Theology and Biblical Criticism Grace Notes

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Theology and Biblical Criticism 2, Dogmatic theology is that which a particular over for some thirty years until it was taken up. theologian decides about divine matters and popularized by Wellhausen. considered philosophically and rationally in Under the influence of Hegel F C Baur. accordance with the outlook and demands of abandoned the rationalistic effort to find. his own age but biblical theology is concerned timeless truth in the NT and instead found in. solely with what men believed long ago the historical movements in the early Church. Gabler was essentially a rationalist and his the unfolding of wisdom and spirit The. approach to biblical theology prevailed for teachings of Jesus formed the point of. some fifty years Works on the theology of the departure Jesus teachings were not yet. Bible were written by Kaiser 1813 De Wette theology but the expression of his religious. 1813 Baumgarten Crusius 1828 and von consciousness Theological reflection began. C lln 1836 Some scholars of this period were over the question of the law Paul the first. extremely rationalistic finding in the Bible theologian took the position that the Christian. religious ideas that were in accord with the was freed from the law thesis Jewish. universal laws of reason Others tried to Christianity represented particularly by James. reconcile Christian theology with the thought and Peter took the opposite position that the. forms of the modern period While this law was permanently valid and must remain an. rationalistic perspective as such is long since essential element in the Christian Church. pass it is obvious that this historical approach antithesis Baur interpreted the history of. to the study of the Bible is still the fundamental apostolic Christianity in terms of this conflict. assumption of modern scholarship and even between Pauline and Judaistic Christianity Out. Evangelical scholars employ the historical of the conflict emerged in the 2nd cent the Old. method although with limitations Catholic Church which effected a successful. harmonization between these two positions,V Rise of the Philosophy of Religion. Rationalism was superseded under the Baur was less concerned with the truth of the. influence of the idealist philosophy of Hegel d Scriptures than with the effort to trace. 1813 who saw the Absolute Idea or Absolute historical development He has made a lasting. Spirit eternally manifesting itself in the contribution for the principle that biblical. universe and in human affairs Hegel taught theology is rooted in history is sound even. that the movement of human thought followed though Baur s application of this principle is. the dialectic pattern from a position thesis to not Baur s interpretation gave rise to the so. an opposite position antithesis from which called T bingen school which had great. interaction emerged a new insight or aspect of influence in German NT studies. reality synthesis Hegel saw in the history of,VI Conservative Reaction. religion the evolution of spirit in its dialectical. apprehension of the divine from nature These new approaches to the study of the Bible. religions through religions of spiritual naturally met with a strong resistance in. individuality to the Absolute Religion which is orthodox circles not only from those who. Christianity denied the validity of a historical approach but. Under the influence of Hegel Vatke wrote a also from those who tried to combine the. biblical theology in 1835 in which the emerging historical approach with a belief in revelation. critical views about the OT were combined with Influential was E W Hengstenberg s. Hegel s evolutionary philosophy His Christology of the OT Engtr 1829 1835 and. interpretation of the history of Israel s religion History of the Kingdom of God under the OT. was much in advance of his day and was passed Engtr 1869 1871 Hengstenberg saw little. progress in revelation made little distinction,Theology and Biblical Criticism 3. between the two Testaments and interpreted the theologies of F B chsel 1937 A Schlatter. the prophets spiritually with little reference to 1909 and Ethelbert Stauffer 1941 Engtr. history A more historical approach was 1955 Stauffer rejects the systems of doctrine. structured by J C K Hofmann in a series of approach and does not try to trace the. writings beginning in 1841 Verheissung und development of the Christian understanding of. Erf llung in which he attempted to vindicate the person and work of Jesus Rather he. the authority and inspiration of the Bible by presents a Christocentric theology of History. historical means developing his Heilsgeschichte in the NT i e the theology of the plan of. theology Hofmann found in the Bible record of salvation enacted in NT history The book does. the process of holy or saving history which not distinguish between canonical and. aims at the redemption of all mankind This noncanonical writings and ignores the variety. process will not be completed until the of the several interpretations of the meaning of. eschatological consummation He tried to Christ in the NT. assign every book of the Bible to its place in this A new form of the Heilsgeschichte theology has. scheme of the history of redemption This so emerged in recent years for there is a. called Erlangen school including also J A widespread recognition that revelation has. Bengel J T Beck did not regard the Bible occurred in redemptive history and that. primarily as a collection of proof texts or a Heilsgeschichte is the best key to understand. repository of doctrine but as the witness to the unity of the Bible This will be developed. what God had done in saving history They held later. that the propositional statements in Scripture, were not meant to be an end in themselves nor VII Liberal Historicism in NT Theology.
