Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Unesco Country Strategy Ucs Nicaragua 2019 2023
The designation employed and the presentation of material throughout this. publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of. UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country territory city or area or of its. authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Published by,UNESCO Office in San Jos, Representation for Costa Rica El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua and Panama. Paseo Col n Calle 28 Casa 2810,Apartado Postal 1003 1007 Centro Col n. San Jos Costa Rica CP 10102,www unesco rg new en sanjose. Ms Esther Kuisch Laroche,UNESCO Representative to Nicaragua. Director of UNESCO Office in San Jos covering Costa. Rica El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua and Panama, It is my pleasure to present the UNESCO Country Strategy UCS for Nicaragua covering. the period 2019 2023 The UCS aims to situate UNESCO s work in each Member State. within the country s development context This document is grounded within the overall. framework of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable. Development Goals, The UCS for Nicaragua is also closely aligned with the development priorities of the. country and UNESCO s Medium Term Strategy which is structured around the following. two Overarching Objectives,Peace contributing to lasting peace. Equitable and sustainable development Contributing to sustainable. development and the eradication of poverty, As a specialized agency within the UN system UNESCO s mission is to support the efforts. of Member States in adhering to international standards and norms adopted by. UNESCO s General Conference and fostering international co operation between. Member States scientific bodies and civil society organizations involved in UNESCO s. fields of competence, Building peace in the hearts and minds of people remains the primary mission of. UNESCO In collaboration with our partners in Nicaragua and worldwide we hope to. provide platforms for dialogue and cooperation that will enable the benefits of. development to reach all especially the most disadvantaged women youth and. children to shape a sustainable future for the world a world of unity in diversity. Esther Kuisch Laroche,Director and Representative,UNESCO San Jos. PART I STRATEGIC VISION, Nicaragua is located in Central America bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North. Pacific Ocean between Costa Rica and Honduras Its territory covers 130 370 sq km. including 910 km of coastline Nicaragua is the largest country in Central America and. contains the largest freshwater body in Central America namely Lago de Nicaragua. Nicaragua has a population of around 6 3 million people An estimated 27 24 per cent. of the population is between 0 14 years old and 21 26 per cent are between 15 24 years. of age Over 62 per cent of the population lives in urban areas 3 960 712 people in. 2019 The overwhelming majority of the population lives in the western half of the. country with much of the urban growth centered in the capital city of Managua. Nearly 70 per cent of the population identifies as mestizo mixed Amerindian and white. Afro descendants make up 9 per cent of the population According to the 2005. Population Census 8 6 per cent of the total population of the country self identifies as. belonging to an indigenous group or ethnic community. Nicaragua is a diverse country and home to 24 volcanoes several lakes rivers and. lagoons rainforests dry forests and mangroves It is also highly prone to natural. hazards such as earthquakes volcano eruptions landslides hurricanes and tsunamis. The Cerro Negro 728 m which last erupted in 1999 is one of the country s most active. volcanoes Its lava flows and ash have caused significant damage to farmland and. buildings Other historically active volcanoes include Concepcion Cosiguina Las Pilas. Masaya Momotombo San Cristobal and Telica In addition Nicaragua also faces. several environmental challenges including deforestation soil erosion water pollution. and drought, In recent years Nicaragua has given increased focus to protecting the environment The. country has 68 ecosystems which represents around 60 of the total ecosystems in the. Central American Isthmus MARENA 2014 p 9 1 The National System of Protected Areas. is comprised of 74 protected areas and 63 private wildlife reserves This represents. 24 6 of Nicaraguan land State of the Nation Report PEN 2014 p 78 2 Nicaragua has. nine sites recognized as Wetlands of International Importance by the Ramsar. Convention 3 and three UNESCO Biosphere Reserves Bosawas 1997 San Juan River 2003. and Ometepe Island 2010, Nicaragua is the Central American country that has one of the most recent legislations. on water resources The General National Water Act Law 620 and its regulation. Decree 106 2007 were approved in 2007 The law states the public domain of all water. resources and favors its use for human purposes It also creates instruments and. institutions and introduces planning and management tools as basic aspects for the. protection and use of the resource, Nicaragua is a lower middle income country with a Gross Domestic Product GDP worth. 13 81 billion US dollars in 2017 The GDP value of Nicaragua represents 0 02 percent of. the world economy GDP in Nicaragua averaged 4 02 USD billion from 1960 until 2017. reaching an all time high of 13 81 USD billion in 2017 Due to social unrest in 2018 and. the imposition of new US sanctions the economy is expected to contract this year. Despite being one of the poorest countries in Latin America Nicaragua has made. important economic and social progress in recent years The country significantly. improved access to potable water and sanitation and has ameliorated its life. expectancy infant and child mortality and immunization rates However income. distribution remains uneven and the poor agriculturalists and indigenous people. continue to have less access to healthcare services. Nicaragua has made important progress in several areas of the education sector. including in reducing the number of poor children who have never been to school. increasing access to pre primary and primary school significantly improving the literacy. rate and guaranteeing equal access for boys and girls Education expenditure. represents 4 35 of GDP UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2017. However the country still faces a number of challenges in increasing the enrolment rate. of secondary and technical education as well as vocational training Educational access. MARENA Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales 2014 V Informe Nacional de. Biodiversidad de Nicaragua V National Biodiversity Report Nicaragua