What makes great pedagogy Nine claims from research

What Makes Great Pedagogy Nine Claims From Research-Free PDF

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Great pedagogy nine claims from research, There is a strong consensus that high performance in education systems is dependent on the quality of. teaching Barber put it simply the quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers. Barber Mourshed 2007 13 and his report for McKinsey concluded that the best school systems are those. that have the best teachers ibid 7, Recent UK research concluded that having a very effective rather than an average teacher raises each pupil s. attainment by a third of an examination grade Machin Murphy 2011 5 In a review of the research on. teacher quality Machin argues that, Bringing the lowest performing 5 10 per cent of teachers in the UK up to the average would. greatly boost attainment and lead to a sharp improvement in the UK s international ranking. All other things equal in 5 years the UK s rank amongst OECD countries would improve from. 21st in reading to as high as 7th and from 22nd in maths to as high as 12th over 10 years. the period a child is in the UK school system before the PISA examinations the UK would. improve its position to as high as 3rd in reading and as high as 5th in maths. Whelan provides a useful summary, School systems need to ensure that their curricula are relevant and contain enough flexibility. to accommodate different learners and different social and economic needs They need. to ensure that school buildings are in good condition All these things are important and. ultimately impact academic performance However none is nearly as important as the. quality of teaching,Whelan 2009 35, PISA data suggests that whilst variance in performance within schools is widespread and particularly in.
countries that select pupils relatively early in the secondary phase in almost all systems in school variation. or variance between teachers is much greater McGaw 2008. Summarising the evidence Schwartz concludes that the most important school related factor in student. learning is teaching Schwartz 2009 online, However there is much less attention in the overall literature on what constitutes effective teaching or. put differently on the behaviours and actions of good teachers what it is that good teachers do to promote. good learning At its worst this produces a circular argument good teachers are those who produce good. outcomes so that those pupils with good outcomes must have been taught by good teachers In this paper. the research literature is used to advance nine strong claims about the characteristics of highly successful. pedagogies 1, 1 In this review we refer to pedagogies rather than pedagogy We do this in order to capture the variety of successful pedagogic practices which differ across. the age range and between subjects,2 National College for School Leadership. 1 Effective pedagogies give serious consideration to pupil voice. 2 Effective pedagogies depend on behaviour what teachers do knowledge and understanding what. teachers know and beliefs why teachers act as they do. 3 Effective pedagogies involve clear thinking about longer term learning outcomes as well as short term. 4 Effective pedagogies build on pupils prior learning and experience. 5 Effective pedagogies involve scaffolding pupil learning. 6 Effective pedagogies involve a range of techniques including whole class and structured group work. guided learning and individual activity, 7 Effective pedagogies focus on developing higher order thinking and metacognition and make good use. of dialogue and questioning in order to do so, 8 Effective pedagogies embed assessment for learning.
9 Effective pedagogies are inclusive and take the diverse needs of a range of learners as well as matters. of student equity into account, The research underpinning the claims is outlined below. 1 Effective pedagogies give serious consideration to pupil voice. There is robust evidence that giving serious consideration to pupil voice can generate highly effective. pedagogy Listening to pupil voice involves more than hearing what pupils have to say as part of the process. of learning and teaching and increasing attention has been given in recent years to the issues involved in. and the potential benefits that flow from consulting pupils about this process According to Niemi Heikkinen. and Kannas involving students in educational decision making and listening seriously to their stories. of experiences as learners are essential first steps in developing education Niemi Heikkinen Kannas. 2012 139 Rudduck explains, Consultation is about talking with pupils about things that matter in school It may involve. conversations about teaching and learning seeking advice from pupils about new initiatives. inviting comment on ways of solving problems that are affecting the teacher s right to teach. and the pupil s right to learn inviting evaluative comment on recent developments in school. or classroom policy and practice,Rudduck 2005 online. Robinson and Taylor point to a wide ranging literature citing numerous examples of how student voice work. has led to changes in schools noting that in some cases this has been as a result of teachers increasing. their understanding of students experiences and as a result choosing to change their practice Robinson. Taylor 2007 14 Exploring foreign language learning Payne found that pupils made a valuable contribution. by acting as a conduit to their respective language communities and provided insight in linguistic terms. into the complex and nuanced issues inherent in such communities Payne 2007 89. Ferguson Hanreddy and Draxton urge teachers to involve pupils in meaningful decision making and. dialogue 2011 55 emphasis added Aside from the questionable ethics of superficial pupil consultation. there are practical and pragmatic reasons for serious engagement with pupil voice Evidence from the. teaching and learning research programme TLRP on consulting pupils TLRP 2003 online suggests that. pupils respond with insight and intelligence when consulted meaningfully Morgan reports on the valuable. contributions that pupils have made to pedagogy in one school where they were directly involved in teacher. observations It is clearly not only the pupils who benefit from this particular expression of their voice. 3 National College for School Leadership, I continue to be astonished by the contributions students make to improving the practice of. trainee teachers I am continually impressed by the feedback they provide particularly in. face to face conversations and by the professionalism and sensitivity they display by their. incisiveness and ability to prioritise by their skill at encouraging trainees and making. well judged suggestions,Morgan 2008 20, Gilljam Esaiasson and Lindholm argue that schools will likely function better if pupils are motivated to.
