Urban Tolling In Norway Practical Experiences Social-Free PDF

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Norway s fairly wild and rocky topography means that road building is very expensive and. road budget priorities have always been a very important political question in our country In. the first four year part of our ten year road building programmes every new road link of. some importance is defined in detail These programmes are discussed and sanctioned by the. Norwegian Parliament In the Parliament there was earlier a tendency to favour road projects. in the districts when dealing with state road budgets As a result of this it became more and. more obvious during the eighties that some extra effort had to be made to bring the main road. network in our major cities up to an acceptable level of safety offering sufficient capacity and. taking account of the environmental impact of the road traffic So the situation was ripe for. the political discussions and decisions to establish road toll schemes for our major cities. 2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ROAD TOLLING IN NORWAY, Toll money collected is supposed to cover investment costs not operation and maintenance of. the road or public transport network It is possible to some extent to differentiate charges but. it is not allowed to use the fee structure for traffic management purpose The time limitation. of a road toll project is normally 15 years and shall not be more than 20 years Normally. public funds are also allocated to projects but no state guaranties are given. In many European countries like France Spain and Italy most or all road toll systems are. closed systems where drivers pay according to the distance travelled This principle. demands a registration of vehicles when passing into the tolled road section and making the. drivers pay in another toll plaza when leaving the tolled section As opposed to this principle. all Norwegian road toll systems including our urban toll rings are open systems where. drivers pay a fixed amount when passing the toll station regardless of the distance travelled. Traditional Norwegian open road toll systems making people pay for using an expensive part. of the road infrastructure like a bridge or a tunnel were fair enough When introducing the. urban toll rings we left the principle that only those benefiting from new road infrastructure. should pay toll When passing a toll ring to enter the central part of a city there is as. mentioned no differentiation of the payment concerning distance travelled and there is no. guarantee that the driver will benefit from driving on any new road at all on his trip. The organisation of toll projects in Norway is different from the concessionary system used in. various other countries In Norway the Norwegian Public Roads Administration is. responsible for planning building and operating the road projects financed by toll money and. for planning and building the toll collection systems For each toll project a dedicated toll. company with limited responsibility is established by the local authority to operate the road. toll system and to handle the money collected Operating regulations are presented by the. Ministry of Transport and Communications When making drivers pay toll fees for the use of. new roads it is important to build on local initiatives and to have local operation of the. system In Oslo the toll company A S Fjellinjen 2 is owned by the municipality of Oslo. and the county of Akershus which surrounds Oslo, When the construction of a new road link takes place before the collection of toll fees starts. the toll company is the body which takes loans from banks etc to finance the part of the. investments to be covered by the road tolls This means that interest also has to be paid back. in addition to the loans when money from the road tolls starts coming in. PIARC Seminar on Road Pricing with emphasis on Financing Regulation and Equity 2 16. Cancun Mexico 2005 April 11 13, 3 IMPLEMENTING URBAN ROAD TOLL SYSTEMS IN BERGEN OSLO AND. In general road toll projects in Norway are based on local initiatives local political agree. ment and approval by Parliament, It is basically a rather unpopular thing to start collecting toll fees from people driving on roads. where they have previously been driving without paying It can therefore be a hazardous thing. for a politician to put his name on an initiative designed to increase the speed of road building. in a city by such means It has been essential for the success of the toll ring schemes in. Bergen Oslo and Trondheim and indeed for the execution of the projects that the two largest. political parties in the city councils and in the Norwegian Parliament the Labour and the. Conservative parties made it a common challenge,3 1 The Bergen Toll Ring.
In 1983 the Public Roads Administration proposed to implement a toll ring in Bergen the. second largest city in Norway to be able to finance a new transport plan for the city Due to. clever marketing by one of the Public Roads Administration District Office leaders and an. agreement between three of the major local political parties the Bergen Town Council. accepted the plan It also played an important role in the local decision process that the. government agreed to invest yearly as extra funding an amount equal to the one that would be. collected from the toll ring users, So in January 1986 eleven years after the first urban toll ring successfully opened in. Singapore we opened the world s second toll ring in Bergen It had 8 plazas and a vignette. system for no stop payment for subscribers Subscribers had to make a prepayment for an. unlimited number of trips within a certain period one month six months or a year and. vehicles in the subscription lanes were video pictured at random. 3 2 The Oslo Toll Ring, When introducing a similar but much larger toll ring in Oslo 1 2 see figure 3 we had the. advantage of being able to refer to the Bergen project and we built on experiences from that. project In Oslo as well the State is contributing to the infrastructure financing programme. with extra funds approximately 50 In Oslo an important compromise to get the toll ring. and road construction scheme accepted was to allocate 20 of the collected money for public. transport infrastructure The Oslo Toll Ring 19 toll plazas was opened in February 1990 It. is equipped with an automatic electronic fee collection system on a large scale. 3 3 The Trondheim Toll Ring, The Trondheim Toll Ring opened in October 1991 and had 12 toll stations from the begin. ning It offers the same electronic payment system as the toll ring in Oslo One important. difference however is that only two of the toll stations in Trondheim are manned The. remaining ones offer self service payment by coin machines for those not being subscribers. Before opening the system in Trondheim much effort was put into information campaigns to. explain why collecting money through a toll ring was necessary to succeed in implementing. the transport plan Through this activity feedback from future users of the toll ring resulted in. PIARC Seminar on Road Pricing with emphasis on Financing Regulation and Equity 3 16. Cancun Mexico 2005 April 11 13, changes of the fee structure The subscribers more than 90 of passing volume only pay. once in one hour there is an upper limit for total payment per month they got the tag free of. charge they get 40 60 discount and the payment may be drawn directly from their bank. account In Trondheim post payment is an option for drivers with direct debit agreement and. passing is free during weekends and after 6 pm 5 pm until 3 January 1998 on workdays for. 3 4 Reasons for why urban toll rings have been accepted in Norway. Foreign visitors in the first part of the nineties were studying the practical solutions and the. technical systems of our urban toll rings 11 Several years later more of them came back to. learn how it was possible in Norway to get the necessary public and political acceptance of. such a basically unpopular measure as an urban toll ring To sum up we have listed what we. believe are some of the most important reasons for the Norwegian success of implementing. urban toll rings in our three major cities, 1 The traffic conditions were basically inacceptable.
