientifically designed lunch won t do any fruit and nut combos trail mixes whole fruit variety raw. good if the firefighter is not eating it MTDC distributed a vegetables variety nuts and seeds and energy bars. questionnaire nationwide to determine the current perception. of the lunch program We emailed the questionnaire to. smokejumpers helitack rappellers hotshot crews type II If you could keep any of the foods in the current fire lunch. what would you keep, handcrews incident management teams IMTs and other 1 100. single resources 927 firefighters responded table 2. Number of Respondents,Table 2 Diversity of Questionnaire Respondents. Job Options Demographics,Smokejumper 19 600,Crew superintendent 62.
Hotshot crewmember 151 400,Engine crewmember 145,Rappeller 13 200. Single resource 286,Fuels crew 14 0,Whole Fruit Chips Cookies Trail Mix Condiments. Sandwiches Dried Fruit Granola Bars Candy Energy Bars. Incident management team members 184, Figure 3 Items wildland firefighters liked in the current shift food lunches. Firefighters rated the lunches on overall quality and Firefighters don t like certain items in the lunches. preference for items included The sample population could If firefighters do not eat items energy available and cost. choose ratings of excellent good poor and very poor effectiveness decrease In an earlier study the UM Lab. About 520 people 56 percent rated lunch quality as good increased shift food lunch cost effectiveness by decreasing. about 320 people 35 percent rated lunch quality as poor food discarded from the lunches Firefighters requested the. 60 people 6 percent rated lunch quality as very poor and removal of chips candy and processed foods and suggested. 30 people 3 percent rated lunch quality as excellent figure including fewer roast beef sandwiches and less cream cheese. 2 After finding out how the current lunches rated MTDC The biggest problem appeared to be the lack of variety in. day to day lunches, The addition of energy bars in the modified national. 60 contract increased the macronutrient and micronutrient. vitamins and minerals content of the new lunches In. general the lunch program focused on macronutrients but. micronutrients play a significant role in major body functions. Percentage, and also must be included Micronutrient content increases.
30 with an increase in fresh whole fruit and vegetables energy. bars not protein bars good quality sandwiches including. peanut butter and jelly on whole wheat bread trail mixes. seeds nuts dried fruit and vegetables,Excellent Good Poor Very Poor. Figure 2 Quality of shift food lunches rated by wildland firefighters. However there must be a balance with energy dense, foods Items such as cream cheese bagels candy and potato. Shift Food Lunches, chips have a place in the lunch too With a diverse population. Shift food lunches are designed for fireline, a variety of foods must be maintained to accommodate. operations and not for camp based individuals The, varying tastes and eating preferences while also maintaining.
current health status of incident management team, the combination of nutrient and energy dense foods. members see Research section is comparable to, The lunches are designed to increase the frequency of. the general American population Current shift, eating smaller portions because wildland firefighters are. food lunches contain enough kilocalories for an, constantly moving during a work shift Less than 5 percent. entire day of office work Team members must, of a work shift is spent on a rest break Broyles 2011 Some.
