Understanding and Minimizing Your HMI SCADA System

Understanding And Minimizing Your Hmi Scada System-Free PDF

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INTRODUCTION With HMI SCADA systems advancing,technologically and implementations. SCADA security in context, The International Society of Automation ISA production. Being at the heart of an operation s data becoming increasingly complex some model demonstrates the layered structure of a typical. visualization control and reporting for industry standards have emerged with the operation and shows that HMI SCADA security is only one. operational improvements HMI SCADA goal of improving security However part of part of an effective cyber security strategy These layers. systems have received a great deal of automated solution suites share data and wherever. the challenge is knowing where to start in, data is shared between devices there is a possibility for. of attention especially due to various securing the entire system unauthorized access and manipulation of that data This. cyber threats and other media fueled The purpose of this paper is to explain where white paper concentrates on the HMI SCADA layer but. vulnerabilities The focus on HMI SCADA vulnerabilities within a HMI SCADA system unless other potential weaknesses at other levels are. security has grown exponentially and as a may lie describe how the inherent security of covered the operation as a whole remains vulnerable. result users of HMI SCADA systems across system designs minimize some risks outline. the globe are increasingly taking steps to some proactive steps businesses can take. protect this key element of their operations and highlight several software capabilities. The HMI SCADA market has been that companies can leverage to further. evolving with functionality scalability and enhance their security ERP. interoperability at the forefront For example,HMI SCADA software has evolved from. being a programming package that enables,quick development of an application to MES.
visualize data within a programmable logic,controller PLC to being a development. suite of products that delivers powerful 3 D SCADA HMI. visualizations intelligent control capabilities,data recording functions and networkability. Sensor and Actuator, Component vulnerabilities within an room and the remote terminal units RTUs over a network many systems now rely solely on their HMI SCADA system for. HMI SCADA system which may be fiber optic telephone or wireless and the visualization data recording and some control elements And to. protocols for passing this data have frequently been developed this point some companies hold back on patches service packs. To minimize existing security gaps companies need to first with an emphasis on reliability and ease of implementation and upgrades while others choose not to apply any new patches. understand where potential vulnerabilities typically lie within rather than security employing a it works don t touch it policy Furthermore. the system Powerful software features along with the. Modern computing facilities have made secure practical software patches have generally been developed to cover for a. advancements in automation hardware and industrial. encryption almost impossible to defend against a determined security breach that has already occurred. communications have made control systems multi layered. complex and susceptible to threats An HMI SCADA system s hacker so communications between devices need to employ Some would say that even if companies could keep their. level of security is best understood if broken down into two several layers of defense with the primary aim to make access to platforms current with the fast pace of consumer based. major elements Communication and Software Technology the data difficult and detect if the data has been compromised operating systems and large number of system exploits. platform operating systems are the single largest security risk in. Communication Software technology the system, Communication advancements have made large scale Software over the years has largely become feature bloated as. HMI SCADA system implementations successful for many companies keep adding new capabilities while maintaining all of. industry applications There are two levels of communication the existing ones increasing the complexity of software security. that exist within the system information technology IT and the There are two separate but dependent software technologies. field which have notable security level differences in the system the HMI SCADA software and the Platform. Operating System which have distinct differences when it. IT Components of an HMI SCADA system are modular not comes to security. only to allow for easy troubleshooting but also to distribute. the computing load and eliminate a single point of failure It is HMI SCADA Software Most HMI SCADA software installations. not uncommon to have multiple thick thin web and mobile have either external network connections or direct Internet. runtime clients connected to the main HMI SCADA server hub based connectivity to perform remote maintenance functions. over an internal Ethernet based network however in some and or connect up to enterprise systems While these types of. cases systems may use external leased lines modems wireless connections help companies reduce labor costs and increase. cellular or satellite technologies as well the efficiency of their field technicians it is a key entry point for. anyone attempting to access with a malicious intent. The main HMI SCADA server hub also consists of multiple. networked servers to distribute the load ensure uptime Platform Operating System Operating systems that employ. and store the mass amount of data With these components elements of consumer or open source operating systems. all networked in some way they use standardized common such as Windows Server Linux and Unix variants are increasingly. protocols to transfer data all of which are largely unencrypted popular since they help reduce costs This trend toward open. requiring weak or no authentication technologies has made proprietary custom closed highly secure. systems a direction of the past but it increases the risks. Field HMI SCADA implementations frequently consist of a. number of widely dispersed remote sites with a control or Also due to the fact that HMI SCADA systems are complex and. data gathering function all connected to a central control and contain multiple layers of technology even a simple system. monitoring point Data has to be passed between the control patch is a major undertaking that requires planning funding. and time The risk elements are also substantial because. The inherent security of system designs confirm to send the command While this may seem like a as fusing or hardwire interlock logic to examine the local. minimizes some risks simple ideology or a drawn out process this intentional design situation so when components are commanded by the HMI. ensures that an operator s actions are deliberate as opposed SCADA software there is a hardware level of checks to ensure. The good news is that some vulnerability is minimized by the to a hasty reaction to an urgent situation it can be executed This protects the system from unsafe or. nature of system design and HMI SCADA software design. even incorrect software control Furthermore many critical. whereby the fundamental principles and canons of engineering Hardware At this level design engineers employ many. applications use triple and quad redundant logic controllers to. mandate safe and reliable systems This ensures a basic level of techniques to ensure safe control either physically or by the. ensure continuous operations, security to protect against an intruder HMI SCADA software Thousands of individual devices and.