viewed October 2015. https www cbd int doc world ni ni nr 05 es pdf, PEN Programa Estado de la Naci n en Desarrollo Humano Sostenible 2014 Estad sticas de. Centroam rica 2014 Indicadores sobre desarrollo humano sostenible Central American Statistics 2014. Indicators about sustainable human development viewed 17 September 2015. http www estadonacion or cr images stories biblioteca virtual otras publicaciones ECA 2014 pdf. https www ramsar org es humedal nicaragua, and quality also vary depending on geographical location and vulnerability status For. example secondary level attainment and quality are significantly lower in rural areas. indigenous communities and among persons with disabilities. Total fertility rate has fallen from around six children per woman in 1980 to below. replacement level today 1 87 children born woman but the high birth rate among. adolescents perpetuates a cycle of poverty and low educational attainment. Reducing the inequalities between urban and rural areas and between rich and poor is. an important imperative for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Internet use in Nicaragua is unrestricted which provides opportunities for providing. greater access to information including for persons with disabilities and increasing the. quality of education and other social services However socio economic factors. including poverty and geographic location affect the ability of many Nicaraguans to. access the Internet, Finally Nicaragua has two cultural sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List the Le n. Cathedral and the Ruins of Le n Viejo The language dance and music of the Gar funa. and the play El G eg ense are part of the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural. Heritage of Humanity Yet in spite of the cultural diversity of Nicaragua and its rich. heritage the country spends less than the suggested 1 of its total expenditure on. Challenges Opportunities Successes and Lessons Learnt. Nicaragua does not currently have a United Nations Partnership Framework for. Development The last UNDAF which was co signed by UNESCO San Jos covered the. period from 2013 2017 The pillars of the UNDAF were defined as follows. 1 Reduction of multiple inequities and poverty to achieve sustainable human. development, 2 Guarantee the right to food security health education and well being of the. Nicaraguan people, 3 Protection of the environment and risk management for sustainable human. development, 4 Strengthening institutional capacities for technological innovation and. industrialization, In the absence of an UNDAF the Government of Nicaragua has agreed upon an annual. work plan with UNESCO, UNESCO s 2019 work plan is focused on the following strategic areas. 1 Quality education with a specific focus on Education for Sustainable. Development and disaster risk reduction, 2 Safeguarding of cultural heritage and the promotion of cultural diversity and. creative industries, 3 Prevention of violence and the management of social transformations. 4 Biodiversity conservation and water management, 5 Preservation of documentary heritage and indigenous languages. The key challenge facing UNESCO in Nicaragua is its status as a non resident agency. NRA as well as the limited regular resources of the UNESCO San Jos Cluster Office. resulting from budget constraints at the level of the Organization as a whole. A significant opportunity rests in the fact that UNESCO although not a resident agency. is a well known and respected UN agency in Nicaragua This positive image can be. attributed to the overall work of UNESCO and the interest of the Government of. Nicaragua in the different areas of UNESCO s mandate particularly culture and. Since the establishment of the UNESCO San Jos Cluster Office in 1984 the Office has. introduced and expanded its programmes in Education Sciences Culture and. Communication Information in Nicaragua Key focus areas and partnerships have. been created around strengthening the education sector environmental sustainability. and biodiversity conservation disaster preparedness and mitigation preservation of. cultural heritage and institutional capacity building of the media. In the past five years significant progress has been made in primary and secondary. education in Nicaragua in terms of ensuring free access expanding coverage and. improving quality According to information provided by the Government between. 2007 and 2018 the gross average enrolment rate in early childhood education for. children aged 3 to 5 years increased from 53 6 to 69 5 Between 2010 and 2016 for. primary education the gross enrolment rate was more than 100 per cent indicating. capture of children of all ages including underage and overage children and the. enrolment rate for secondary education increased from 67 9 per cent to 76 5 per cent 4. Data of the Government of Nicaragua show that the retention rate of students in basic. education has improved from 85 5 in 2007 to 89 4 in 2018 Given the absence of. secondary level institutions in many rural locations the Government initiated in 2014. the programme Secundaria a Distancia en el Campo in which currently 57 353. students are enrolled 5 Education expenditure in Nicaragua has increased slightly from. 4 08 of the GDP in 2014 to 4 35 of the GDP in 2017 6. Strengthening the quality of education remains a challenge for the education system. and requires further improvements to school infrastructure teacher training updating. of teaching materials and expanding and strengthening existing flexible modalities of. education for example distance learning in rural areas. Nicaragua participates in UNESCO s periodic Regional Comparative and Explicatory. Study on Education ERCE which examines learning outcomes at primary level in. mathematics language and natural sciences and associated factors in most Latin. American countries In the Third Regional Comparative and Explicatory Study TERCE. 2013 where 19 countries participated Nicaragua was among the group of countries. with results below the regional average 7 However when comparing the results of. Nicaragua in the TERCE with its results in the second study SERCE 2006 an. improvement can be observed in the results in reading and mathematics in third grade. students 8, While retention rates in secondary school have slightly increased in recent years. ensuring that all children and adolescents stay in school and the reinsertion of excluded. youth and adolescents into the formal systems remain important challenges. Enhanced teacher training is another priority directly associated with the quality of. education It is estimated that around 4 26 per cent of initial education teachers 12 96. UNICEF Country Programme Document Nicaragua 2019 2023 E ICEF 2018 P L14 Retrieved from.