Types of Reactions The Copper cycle Sunapee

Types Of Reactions The Copper Cycle Sunapee-Free PDF

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Types of Reactions The Copper Cycle, In this laboratory experiment students will perform a series of reactions known as the copper cycle The. reaction series includes single replacement double replacement synthesis and decomposition reactions In. each of two cycles students will complete a series of reactions that results in the final product regenerating the. original starting material, This experiment should take one 80 minute session to complete Students will complete one of two cycles As a. class both cycles can be completed in one lab period and results shared between groups. Some substances require a bit of time to dissolve Students should be encouraged to work on the questions and. observations while waiting for reactions to complete. Two versions of the lab are available, Basic Level Instruction this would be appropriate for a Regents chemistry class Each pair of students completes. one of the two cycles of reactions and then shares their findings with the rest of the class The lab is a. qualitative rather than a quantitative experience focusing on reaction types. Advanced Level Instruction For an advanced class AP the lab can be completed as a quantitative experiment. The advanced version assumes the student starts in cycle A with copper wire completes both cycles of the. reactions and finishes with the regeneration of elemental copper from copper sulfate Students will make. quantitative measurements of the products calculate percent yield and will complete an independent lab. Types of Reaction Copper Cycle Teacher s Guide 2,Types of Reactions Teacher s Guide. Intended Audience High School Regents Chemistry Students. This experiment is aimed at students in high school learning about chemical changes and reaction types The. experiment would also be suitable for an introductory college laboratory. Recommended Student Background Students should be familiar with single replacement double replacement. synthesis and decomposition reactions,Activity Timeline.
It is suggested that some students perform cycle A while other students perform cycle B In this way both cycles. can be completed inside an 80 minute time period, Safety Issues Wear approved safety goggles and suitable clothing when working with or near all chemicals in. this experiment As they leave the laboratory students should wash hands well In the case of skin exposure. students should wash skin continuously for 15 minutes. Copper II chloride and sulfate have a very slight toxicity and they should be washed off the hands with a large. amount of cold water without soap Do not touch the filter paper with your hands Any spills can be cleaned. up with water, Magnesium powder is combustible and has been known to catch fire in the presence of water or damp. materials Once burning magnesium fires require special extinguishers to put out the fire When it reacts with. sulfuric acid flammable hydrogen gas is released, Sulfuric acid hydrochloric acid and sodium carbonate solution are corrosive materials that should be handled. Open flames should be kept well away from flammable materials such as organic solvents. Keys to Success Students need to be patient and wait until reactions are complete otherwise later reactions. may not work as desired, When transferring materials care should be taken to avoid loss of products especially when scraping the copper. II carbonate from the filter paper in cycle B,Types of Reaction Copper Cycle Teacher s Guide 3.
Advanced Preparation, The teacher should stage necessary equipment in a central location or at lab stations as appropriate. Approximate amounts of the starting material for each cycle should be pre weighed and provided in a small dish. or container If necessary prepare fresh solutions to augment the supply of recycled starting materials. depending on volume and purity of available solutions It may also be necessary to dilute the acids and prepare. the sodium acetate solution ahead of time,Materials Check List. Chemicals needed per group to run both cycles assuming 50 spare capacity. 15 mL 1 0 M Copper II sulfate,0 6 g Magnesium powder. 30 mL 1 0 M Sulfuric acid,15 mL 5 Sodium acetate solution. 15 mL 0 5 M Copper II chloride,15 mL 0 5 M Sodium carbonate.
15 mL 1 0 M Hydrochloric acid,Equipment needed per group to run both cycles. 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask 2,Glass stirring rod Glass stirring rod. 10 mL graduated cylinder 10 mL graduated cylinder, 150 mL beaker Bunsen burner and matches OR hotplate. Crucible and crucible cover Spatula,Clay triangle 100 mL beaker. Ring stand with iron ring OR tripod Distilled water for rinsing. Bunsen burner and matches Gloves,Tongs Funnel,Spatula Filter paper.
100 mL beaker Watch glass,Distilled water for rinsing. Measurements, Volume measurements can be performed using graduated cylinders. Masses can be measured in grams using a simple electronic balance tenths precision 0 1g is acceptable. though hundredths precision 0 01g is recommended necessary for the advanced level. Recycling and disposal, A container to store the regenerated copper II sulfate and copper II chloride solutions is required in order to. reuse the material for future labs Choose a container that is large enough to contain the material and is capable. of being closed and properly stored,Types of Reaction Copper Cycle Teacher s Guide 4. Green Chemistry Making materials sustainably, Chemical manufacturing is as old as civilization and the discoveries of bronze and iron came to define the eras.
that ensued In modern times we take for granted a plentiful supply of metals plastics dyestuffs and. medicines We have come to depend on the chemical industry to provide us with all the materials we need for. our materialist society, But the supply of these materials is not infinite As the human population grows and demands an ever higher. standard of living the consumption of the Earth s materials is in danger of getting out of control It is therefore. essential that chemists become responsible stewards of the raw materials that remain We need to develop. methods for chemical processing that are both chemically and environmentally efficient and which move us. towards a sustainable society We need new materials that can provide what we need without destroying the. Green chemistry is designed to help us meet these needs It aims not just to treat waste but to avoid producing. waste in the first place Products and processes should be benign by design but they must also be practicable. In this lab manual we will explore how we can this can be achieved in practice how we can use chemistry to. help solve our environmental problems We will never be able to build a sustainable society if we don t. understand the basic science of where our materials come from and how they are produced The goal of this. manual is to provide that science presented within the context of green chemistry. The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry, The basic principles of green chemistry were first laid out by two US chemists Paul Anastas and John Warner in. their 1998 book Green Chemistry Theory and Practice. 