RTUs can exist in a system and are typically implemented with Taking into account the general design rule that system. Engineers design systems with intentionally broken automated an area based manual or automatic control selection field engineers apply for all levels of a system can be surmised by if. chains meaning in some cases functions require physical technicians use manual control to perform maintenance or to a single point of failure exists protect it or provide secondary. confirmation prior to the software performing commands and address a software failure locking out the software control means Therefore design philosophies typically drive a. in other cases the SCADA software only does a portion of the and establishing local control holistically safe and secure environment which can severely. command requiring one or many additional manual steps to impede an intruder s ability at the HMI SCADA level to impact. execute the function Inherent system security is best surmised Additionally when engineers design this level of the system. the entire system, at the software and hardware levels many hardware based fail safes are built in the design such. Software With many viewing HMI SCADA software as a. visualization tool that provides a means for dynamic operator. input and visualization as a flexible information terminal the. reality is that HMI SCADA software capabilities are much. more exhaustive When elements are added such as control. and logic capabilities system engineers must examine the. risk from a potential failure standpoint and the extent of. control that is allowed without being in line of sight of the. area being controlled, Software is also developed from the operator s perspective. and uses company guidelines throughout the application. to ensure the operator is controlling with intent While this. doesn t necessarily bring additional security from external. intruders it does provide enhanced protection against. mistakes For example the select before operate design. philosophy is typically used in HMI SCADA applications which. requires the operator to select an item on the screen pull. up the controlling elements operate the item and finally. Inherent Security Examples,1 Manufacturing and Part Movement. a An HMI SCADA system is programmed to b One of the key chemicals controlled by the HMI. command an automated gantry to move manually SCADA system is chlorine Excessive amounts of. b To move the automated gantry the HMI SCADA chlorine could be hazardous to public health and. soft button must be engaged as well as separate conversely too little can also put people in danger. manual pushbuttons so engineers have designed a level of safety into. the automation system,c The automated gantry system is also interlocked. with photoelectric sensors and will not move if it c While the HMI SCADA system controls the main. detects any object within its operating area chlorine values downstream chlorine meters. continuously measure the concentration level and, d Additionally there are two physical mats on the have the ability to cut off the chlorine addition in.
plant floor outside the operating area within line of the event of abnormal levels. sight of the gantry on the plant floor one in front. of the HMI SCADA terminal and one in front of the d The metering control elements are isolated from. manual pushbutton station These mats have built the HMI SCADA control with the only interaction. in sensors to ensure that someone is physically between the systems being a one way alarming. present prior to operating connection to annunciate in the event of abnormal. levels of chlorine,e All conditions must be true for the automated. gantry systems manual functions to be powered e Additionally water treatment facilities are. up and engaged This type of system design is mandated to frequently test the chemical makeup. largely for the safety of the workforce but also of the outgoing water The system s operators. ensures that a hacker cannot independently analyze the test results daily and have the ability to. operate this function if he has control of the HMI cut off and bypass the chemical systems based on. SCADA system the test results,f With this multi tiered automation and manual. 2 Water Treatment and Chemical Control ability designed into the system the system as. a whole has an inherent level of security against, a An HMI SCADA system in a water treatment plant rogue remote control and malicious attacks. is the main control point for chemicals being added. to the water,Considerations to critically examine your system. 1 Examine your field assets particularly older 3 Examine your change management. remote components software policy, How does the SCADA communicate with them What is the policy for implementing an operating.
Can this be secured system and SCADA patches does it cover. Is the control network adequately separated from all assets. other networks Are all assets protected covered by firewalls and. Where are the points of entry failure Are there anti virus software. redundant options How easy is it to manage user accounts across all. layers of software is there an integrated system, 2 Examine your IT assets that includes the operating system and software. products or does each product have separate user,Are the services software running on an asset the. accounts and passwords,minimum needed to maintain functionality. How secure is that software and does the,4 Examine your access control. software employ passwords biometrics or, retina protection Does your SCADA software allow anonymous.
client connections,Do you have easy access to the operating system. and SCADA system patches Is this automatic Is there a robust login policy with regular renewal. of passwords,Does each user have an appropriate limit to. Understanding and Minimizing Your HMI SCADA System Security Gaps INTRODUCTION Being at the heart of an operation s data visualization control and reporting for operational improvements HMI SCADA systems have received a great deal of attention especially due to various cyber threats and other media fueled vulnerabilities The focus on HMI SCADA security has grown exponentially and as a

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