2 The major political parties agreed that something had to be done. 3 The collected money was allocated to new transport infrastructure. 4 The collection of toll was limited to approximately 15 years. 5 Extra state funds of approximately the same amount as the collected toll were granted. to the road packages,6 The fee levels were low,7 Bergen was first. 8 Those opposed to the use of private cars in city centres appreciated that drivers had to. 9 20 of the collected money was allocated for public transport. 10 User friendly fee systems at least in Bergen and Trondheim. 11 None of the toll stations are bottlenecks creating queues during rush ours. 4 STATE OF THE ART OF URBAN ROAD TOLLING AND CONGESTION. CHARGING IN NORWAY,4 1 An overview, Till now seven Norwegian cities have implemented urban toll rings of different size see. table 1 In the table the cities are listed chronologically Bergen is listed twice as it started on. its second period in April 2004 As in the city of T nsberg Bergen has been equipped with a. new type of toll plazas with no lanes for stopping and cash payment We call these plazas. Fully free flow toll stations The table shows that the Norwegian toll rings are quite. different concerning size and principles of operation Column number eight EFC. shows the percentage of drivers that are equipped with an electronic tag Electronic Fee. Collection and drives in the non stop lanes for subscribers The next column shows the. approximate number of tags in operation and the last column shows how much a driver. without a tag has to pay in cash for passing with a light vehicle allowed total weight not. exceeding 3500 kg, PIARC Seminar on Road Pricing with emphasis on Financing Regulation and Equity 4 16. Cancun Mexico 2005 April 11 13,4 2 Road pricing Congestion charging. Most foreign visitors and many Norwegians as well believe that one of the reasons for. implementing the urban toll rings in Norway was to manage traffic demand to ease traffic. congestion but as mentioned in my introduction the reason for implementing the rings was. for financing purposes only The effect on the traffic volume has been relatively small maybe. less than a 5 decrease mostly due to modest fee levels Unfortunately those driving in the. peak hours are also those being less sensitive to road pricing. The idea of using a price mechanism to reduce the peak hours demand for traffic capacity in. our cities has however not been absent among Norwegian politicians and town planners The. Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communication has been working on the idea of. congestion charging for many years 10 and an amendment to the Norwegian Traffic Act. forming the legal base for Road Pricing passed the Parliament in 2001. According to this amendment the main principles for road pricing in Norway are as follows. 1 Road pricing shall be cost based charging for the use of roads The more your trip cost. the society through delay by generating queues through pollution and accidents the. more you have to pay, 2 The main task for a road pricing system is to regulate traffic.
3 Implementing a road pricing system shall be based on local initiative. 4 The revenues shall be earmarked local transport, 5 It is not allowed to use road pricing and toll financing in the same area. 6 A road pricing scheme has no time limitation, When it comes to traffic managing by pricing Norwegians are as negative as people in any. other country even if we are used to pay toll in urban toll rings Remonstrances to road. pricing are numerous in Norway as well as in other countries 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Our. experience is that there tends to be resistance to any change in existing tolling schemes There. will always be someone loosing when a system is changed and they will protest strongly. 4 3 What does the future hold, The possible future situation concerning tolling and road pricing in our three major cities is as. As Bergen in January 1986 was the first Norwegian city to implement a toll ring we were. anxious to see what would be the situation when it was due to be removed in 2001 The city. of Bergen decided to go for a new period of tolling without any pricing or traffic management. part built into the system The toll ring has been expanded from eight to nine toll stations. EFC following the Norwegian AutoPASS standard has been introduced and the fee has been. increased to NOK 15 for light vehicles in order to be more equal to fees in other toll rings. In the Oslo Toll Ring an additional NOK 2 to every passing was introduced in 2001 This is. known as Oslo Package 2 and is allocated to public transport only Public transport passengers. contribute to Oslo Package 2 as well with NOK 0 75 added to every ticket The Oslo Toll. Ring is due to stop its toll collection in 2007 A working group has been planning what is. going to happen in Oslo after 2007 if there may be another toll system or maybe a road. pricing system This project is called Oslo Package 3 There is a need for more funds in order. to realise a very expensive tunnel project across Bj rvika Bay and one possible outcome is a. PIARC Seminar on Road Pricing with emphasis on Financing Regulation and Equity 5 16. Cancun Mexico 2005 April 11 13, prolongation of the life span of the existing system A more radical alternative with several. The Oslo Toll Ring 19 toll plazas was opened in February 1990 It is equipped with an automatic electronic fee collection system on a large scale 3 3 The Trondheim Toll Ring The Trondheim Toll Ring opened in October 1991 and had 12 toll stations from the begin ning It offers the same electronic payment system as the toll ring in Oslo One

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