1 Prevent waste Design chemical syntheses to prevent waste leaving no waste to treat or clean up. 2 Design safer chemicals and products Design chemical products to be fully effective yet have little or no. 3 Design less hazardous chemical syntheses Design syntheses to use and generate substances with little or. no toxicity to humans and the environment, 4 Use renewable feedstocks Use raw materials and feedstocks that are renewable rather than depleting. Renewable feedstocks are often made from agricultural products or are the wastes of other processes. depleting feedstocks are made from fossil fuels petroleum natural gas or coal or are mined. 5 Use catalysts not stoichiometric reagents Minimize waste by using catalytic reactions Catalysts are used. in small amounts and can carry out a single reaction many times They are preferable to stoichiometric. reagents which are used in excess and work only once. 6 Avoid chemical derivatives Avoid using blocking or protecting groups or any temporary modifications if. possible Derivatives use additional reagents and generate waste. 7 Maximize atom economy Design syntheses so that the final product contains the maximum proportion of. the starting materials There should be few if any wasted atoms. 8 Use safer solvents and reaction conditions Avoid using solvents separation agents or other auxiliary. chemicals If these chemicals are necessary use innocuous chemicals. 9 Increase energy efficiency Run chemical reactions at ambient temperature and pressure whenever. 10 Design chemicals and products to degrade after use Design chemical products to break down to innocuous. substances after use so that they do not accumulate in the environment. 11 Analyze in real time to prevent pollution Include in process real time monitoring and control during. syntheses to minimize or eliminate the formation of byproducts. Types of Reaction Copper Cycle Teacher s Guide 5, 12 Minimize the potential for accidents Design chemicals and their forms solid liquid or gas to minimize the. potential for chemical accidents including explosions fires and releases to the environment. It must be recognized that these represent a target and we will not be able to satisfy every principle. immediately with every process and product Nevertheless if we design our chemistry with these principles in. mind we will make great strides towards achieving sustainability. Why should you teach about types of reactions, 1 Chemical reactions are what make chemistry both distinctive and useful The four types of reactions in the.
Regents curriculum provide a simple description applicable to most inorganic chemical changes. 2 The changes seen in this experiment such as solid to from liquid color changes and gas evolution are. common observations when chemical changes occur They are also interesting to experience. Why should you use a cycle experiment, 1 Reuse and recycle are becoming essential ways to manage resources as we find that our world has limited. supplies of most materials It is critical for the next generation to learn about sustainability in the. laboratory not just in textbooks In this experiment students experience this very clearly with the starting. color and appearance being regenerated at the end of the experiment How can we try to teach. sustainability then run an experiment where every product is thrown away as waste. 2 This experiment is designed to minimize both resources and waste Both of these factors help to keep down. the cost of running the chemistry laboratory, Correlation of the experiment with Green Chemistry. Green Chemistry Principles 1 Prevent waste,4 Use renewable feedstocks. The experiment clearly is designed to prevent waste by reusing the final product as the starting material for a. subsequent experimental run By illustrating the concept of recycling ending with the original starting material. after a series of reactions the experiment is demonstrating a method of renewing feedstocks Although the. copper based starting materials are not renewable as a raw material the concept of renewing feedstocks. through recycling is clearly demonstrated,Curriculum alignment. Alignment to the NYS Regents Chemistry Curriculum, III 8 Types of chemical reactions include synthesis decomposition single replacement and double replacement.
This experiment correlates directly with the following section of the New York State Core Curriculum. Standard 4 The Physical Setting, Key Idea 3 Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the. observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity. Performance Indicator 3 2 Use atomic and molecular models to explain common. chemical reactions, Major Understandings 3 2b Types of chemical reactions include synthesis. decomposition single replacement and double replacement. Types of Reaction Copper Cycle Teacher s Guide 6, Background and Fundamentals for Basic Level Instruction. Types of Reactions The Copper Cycle, Students learn the standard classes of chemical reactions which in New York are defined as single replacement. double replacement synthesis and decomposition A wide choice of reactions is available yet often highly toxic. materials have been used such as lead II nitrate because they provided attractive examples The complete set. of reactions illustrated here,a illustrate all reaction types.
b are visually attractive,c produce no hazardous waste at all and. d demonstrate the concept of recycling by allowing the product from one reaction to be used as the. starting material in the next experiment, Cycle A begins with a blue solution of copper II sulfate being reduced to copper metal This is roasted in air to. give black copper II oxide which can be redissolved to regenerate the starting solution of copper II sulfate. Cycle B starts with a solution of copper II chloride which is used to precipitate basic copper carbonate This. greenish blue solid decomposes to black copper II oxide on heating The black solid oxide rapidly dissolves in. dilute hydrochloric acid to give the original solution in the cycle copper II chloride Note that both cycles have. copper II oxide in common,Double Double,replacement replacement. acid base acid base CuCl2,CuSO4 aq H2SO4 aq HCl,Mg CYCLE CYCLE Double. Single A CuO B replacement,replacement,Cu Synthesis.
Green Chemistry Module Level High School Regents Types of Reactions The Copper cycle Laboratory Experiment Created By Dr Martin Walker State University of New York at Potsdam Module Contributors Dr Mark Noll and Jana Panders State University of New York at Brockport Kate Winnebeck NYS Pollution Prevention Institute Mary E Courtney Palmyra NY Funding provided by the New York State

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