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TOWARD THE,REVOLUTION,Political Essays,FRANTZ FANON. translated rom the French by,HAAKON CHEVALIER,GROVE PRESS. Copyright 1964 by Fram ois Maspero, Translation copyright 1967 by Monthly Review Press. All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or. by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and. retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher except. by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review Any members of. educational institutions wishing to photocopy part or all of the work for. classroom use or publishers who would like to obtain permission to. include the work in an anthology should send their inquiries to. Grove Atlantic Inc 841 Broadway New York NY 10003, First published in France under the title Pour la Revolution Africaine. Published simultaneously in Canada,Printed in the United States ofAmerica.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Fanon Frantz 1925 1961,Toward the African revolution. Translation of Pour la revolution africaine,L Africa Politics and govemment l 945 1960. 2 Algeria Politics and govemment 1945 1960,DT30 2 F3613 1988 320 5 092 4 87 37247. ISBN 0 8021 3090 9 pbk,Grove Press,841 Broadway,New York NY 10003. 99 00 01 02 10 9 8 7 6 5 4,Editorial Note,I The Problem of the Colonized 1.
1 The North African Syndrome 3,2 WestIndians andAfricans 17. II Racism and Culture,III For Algeria 45,1 Letter to a Frenchman 47. 2 Letter to the ResidentMinister 1956 52,IV Toward the Liberation of Africa 55. L Disappointments and Illusions of French,Colonialism 57. 2 AlgeriaFace toFace with theFrench Torturers 64,3 Concerning a Plea 73.
4 French Intellectuals and Democrats and the,Algerian Revolution 76. 5 MaghrebBloodShallNotFlow inVain 91,6 TheFarceThatChangesSides 96. 7 Decolonization and Independence 99,8 A Continued Crisis 106. 9 Letter to the Youth of Africa 113,10 First Truths on the Colonial Problem 120. 11 The Lesson of Cotonou 127,12 Appeal to Africans 132.
13 Sequels of a Plebiscite inAfrica 135,14 The AlgerianWar and Man s Liberation 144. 15 Algeria inAccra 150,16 Accra AfricaAffirmsItsUnity andDefines Its. Strategy 153,17 Mr Debr,e s Desperate Endeavors 158. vi CONTENTS,18 Racist Fury in France 163,19 Blood Flows in the Antilles Under French. Domination 167, 20 Unity and Effective Solidarity Are the Conditions.
for African Liberation 170,V African Unity 175,1 This Africa to Come 177. 2 Lumumba s Death Could We Do Otherwise 191,Editorial Note. The political essays articles and notes by Frantz Fanon pub. lisqed in the present volume cover the most active period of his. life from the publication ofPeau Noir Masques Blancs Black. Skin White Masks in 1952 he was then twenty eight years old. to that of Les Damnes de la Terre The Wretched of the. Earth in 1961 which was to coincide within a matter of days. with the date of his death, Most of these writings have already appeared in various re. views and periodicals the reference and the date of which we. give in each case But they were widely scattered and difficult to. get hold of Those that appeared inEl Moudjahid in particu. lar are hardly to be found today and they had in fact been. accessible when they appeared only to a limited number of. Brought together as they are here in their chronological. order these writings reveal a singularly living unity They mark. the successive stages of a single combat which develops and. broadens but the objective and the means of which had been. seen and determined from the beginning The three books so. far published give us three analyses crystallized at precise stages. of Fanon s development The texts that follow constitute a. guiding thread by which we may follow him more closely from. day to day the itinerary of a mind in constant evolution grow. ing ever broader and richer while continuing to be true to. The first two articles The NorthA,frican Syndrome and. West Indians andAfricans published in 1952 and 1955 may. mark the first stages At this time Frantz Fanon had completed. his psychiatric studies he was thus in a position on the basis of. his daily medical experience to give a scientific account of the. situation of the colonized On the other hand this situation was. one that he had lived historically that he was still living it was. viii EDITORIAL NOTE, for him a personal experience which he could j udge from.