think carefully before eating an entire shift food. activities are more demanding than others For example. lunch To prevent overeating an option might be, hotshot crews digging fireline consume more energy than. to split a lunch with a colleague, IMT members at meetings The American College of Sports. Medicine the American Dietetic Association and the. Dietitians of Canada recommend eating a carbohydrate snack. within the first 30 minutes of exercise and again every 2 hours. Changes in the lunch program are helping to provide the. nutrients and energy firefighters need to perform efficiently Program http www fs fed us eng pubs htmlpubs htm0751. and effectively during a fire shift Educating the wildland fire 2302 index htm Also Forest Service and BLM employees. community on eating often throughout the day at least every can read chapter 10 on nutrition and performance in Fitness. 2 hours and on what to eat carbohydrates is important You and Work Capacity 2009 edition Brian Sharkey and Steven. can find more information on eating during wildland fire inci E Gaskill 2009 at the MTDC Web site http fsweb mtdc. dents in the brochure Eating for Health and Performance The wo fs fed us pubs htmlpubs htm09512804 index htm. Wildland Firefighter http www fs fed us eng pubs htmlpubs Wildenberg W Domitrovich J W. htm06512833 index htm Forest Service and U S Depart Wanda Wildenberg is a former Helena hotshot and Missoula. ment of the Interior Bureau of Land Management BLM smokejumper She currently works for St Patrick s Hospital as. employees can visit the MTDC Web site to view the Power a registered dietitian. Point presentation http fsweb mtdc wo fs fed us pubs Joe Domitrovich has a bachelor s degree in kinesiology a. master s degree in exercise physiology and a doctorate in. ppt html htm06512855 The brochure and presentation are. interdisciplinary studies with an emphasis in exercise science. components of the Wildland Firefighter Nutrition Education He currently works for MTDC as an exercise physiologist. with three different outer layers The participants tested Type I. Research Nomex pants and shirts in trial FS I Nomex shirts and Type. II Kevlar blend pants in trial FS II and CAL FIRE standard. issue Nomex shirts and brush pants over station pants in trial. CF III MTDC analyzed results using a repeated measures. analysis of variance ANOVA test We found no significant. differences in heart rates HR or weight changes Over a. period of time participants in FS I had a significantly lower. physiological strain index PSI a measure combining HR. and core temperature than participants in CF III Participants. This section reviews project related field studies con in FS II tended to have lower PSI than participants in CF III. ducted on wildland firefighter health and safety issues how Participants in FS I and FS II had lower core temperatures. personal protective equipment PPE can affect employees by than participants in CF III Participants in CF III showed. causing heat stress and how incident teams handle workplace significantly higher total body temperatures when compared to. stress those in FS I and FS II figure 4,MTDC removed three of the nine study participants. before 3 full hours because their core body temperatures. Effects of Stress reached test termination levels 104 F Five participants. reached core body temperatures of 103 F or above Individuals. It was more important to let heat out than to keep it out working in multiple layers of clothing in hot environments. Budd G M Brotherhood J R and others 1997 Project Aquarius 13 The experience more physiological strain PPE use is a balancing. thermal burden of high insulation and encapsulation in wildland firefighters. clothing International Journal of Wildland Fire 7 2 207 218. act more protection results in a greater potential for heat. Pattison K M Gaskill S E both of the University of. Three Different Wildland Fire Suppression Montana Domitrovich J W MTDC 2010. Uniforms and Heat Stress, Wildland firefighters wear required flame resistant 103. clothing while performing arduous labor in hot dry FS II. environments Efficient heat dissipation is important because it 102. Body Temperature F, helps prevent conditions such as hyperthermia and exhaustion.
Some agencies require firefighters to wear multiple layers 101. of clothing This study compared the physiological effects. of three different wildland firefighter uniforms worn during. sustained submaximal exercise in the heat Nine male. volunteers with an average age of 25 performed three trials. on a treadmill 3 miles per hour at 4 percent grade the same 98. work rate as the pack test on separate days for more than 3. hours in a hot dry environment 98 6 F 30 percent relative 97. Initial Hour 1 Hour 2 Final,humidity with a 10 minute rest period each hour. Figure 4 Core body temperature during 3 hour trials with three. Trial participants wore T shirts tennis shoes leather. different wildland firefighting uniforms Note means significantly. gloves hardhats and field packs 20 4 kg in combination warmer than FS I means significantly warmer than FS II. fire camp particularly for individuals whose job descriptions. Types of Fabrics allow little or no physical activity while on team assignment. and Sweat or at their home units Regular physical activity improves. Many different types of fabrics that promote sweat physical health increases mental function reduces stress and. dispersion also known as the ability to improve also reduces the risk of acute coronary problems or stroke. cooling of the body are available on the market Prolonged stress can lead to physical symptoms in the. A study in the journal Medicine and Science in body upset stomach headaches eye strain MTDC used. wildland fire suppression the energy cost for firefighters is about 5 000 kilocalories per day Constructing fireline by hand a common physical task for wildland firefighters has an energy cost of 7 5 to 10 kilocalories per minute This means a Snickers bar about 250 kilocalories is completely used in 25 to 30 minutes of building fireline

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