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328 Theory practice of modular coordination,rationalisation into the British building indus. try Corker and Diprose 1963,1961 also saw the publication in English of. Konrad Wachsmann s The Turning Point of,Building which contains one of the clearest state. ments of the case for mass production and indus, trialised buildings using the ideas of modules and. standardisation Wachsmann 1961,Figure 3 Adaptability of components.
Konrad Wachsmann,The process of metrication began in Britain in. 1965 in the building industry The programme,allowed ten years to 1975 for the changeover and. made necessary the rewriting of Britain standards,and related documents This gave an opportunity. Figure 2 Movement of a chess piece demonstrating for modular ideas to be incorporated and to. adaptability become mandatory Several Government Depart. ments were involved in introducing in their own, The Eames house and others engendered enor large building programmes the principles of. mous enthusiasm amongst architects that an Dimensional Coordination Martin 1965. industrialised vernacular was not only possible A determined effort to establish the viability of. but at hand In UK the Modular Society was the performance standard approach for compo. founded in 1953 by Mark Hartland Thomas which nent procurement linked to an open system of. sought to bring about the idea of a dimensionally components using dimensional co ordination was. related building industry vernacular through a made by a group set up in 1968 at the Ministry of. series of ground rules the most crucial one being Public Buildings and Works London led by Colin. the use of the basic module of 4 inches or 100 mm Pain and known as Method of Building Group. for all component sizing This was not particularly Pain went to visit Ralph Iredale in USA in 1968. a new idea Albert Farwell Bemis had proposed a Iredale had previously worked for CLASP and. similar three dimension dimensional module NENK systems and then emigrated to California. based upon the 4 inch dimension in USA in 1936 to work with Ezra Ehrenkrantz on the Californian. Bemis 1936 Schools Programme SCSD, Many of the protagonists of the modular idea In turn Ehrenkrantz had studied with.
including the Prime Minister Harold McMillan Wachsmann and thus the link towards component. saw it as a way of drawing Britain and the rest of building using ideas of modular construction. Europe closer together Driven by the zeal of space frames lightweight steel framing etc were. Thomas and others the Modular Society became formed Later Norman Foster and Richard Rogers. exceedingly influential in making the case for went on to study at Yale in the Master Programme. modular coordination through articles and publi of the same School of ideas. cations including the Modular Quarterly and the I joined Method of Building Group in 1970 to. Modular Primer The latter written by Corker and prepare documentation on design discipline and. Diprose and published in the Architects Journal design requirements that by 1971 had become. for 1 Aug 1962 became the handbook for a whole mandatory for the MOPBW building programme. generation of architects intent on bringing some A similar approach was also adopted by the. Proceedings IGLC 13 July 2005 Sydney Australia,Alan J Brookes 329. Further the effect of tolerance if allowed within,the basic space can lead to uncomfortably wide. joints at the edges of the component,Early studies of modular theory had made some. attempts to point out the implications of manufac,turing erection and movement tolerances in com. ponent sizing but had not put any serious values of. this allowance Studies by Pietro N Maggi in Italy,had identified problems of tolerances in building.
as early as 1961 Maggi 1961 This led to a pro,posal to use statistics as a method of combining. likely errors in an article in Modular Quarterly by. Sefton Jenkins and Mak in 1963 However this, proposal came too late for the statistical concept. to be included in the British Standard BS,3626 1963 Recommendations for a System of. Tolerances and Fits for Building,Unfortunately early thinking was pre occupied. by a misunderstanding of terms This is illustrated. by a paper on definitions included within Modular,Quarterly Summer 1958 in which deviations are.
Figure 4 Dimensional control lines on the Method of confirmed as the allowance to take account of. Building Rig showing components within their own tolerances rather than the other way around Sec. basic space ondly there occurred not only in the Modular soci. ety but by others in the field an over simplification. Department of Education Science and the Min that each component must keep station within the. istry of Health co ordinating lines Even though the working. During this time although the advantages of committee of the Modular Society showed in its. procurement using performance specifications report Winter 1959 the column face deviating. were becoming clear there was a nagging doubt over the modular plate this diagram was declared. about the limitations of conventions for fixing and incorrect at the main discussion meeting in March. jointing within the dimensional framework partic 1960 The extent of the joint size variation result. ularly as the strict rules of dimensional co ordina ing from this over simplification was either not. tion concerned the question of components appreciated or ignored. keeping station within their modular basic,space A full size mock up was tested at the. Building Research Station in Garston UK to check, principles of jointing using five different types of. structural frameworks,In 1967 J F Eden put the problem more. directly to the dimensional co ordinators when he,cited the development of the engineering industry. whose success in mass production architects were,trying to emulate Eden 1967 He pointed out that.
the accuracy and interchangeability of parts in, engineering relied upon the definition early in its. development of sets of standard for joints,Thus the way in which the parts fitted together. is very much more crucial that the parts to be,themselves dimensional co ordinated Later his. advice was taken by Bruce Martin in his book,Figure 5 Tolerances in Construction meant that. Joints in Building Martin 1977 but at the,components sometimes lay outside their own basic.
heyday of dimensions co ordination in 1968 such,advice was hard to swallow. The main obstacle was that many weatherproof BUILDING RESEARCH. joints need overlap or rebates thus the rule that ESTABLISHMENT. every component should not exceed its own, basic space could not always apply Following widespread dissatisfaction with BS. 3626 work was started at the Building Research,Product Development. 330 Theory practice of modular coordination, Establishment mainly by Harry Harrison and Ron PHD THESIS AT LIVERPOOL. Bonshor to determine more sensible methods of UNIVERSITY. work sizing and determination of tolerances This, led finally to the production of a new British Stan Thus by the time I started my PhD thesis at Liver.
