Weapons of Mass Destruction AU Journal

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Classification as chemical weapons also inhalation of the chemical agent Chemical. depends on the intended use Chemical agents with low boiling points and a high vapor. weapons would mean hostile intentions For pressure tend to dissipate quickly and are non. example some toxic chemicals such as persistent, phosgene COCl2 hydrogen cyanide HCN A non persistent agent may be made. and tear gas benzoyl chloride COCl may persistent through a thickening process. be used for civil or peaceful purposes as well as production of a highly viscous substance by. for hostile purposes Only in the latter case are dissolving chemical agent polymers in the. they chemical weapons weapon agent This enhances persistency and. If intended target effects are due to the adhesive ability. infectivity of disease causing microorganisms, and other replicable entities including viruses Effectiveness The effectiveness of a. infectious nucleic acids and prions the chemical weapon is the capacity of an agent to. weapons are biological weapons produce the maximum number of casualties or. Some of these agents may generate amount of disruption of operations with the. toxins that cause pathogenicity Such toxins least amount of agent nuclear fusion fusing. can sometimes be isolated and used as combining reactions There are many factors. weapons Since the function of these agents is that can influence the effectiveness of a. toxicity and not infectivity they could be chemical agent such as the amount of agent. classified as chemical weapons even though released environmental factors target. they could still be regarded as biological population size etc Thus the effectiveness of a. weapons chemical weapon can be rather uncertain The. Thus BWC covers toxins produced by duration of effectiveness of a chemical agent. living organisms microorganisms or by any depends on several meteorological factors. other means including synthesis Table 2,Characteristics. Physical The physical properties of,chemical weapon agents cover a very wide. Table 1 shows countries that possess range The physical state can be gaseous. MWDs those that are pursuing MWDs or liquid or solid Vapor pressure ranges from. those that are capable of acquiring MWDs high to negligible Vapor densities vary from. slightly lighter to much more heavy than air, Chemical Weapons MCTL 2001 The odors vary from no odor to very pungent.
odors They may be soluble or insoluble in water,Classification Chemical weapons can be. classified into two main categories by their Chemical Every chemical weapons agent. volatility as persistent and non persistent has its own characteristic chemical properties. agents but a generalization can be made Overall they. A persistent agent has a low volatility are sufficiently stable to survive dissemination. and thus dissipates very slowly It therefore and transport The reactivity and the stability of. continues to present a hazard for a long time agents can vary greatly from agent to agent. after delivery It remains as a contact hazard or Toxicological Overall chemical weapon. an inhalation hazard Chemical agents that have agents do not always react in the same way. a high boiling point and a low volatility tend to from species to species when the same amount. dissipate slowly and are persistent of the agent is used on them a variety of. A non persistent agent evaporates quickly factors influence reaction on a species. It disperses rapidly after release and presents an. immediate but short lived hazard They are Delivery Chemical agents can be delivered. released as airborne particles liquids and in various states gas aerosol liquid and forms. gasses intoxication usually results from the Persistency is enhanced by adding a polymer. Chemical ammunition is designed to decontamination is available in a standard kit. provide a container for the chemical agent so Fig 2 A powder called fuller s earth is a. that it can effectively reach and affect the target standard decontaminate which functions by. or target area Chemical weapon ammunition absorbing liquid agents Liquid decontaminates. can be made to accommodate existing weapon act by dissolving the chemical weapons agent. systems and weapons This means that Alcohol solutions of sodium phenolate sodium. ammunition is available for use in long range cresolates both used in the decontamination of. artillery rockets launchers and artillery nerve agents and chloramine solutions used. ground missiles aerial bombs spray tanks in the decontamination of mustard gas and V. mines and grenades agents are examples of liquid decontaminates. A type of technology that is often Autoject devices are available for. associated with chemical weapons is binary individuals recently exposed to several nerve. weapons technology This technology deals agents Atropine is injected into the body as. with forming a chemical weapons agent just soon as nerve agents have been detected. before the dispersion of the agent When a shell Atropine dilates the veins stimulates the heart. or missile binary is launched the compounds action and generally purges nerve agents from. that are contained within the missile or shell the body Pralidoxime or oxime tablets aid this. are combined to produce a chemical weapons However atropine does not always work and is. agent via a chemical reaction before the known to have fatal side effects The above are. missile hits the target Binary technology decontaminates used on personnel. allows for safer handling storage and disposal For equipment decontamination. of chemical weapons agents Usually nerve decontaminates must be able to penetrate the. agents are dispersed in this way Only USA contaminated material and destroy the chemical. admits having binary weapons weapons agent An example is DS2 70. diethylene triamine 28 ethyleneglycol, Protective Equipment The protective monomethylether and 2 sodium hydroxide. equipment forms a physical barrier between the Superheated steam hot air and boiling. body and the chemical weapons agent The also do the job Ground decontamination can. predominant protection item is a gas mask Fig 1 be done by covering the contaminated area. They are made of a face piece made of with a bleaching powder which releases. impermeable material and is fitted with an chlorine a general purpose decontaminate. aerosol filter containing a carbon filter in, canister form Mechanical filtration removes Types of Chemical Weapons. aerosols The filter contains several elements,Blistering agents. and is capable of absorbing the majority of,Blood agents.