accept binding decisions and or if they perceive that decisions are fairly made Gilljam Esaiasson and. Lindholm 2012 75 According to Sellman involving pupils in decision making directly impacts upon learning. and teaching He points to the work of Fielding and Bragg and says that according to them. the benefits of such forms of involvement can include. Improved academic communication and civic skills amongst students as well as an. increased sense of agency motivation and engagement with schools affairs. Insights for teachers which can lead to improved practice and relationships with. students for teachers, Important feedback for schools which can help improve teaching and learning. Sellman 2009 33 4, Robinson and Taylor point out that the word voice implies that a pupil group has only one voice. and further that such a monolingual assumption is illusory Robinson Taylor 2007 7 There are a. number of pupil voices and the serious consideration of pupil voice does not allow for the selection of or. overgeneralisation from the most palatable easily accommodated of them ibid Ferguson Hanreddy and. Draxton point to Cook Sather s warning that doing so may cause minority perspectives to become invisible. Ferguson Hanreddy Draxton 2011 55 and that he Cook Sather advises that some minorities are silent. because we do not know how to hear them Cook Sather 2007 394 In their study Ferguson Hanreddy. and Draxton designed an alternative interview for students who did not use verbal language or symbolic. communication Other voices we are less able to hear can include those of some pupils who speak English as. an additional language EAL, Although there is much to be gained from meaningful engagement with pupil voice it should not be. assumed that all teachers have found it easy Ferguson Hanreddy and Draxton found that despite the. substantial body of evidence supporting student voice student perceptions regarding their learning. environment are still seldom considered a valid source of data by school leaders or even teachers Ferguson. Hanreddy Draxton 2011 61 Robinson and Taylor argue for a need to acknowledge the range of. institutional and professional issues which prevent dialogue participation and transformation 2007 15. Ferguson Hanreddy and Draxton suggest that teachers need not find the prospect of taking seriously pupil. voice threatening though it is not always comfortable They report on the responses of teachers to pupil. feedback about classroom environment and practice In general the teachers were of the view that the. pupils had engaged seriously with the task Sellman reports when given such opportunities students often. surprise adults by repaying trust with fair and realistic feedback Sellman 2009 34 Robinson and Taylor. argue for a need to acknowledge the range of institutional and professional issues which prevent dialogue. participation and transformation Robinson Taylor 2007 15. Ferguson Hanreddy and Draxton found that most teachers were keen to take action as a result of pupil. feedback especially where the feedback suggested that a student s emotional wellbeing was at risk but. also found a minority of teachers unwilling to accept responsibility for learning difficulties faced by pupils. plac ing the locus of control entirely on the student 2011 65 This points to the necessity of good pupil. teacher relationships as well as a willingness on the part of both to engage with the process if pupil voice. is to be taken seriously At the same time the right of pupils not to participate should be respected Payne. 2007 Indeed relationships are integral to each of the strong claims offered in this literature review In the. words of Max van Manen Pedagogy is about being in a relationship with a child 1991 76. 4 National College for School Leadership, The clear message from literature is that pupil consultation should be done properly or not done at all. Robinson Taylor 2007 Sellman refers to tokenistic litter picking rotas 2009 34 while Gilljam. Esaiasson and Lindholm report that while opportunities and structures for pupil voice can provide meaningful. participation tokenism and exclusion may undermine their effectiveness Gilljam Esaiasson Lindholm. 2 Effective pedagogies depend on behaviour what teachers do. knowledge and understanding what teachers know and beliefs. why teachers act as they do, Pedagogy can perhaps appear a challenging even difficult word Some thirty years ago the educational.
historian Brian Simon wrote a critique of educational practice in England under the title Why no pedagogy in. England Simon 1981 He described pedagogy as the science of teaching and argued that no such science. exists in England He contrasted the educational tradition of the Continent where the term pedagogy has. an honoured place The concept of teaching as a science has strong roots in this tradition Simon 1981 77. In England by contrast Simon argued that thinking about teaching and learning was highly eclectic. confusing aims and methods and with no clear philosophical or conceptual underpinning for what was done. in the classroom, An enormous amount has changed in classrooms since 1981 and a great deal more attention has focused. on the way teachers teach in national policy and research In the later 1990s the government established. the national literacy and national numeracy projects which set out firm guidance on teaching primary. literacy and numeracy based on research into best practice The projects were subsequently taken up and. expanded as the national literacy and numeracy strategies in 1997 which defined a clear national approach. to teaching in primary schools In the first years of the 21st century the principles of the primary strategies. formed the basis for the secondary national strategy extending the national programme of best practice. informed professional development to secondary schools DfES 2004 There was a concurrent interest in. teaching and learning in research the Teaching and Learning Research Programme TLRP 2003 was the. most extensive programme of educational research ever undertaken in the United Kingdom with a series. of research and dissemination projects designed to explore research and develop teaching and learning. in schools Nonetheless in 2004 Robin Alexander argued that there was still no pedagogy in England. Alexander 2004 19 Defining pedagogy as both the act of teaching and its attendant discourse framed. by ideas values and evidence ibid Alexander argued that national policy remained ignorant about the. theoretical underpinnings of pedagogy and was underinformed on evidence and debate about children. learning teaching curriculum and culture ibid 26 Grimmitt . 7 Effective pedagogies focus on developing higher order thinking and metacognition and make good use of dialogue and questioning in order to do so 8 Effective pedagogies embed assessment for learning 9 Effective pedagogies are inclusive and take the diverse needs of a range of learners as well as matters of student equity into account

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