dard DD 22 in 1972 Recommendation for the pool University in 1973 the stage was set My. co ordination of dimensions in building toler main tasks were to study. ances and fits for building 1 To what extent is remedial work necessary as a. Even so there were still limitations to the meth result of variability in construction lying out. ods as proposed side tolerances in design, The first was that permissible deviations for 2 Where do the major difficulties lie An in. various methods of construction were not avail vestigation of issues arising from the case stud. able for insertion in the formulae suggested by ies. DD22 The British Standards had published in 3 What are the costs of these difficulties. 1969 the provisional document on accuracy in 4 Why doesn t the Building Industry avoid these. building PD 6440 14 which has a section problems through the use of design aids and. giving permissible deviations for erected building Standards A review of existing Standards. elements In order to check the validity of these and designers attitudes. values an accuracy surveys programme was initi The research Brookes 1976 encompassed the. ated by BSI in December 1972 The programme study of thirteen building projects then under con. was devised by BSI with the assistance of BRE struction using precast concrete panels with insitu. and called for the checking of about 50 000 indi concrete frames Measurements were taken of the. vidual items of some 320 building projects of variability achieved on site and the factory and the. various types resultant range of joint sizes between compo. Building contractors were asked to execute the nents In all cases the variability accuracy of. actual measuring and to feed back data forms con assembly exceeded the tolerances specified. taining the required measurements of the erected Joint sizes were always larger or smaller than. items Sixteen different data forms were devised designed. to cover the different types of items distance The case studies pointed to three main conclu. between walls levels of floor straightness of sions. walls etc This survey eventually provided a 1 As the numbers of interrelated critical dimen. realistic Code of Practice of standards of accuracy sions increases the chance of misfit increases. that can reasonable be achieved for different and thus the critical points in assembly should. forms of structure The designer was then able to be kept to a minimum. include the deviations from this new Code into the 2 Three dimensional tolerance requirements. DD 22 formulae have the effect of increasing the number of crit. The second main difficulty with the application ical dimensions. of DD 22 was that the methods tends to produce a 3 Misunderstandings between designers manu. single size peculiar to each application of a com facturers and constructors occur when the per. ponent For this reason BRE Sefton Jenkins and missible deviations on critical dimensions are. Mak 1963 had produced graphical aids for Man not given or made clear from the drawings or in. ufacturers and Designers whereby a range of specification The use of assembly drawings. sizes rather than a single size are given depend showing cladding components related to the. ing upon the conditions of use of the component structural framework with all ancillary fixing. Bonshor 1972 These graphical aids are based and jointing methods and with their tolerances. on an idea by John Ritter to use computers for clearly stated would reduce this misunder. finding the optimum sizes of components using standing It was estimated that the cost of re. the DD 22 formula The important merit of these medial and rectification work resulting from. aids is that they enable choices and their conse accuracy of assembly lying outside the toler. quences to be seen rather to dictate particular ances of the design was 5 of the cost of build. action ing for the critical activities in the building. As such they offered guidance on suitability process such as cladding. for particular uses and suggested the steps to be At that time there were many ideas for further. taken to achieve satisfactory use study of this problem For example CIB W49 sub. group W6Z Economical Tolerance was formed, to analysis faults arising from inaccuracy and sev. eral congresses were held to study tolerances and,dimensional control Standards were produced. and many learned papers were presented on this,Proceedings IGLC 13 July 2005 Sydney Australia. Alan J Brookes 331, subject As my career progressed first as an Archi ter was sitting the audience at the time of a heavy.
tect and later as a Cladding Consultant it became Singapore rain pour. clear that over and over again both the design The system eventually developed and con. team and the contractor did not communicate to structed by Mero Germany consists of a series of. each other the three dimensional tolerances of nodes and chords with an ingenious net of. critical moments of the assembly e p d m drained gaskets to form the joints. I will now review two projects where I have between the triangular shaped panels All this. recently been involved where the need to allow needed careful prediction of the forces at each. tolerance in the fixings was critical to the perfor node condition could only have been done using. mance of the assembly The first is Singapore Arts CAD prediction methods Even the forming and. Centre D P Architects the second is Federation shaping of the aluminium sunshades was possible. Square Melbourne architect Bates Smart by the use of such techniques. THE SINGAPORE ARTS CENTRE,The Singapore Arts Centre roof was originally. designed as a monolithic shell by Michael,Wilford I worked with Atelier One London to. develop a dynamic form of triangular glass panels,with aluminium sunshades Here we were consul. tants to the client assisting the German subcon,tractor Mero to devise a system capable of. meeting the client s requirements not only for,appearance of the performance requirements for.
weathering and wind loading The concept origi, nally developed by the engineerings office Atelier Figure 7 Mock up of aluminium sunshades and their. One was a sculpted non linear form of the concert fixing to the glazing system. hall and lyric theatres with an articulated surface. using a space frame grid with glazed infill and alu FEDERATION SQUARE MELBOURNE. THEORY amp PRACTICE OF MODULAR COORDINATION Alan J Brookes1 ABSTRACT In this paper Professor Brookes will review the programme of introduction of dimensional coordina tion and modular coordination in UK starting from the Hertfordshire Schools of 1955 He will de scribe the various attempts by government and other bodies to force the mandatory use of dimensional

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