within as welL Having decided to dissociate himself both from. the great white error and from the great black mirage he. initiated a new revolutionary approach To present the ques. tion of the colonized and to solve it he was in a privileged. position his consciousness of it the clarity of his vision. strengthened the firmness of his commitment, Fanon was to choose to practice in Algeria an outstandingly. colonialist country to live and fight among other colonized. people like himself The theme is taken up again and amplified. in Racism and Culture a lecture delivered in 1956 before the. First Congress of Negro Writers Here the analysis becomes. sharper the challenge radical the commitment open and pre. cise H is diagnosis of racism which is not an accidental dis. covery but fits into a definite pattern which is the pattern of. the exploitation of one group of men by another implies one. solution and one only The logical end of this will to fight is. the total l iberation of the national territory The struggle has. suddenly become total absolute This is not a verbal struggle. From the time h e became a psychiatrist at the B lida hospital. and even more after the outbreak of the insurrection Fanon. was a militant in the Algerian revolutionary organization At. the same time he carried on a remarkable medical activity in. novating at many levels deeply viscerally close to his patients. whom he regarded as primarily victims of the system he was. fighting He collected clinical notes and analyses on the phe. nomena of colonialist a lienation seen through mental diseases. He explored local traditions and their relations to colonization. This material remains untouched but it too is scattered and we. hope to be able to assemble it and present it in a separate. His work as an FLN National Liberation Front militant. soon attracted the attention of the French police Late in 1956. before leaving for Tunis he made final a much older total. commitment through his letter of resignation Letter to the. Resident Minister It is together with the Letter to a French. EDITORIAL NOTE ix, man hitherto unpublished the only piece of wntmg that. bears witness to this period the two letters form the chapter. For Algeria The experience thus accumulated in the very. thick of the battle was later to furnish the material for L An. Cinq de la Revolution A lgerienne published in 1959. In Tunis Fanon was called upon to participate in the Press. Services of the FLN He was one of the team of editors of El. Moudjahid of which the first issues then appeared Relentlessly. he lashed out at the colonialist system its total nature its un. broken unity the solidarity which whether they willed it or. not bound those that were on its side while at the same time. the genocide of one million Algerians was being carried out. His analysis French Intellectuals and Democrats and the. Algerian Revolution aroused the indignation of the French. Left In it he denounced the hypocrisy of those who considered. colonialism and its sequels war torture as only a monstrous. excrescence which had only to be circumscribed and reproved. whereas it was really a perfectly logical perfectly coherent. whole in which all those who lived within it were inevitably. accomplices, Fanon had thus grasped the means of amplifying one of his. first themes the common nature of the struggle of all the colo. nized Being one of the first to envisage concretely not as a. prophetic vision but as an immediate battle objective the. unity of Africa he was constantly linking the fate of the Al. gerian Revolution with that of the continent as a whole consid. ering it as he did the vanguard of the African Revolution El. Moudjahid constantly developed this line The A lgerian Revo. lution and the Liberation of Africa this title given to a booklet. of FLN articles and documents widely distributed at this period. well indicates the importance that the Algerian revolutionaries. then attributed to it, The articles in El Moudjahid were never signed The. anonymity was complete The articles published here checked. Published in the United States in 1965 under the title Studies in a Dying. Colonialism,x EDITORIAL NOTE, by Mrs Fanon are those we are absolutely certain were written.
by Fanon His contribution to be sure was not limited to these. particular articles But as in every team and particularly in. this revolution in full ferment there was constant osmosis in. teraction mutual stimulation At the very time when Fanon s. thinking was reaching new dimensions in contact with the crea. tive nucleus of the Algerian Revolution it would transmit new. impulses to the latter We have assembled the texts thus pro. duced under the title Toward the Liberation of Africa. The idea of Africa that was growing in Fanon s mind found. concrete expression in the mission that he conducted in the. countries of West Africa after having been ambassador at. Accra He was to study in particular the conditions of a closer. alliance between Africans the recruiting of Negro volunteers. the opening of a new front South of the Sahara The pages. that we publish in the last chapter African Unity are those of. an unpublished travel notebook in which this plan assumes its. full clarity and its violence, Fanon returned from this mission exhausted he had con. tracted leukemia He devoted his last strength to writing Les. Damnes de la Terre He was to die a year after having witnessed. the fall of his friend Lumumba the African leader whose Afri. can vision was closest to his He believed steadfastly in the. forthcoming total liberation of Africa convinced as he had. written in IAn Cinq de la Revolution AlgeTienne that the. African revolution had created an irreversible situation. FRAN OIS MASPERO,Paris 1964,The Problem of the Colonized. The North African Syndrome, It is a common saying that man is constantly a challenge to. himself and that were he to claim that he is so no longer he. would be denying himself It must be possible however to de. scribe an initial a basic dimension of all human problems. More precisely it would seem that all the problems which man. faces on the subject of man can be reduced to this one ques. Have I not because of what I have done or failed to do. contributed to an impoverishment of human reality,The question could also be formulated in this way. Have I at aU times demanded and brought out the man that. I want to show in what is to follow that in the specific case of. the North African who has emigrated to France a theory of. inhumanity is in a fair way to finding its laws and its corollaries. All those men who are hungry all those men who are cold all. those men who are afraid, All those men of whom we are afraid who crush the jealous.
emerald of our dreams who twist the fragile curve of our smiles. all those men we face who ask us no questions but to whom we. put strange ones,Who are they, I ask you I ask myself Who are they those creatures starving. for humanity who stand buttressed against the impalpable. frontiers though I know them from experience to be terribly. distinct of complete recognition, Who are they in truth those creatures who hide who are. First published in L EsPrit February 1952,4 TOWARD THE AFRICAN REVOLUTION. hidden by social truth beneath the attributes of bicot bou. nioule arabe raton sidi mon z ami l, FIRST THESIs That the behavior of the North African often. causes a medical staff to h ave misgivings as to the reality of his. Except in urgent cases an intestinal occlusion wounds ac. cidents the North African arrives enveloped in vagueness. He has an ache in his belly in his back he has an ache every. where He suffers miserably his face is eloquent he is obviously. What s wrong my friend,I m dying monsieur Ie docteur.
His voice breaks imperceptibly,Where do you have pain. Everywhere monsieur Ie docteur, You must not ask for specific symptoms you would not b e. given any For example i n pains o f a n u lcerous character i t is. important to know their periodicity This conformity to the. categories of time is something to which the North African. seems to be hostile It is not lack of comprehension for he often. comes accompanied by an interpreter I t is as though it is an. effort for him to go back to where he no longer is The past for. him is a burning past What he hopes is that he will never suffer. again never again be face to face with that past This present. pain which visibly mobilizes the muscles of his face suffices. him He does not understand that anyone should wish to im. pose on him even by way of memory the pain that is already. gone He does not understand why the doctor asks him so many. Where does it hurt, In my belly He then points to his thorax and abdomen.

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