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This page intentionally left blank,A HISTORY OF MODERN IRAN. In a radical reappraisal of Iran s modern history Ervand Abrahamian. traces its traumatic journey across the twentieth century through the. discovery of oil imperial interventions the rule of the Pahlavis and in. 1979 revolution and the birth of the Islamic Republic In the inter. vening years Iran has experienced a bitter war with Iraq the trans. formation of society under the rule of the clergy and more recently. the expansion of the state and the struggle for power between the old. elites the intelligentsia and the commercial middle class The author. who is one of the most distinguished historians writing on Iran today. is a compassionate expositor While he adroitly negotiates the twists. and turns of the country s regional and international politics at the. heart of his book are the people of Iran who have endured and. survived a century of war and revolution It is to them and their. resilience that this book is dedicated as Iran emerges at the beginning. of the twenty first century as one of the most powerful states in the. Middle East, ervand a b ra ha mi an is Distinguished Professor of History at. Baruch College and Graduate Center City University of New York. His previous publications include The Iranian Mojahedin 1989. Khomeinism 1993 and Tortured Confessions 1999,A HISTORY OF MODERN IRAN. ERVAND ABRAHAMIAN,City University of New York,CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. Cambridge New York Melbourne Madrid Cape Town Singapore S o Paulo. Cambridge University Press,The Edinburgh Building Cambridge CB2 8RU UK.
Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press New York. www cambridge org, Information on this title www cambridge org 9780521821391. Ervand Abrahamian 2008, This publication is in copyright Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of. relevant collective licensing agreements no reproduction of any part may take place. without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in print format 2008,ISBN 13 978 0 511 41399 5 eBook EBL. ISBN 13 978 0 521 82139 1 hardback,ISBN 13 978 0 521 52891 7 paperback. Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls. for external or third party internet websites referred to in this publication and does not. guarantee that any content on such websites is or will remain accurate or appropriate. In memory of the more than three hundred political prisoners hanged. in 1988 for refusing to feign belief in the supernatural. List of maps page viii,List of illustrations ix,List of tables xi.
List of figures xii,Chronology xiii,Glossary xv,A political who s who of modern Iran xvii. Preface xxvii,Introduction 1, 1 Royal despots state and society under the Qajars 8. 2 Reform revolution and the Great War 34,3 The iron fist of Reza Shah 63. 4 The nationalist interregnum 97,5 Muhammad Reza Shah s White Revolution 123. 6 The Islamic Republic 155,Bibliography 215,Further reading 218.
1 Iran and the Middle East page xxix,2 Iranian provinces xxx. Illustrations,1 Coronation stamp 1926 page 66,2 Road construction stamp 1934 78. 3 Stamps set depicting Pahlavi ideology 1935 78,3 1 Persepolis 78. 3 2 Tehran airport 78,3 3 Sanatorium near Tehran 79. 3 4 Cement factory in Abdul qAzim 79,3 5 Gunboat 79.
3 6 Railway bridge over Karun 80,3 7 Tehran post office 80. 3 8 Justice woman with scales and sword 80,3 9 Education angel teaching youth 80. 4 Stamp set celebrating ancient Iran 81,4 1 Persepolis ruins of Main Palace 81. 4 2 Persepolis lion carving 81,4 3 Persepolis Darius 81. 4 4 Persepolis warrior 82,4 5 Pasaraga Cyrus tomb 82.
4 6 Carving at Naqsh e Rostam God Mazda s investiture. of Ardashir 82, 4 7 Carving at Naqsh e Rostam Shahpour accepting Emperor. Valerian s submission 83,5 Stamps 1963 78 135, 5 1 Set celebrating aspects of the White Revolution 135. 5 2 Set commemorating Reza Shah 136, 5 3 Stamp set commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the. Pahlavi dynasty 137, 6 Statue of Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi during the revolution. Tehran February 1979 Copyright Abbas Magnum Photos 160. x Illustrations, 7 Woman passing soldiers during the revolution Tehran 1978.
Copyright Abbas Magnum Photos 160,8 Stamps from the Islamic Republic 170. 8 1 Stamps for the forerunners of the Islamic Revolution 170. 8 2 Stamp for Ayatollah Kashani 171, 8 3 Two stamps for Ayatollah Beheshti and the seventy two martyrs 171. 8 4 Stamps issued by the Bazargan government for al e Ahmad. Shariati Mossadeq and Dehkhoda 172, 8 5 Anniversary stamps for the Islamic Revolution 173. 1 Vital statistics page 6,2 Communal composition of Iran 1900 18. 3 Government budgets 1925 26 and 1940 41 69, 4 Expansion of public education 1923 24 and 1940 41 84.
5 Changes in place names 88,6 Changes in state terminology 88. 7 Prime ministers 1941 53 102,8 Oil revenues 1954 76 124. 9 Prime ministers 1953 77 129,10 Military expenditures 1954 77 132. 11 Industrial production 1953 77 134, 12 Urban household expenditures 1959 60 and 1973 74 141. 13 Oil revenues 1977 94 175,14 Presidents 1980 2007 187.
1 Class structure labor force in the 1970s page 140. 2 Chart of the Islamic Constitution 165,Chronology. 1901 D Arcy Concession,1905 December Bastinadoing of merchants. 1906 July Protest in British legation,1906 August Royal promise of constitution. 1906 October First Majles opens,1907 August Anglo Russian Convention. 1908 First oil well,1908 June Coup d tat,1909 Anglo Persian Oil Company formed.
1909 July Revolutionaries capture Tehran,1909 November Second Majles opens. 1911 Russian ultimatum,1912 British Navy converts from coal to oil. 1919 August Anglo Persian Agreement,1921 February Coup d tat. 1925 Constituent Assembly terminates the Qajar dynasty. 1926 Coronation of Reza Shah,1927 Abolition of capitulations. 1928 New dress code,1933 Cancellation of D Arcy Concession.
1934 Official name change of Persia to Iran,1941 August Anglo Soviet invasion. 1951 Oil nationalization,1953 CIA coup,1963 White Revolution. 1974 Quadrupling of oil prices,1975 Creation of Resurgence Party. 2 Road construction stamp 1934 78 3 Stamps set depicting Pahlavi ideology 1935 78 3 1 Persepolis 78 3 2 Tehran airport 78 3 3 Sanatorium near Tehran 79 3 4 Cement factory in Abdul qAzim 79 3 5 Gunboat 79 3 6 Railway bridge over Karun 80 3 7 Tehran post office 80 3 8 Justice woman with scales and sword 80 3 9 Education angel teaching youth 80

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