chemical weapons agents in aerosol form, There are two major types of special Choking agents. protective clothing that provides skin Nerve agents. protection i nylon fabrics lined with butyl Psychotomimetic gents. rubber and impermeable to liquids and ii a Blister agents MCTL 2001. fabrics permeable to air and moisture but, impermeable to chemical weapons agents An What are blister agents Blister agents. example is an outer oil resistant layer of fabric usually called mustard agents are chemical. which has an inner layer of finely ground weapon agents that cause wounds which. activated carbon attached to plastic foam resemble blisters or burns Figs 3 and 4 In. addition mustard agents also cause severe, Decontamination Decontamination plays a tissue damage to the eyes respiratory system. key part in the defense against chemical and internal organs. weapon agents Vehicles men and materials What substances belong to the blister. that come in contact with chemical weapons agents Sulfur mustard agent bis 2 chloro. agents need decontamination Personnel ethylsulphide A K A distilled mustard HD. levinstein H and the nitrogen mustards HN temperature mustard agents are liquids that are. 1 HN 2 and HN 3 phosgene oxime CX stable with a low volatility In warmer climates. lewsite L phenyldichloro arsine PD persistence of mustard agents is less but higher. ethyldichloroarsine ED are some substances concentrations of vapor occur. that are classified as blister agents Mustard agents are hydrolyzed in water at. fast rates yielding polyalcohols and harmful,General Information Blister agents are. hydrochloric acid But mustard agents in,most likely to be used both to produce blisters.
aqueous solutions especially bleaching powder,and to force enemy troops to wear protective. and chloramines solutions hydrolyze into,equipment thereby reducing their efficiency. harmless compounds,Blister agents can contaminate almost anything. The mustard agents are very much alike,it touches for long periods of time Mustard. and the majority of the information on,agents are able to penetrate cell membranes in.
blistering agents in the above paragraph and in,tissues and many other materials wood. the following section on sulfur mustard is true,rubber plants etc Blister agents in their pure. for most mustards The small differences,states are colorless and almost odorless But. between the blistering agents are mentioned,some have rotten onion or mustard smell. under the individual blistering agent described,Mustard agents like other chemical weapons.
can be thickened by adding a polymer At room,SULFUR MUSTARD. General Information, Chemical name Sulfur mustard or distilled mustard HD. Molecular formula bis 2 chloroethylsulphide,Melting point 14 4 C. Sulfur mustard is the best known of the Symptoms of sulfur mustard poisoning. mustard agents Sulfur mustard and other Sulfur mustard attacks the skin eyes lungs. mustards are able to penetrate cell membranes and gastro intestinal tract Internal organs. in tissues and many other materials wood mainly the blood generating organs can also. rubber plants etc be badly damaged Symptoms of sulfur. mustard toxicity do not show up until two to,What does sulfur mustard do Sulfur. twenty four hours after the initial exposure,mustard is a bifunctional alkylating agent It.
occurs By that time the damage has already,contains two reactive chloroethyl functional. groups It has the ability to covalently bond to,The symptoms of sulfur mustard typify. other substances The chlorine atom is split off,those of all of the other mustards mostly. from the chloroethyl group and attaches to a,because they extend over a wide range The. reactive sulphonium ion This ion can in turn,symptoms of a mild sulfur mustard poisoning.
bind to a wide variety of biological molecules,are aching eyes massive amount of tearing. such as nucleic acids proteins and nucleotides,inflammation of the skin irritation of the. Sulfur mustard can create cross links between,mucus membrane coughing sneezing and. nucleotides of DNA and RNA thus inhibiting,hoarseness Overall mild poisonings do not. their replication,need medical treatment However excessive.
As stated above sulfur mustard is a,exposure is incapacitating and demands. bifunctional agent so the second thing that,immediate medical attention Loss of sight. sulfur mustard does is to form links between,nausea severe respiration difficulty vomiting. molecules By means of alkylation sulfur,blistering of the skin and diarrhea are some of. mustard destroys large amounts of living tissue,the effects.
within an individual Overall sulfur mustard and,other mustards cause massive cellular mutations. The liquid state of sulfur mustard causes Protection and Decontamination For. severe injuries whereas exposure to sulfur general protection a NBC suit Nuclear. mustard in the gas state usually has mild Biological Suit and a gas mask should be. injuries Depending on the level of exposure worn All exposed materials should be. mustard agents will cause different levels of thoroughly cleaned with water or the. skin inflammation ranging from small irritation appropriate substance Exposed materials that. to a skin necrosis that is so comprehensive that cannot be cleaned should be disposed of. no blisters occur properly to prevent further contamination. NITROGEN MUSTARDS HN 1 HN 2 and HN 3,General Information. HN 1 2 2 dichloro triethylamine HN 2 2 2 dichloro diethyl methylamine. Chemical names,HN 3 2 2 2 trichloro triethylamine, Like sulfur mustard they are derivatives three nitrogen mustard is HN 2 but HN 3 is. of ammonia all are liquids that are dark in used more because of its stability Other than. color and oily and are much more dangerous the fact that it is slightly more dangerous than. than sulfur mustard The nitrogen mustards sulfur mustard everything else about the. inflict the most damage on the lower intestinal nitrogen mustard is the same. tract The most toxic and most volatile of the,PHOSGENE OXIME CX. General Information,Chemical names dichloroformoxime.
Phosgene oxime exists as both liquid mustard agent effects occur immediately after. and solid forms The only difference between exposure. this and the other mustards is that its typical,General Information. Chemical names dichloro 2 chloro vinyl arsine, Lewsite is a dark oily liquid with a small pressure lung swelling and bowel troubles An. odor of geranium Lewsite is quick acting and exposure to high concentrations of Lewsite can. causes more pronounced blistering than most kill in ten minutes whereas a low exposure can. other blistering agents Once inside the body it cause symptoms to occur in thirty minutes. causes systemic destruction Another major Lewsite is a mustard agent that is . Weapons of mass destruction include nuclear chemical and biological weapons plus radiological weapons and some others with potential for mass destruction FAS 2001 MCTL 2001 Chemical weapons work mainly through toxicity which is a chemical action on life processes that can cause death temporary A nuclear weapon is one with enormous incapacitation or permanent harm destructive potential

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