an object of faith but were designed to bear,Bultmann has pointed out that the logical. witness to the redemptive acts of God,consequence of Baur s method would have. The most important product of the been a complete relativism NT Theology II. conservative reaction for this discipline was G 1955 245 for the liberal mind could not. F Oehler s Theologie des AT Prolegomena conceive of absolute truth in the relativities of. 1845 Theologie 1873 Engtr 1883 history Under the influence of Ritschlian. Conservative in his critical views and holding to theology the essence of Christianity was. the revealed character of OT religion Oehler interpreted as a pure spiritual ethical religion. also recognized that OT theology is a historical which was proclaimed by and embodied in the. discipline which must describe the OT faith as a life and mission of Jesus The kingdom of God is. phenomenon in history He criticized the older the highest good the ethical ideal The heart of. view which limited theological exposition to religion is personal fellowship with God as. the didactic contents of the Bible insisting that Father. the discipline must exhibit properly the,This theological interpretation was reinforced. internal connection of the doctrine of,by the solution of the Synoptic problem with its. Revelation with the revealing history p 6,discovery of the priority of Mark and the.
Thus he found the OT to be mediated through a,hypothetical document Q Scholars of this old. series of divine acts and commands and also,liberalism believed that in these most. through the institutions of a divine state A,primitive documents historical science had at. condensation of Oehler s large work was made,last discovered the true Jesus freed from all. by R F Weidner 1896 Other conservative OT,theological interpretation Biblical theologians.
scholars were Baumgarten C A Auberlen and,of this school began with this historical. the commentator Franz Delitzsch,picture of the ethical religion of Jesus and then. The Erlangen school had great influence in traced the diverse systems of doctrine. conservative circles upon such scholars as Lehrbegriffe that emerged as the result of. Tholuck T Zahn P Feine and is represented in,Theology and Biblical Criticism 4. later reflection and speculation The great documentary hypothesis illustrating how. classic of this school is H J Holtzmann s criticism and theology interact upon each other. Lehrbuch der NT Theologie 1896 97 Paul In Wellhausen s reconstruction the religion of. Wernle s The Beginnings of Our Religion Engtr Israel began with Moses not the patriarchs the. 1903 04 is another example Adolf von fundamental law of the Jewish community. Harnack s What Is Christianity Engtr 1901 is belongs to the postexilic community not to. a classic statement of this liberal view Mosaic times eschatology is a late postexilic. This old liberal approach influenced even development in the evolution of Hebrew. conservative writers Both B Weiss Theology religion and the ethical monotheism of the. of the NT 1868 Engtr 1903 and W Beyschlag prophets was the basic force that molded. 1891 Engtr 1895 interpreted Jesus primarily Israel s religion into a significant faith. in spiritual terms placing great emphasis upon Wellhausen s work marks the beginning of the. the centrality of the Fatherhood of God These period that saw the apparent death of OT. men were conservative in that they recognized theology and the victory of the discipline called. the reality of revelation and the validity of the the history of the religion of Israel Even the. canon but their picture of Jesus shared the name theology of the OT was seldom used. features of liberalism They also employed the and when books were written with this title as. systems of doctrine method Weiss going so for instance by B Stade 1905 and Kayser. far as to discover four different periods of 1886 the contents were not theology but a. theological development in Paul which he history of Hebrew religion Treatises on. treated separately This approach is found in Hebrew religion were written by Smend. English in the writings of Orello Cone The 1893 K Marti Engtr 1907 E Kautzsch. Gospel and Its Earliest Interpreters 1893 G B HDB V 612 734 A Loisy Engtr 1910 K. Stevens Theology of the NT 1899 E P Gould Budde 1910 E Koenig 1915 R Kittel Engtr. Biblical Theology of the NT 1900 and A C 1921 G Hoelscher 1922 and M Loehr. Zenos Plastic Age of the Gospel 1927 The Engtr 1936 In English the approach is found. same method is used by even more in the misnamed work of A Duff OT Theology. conservative writers in Germany such as T 1891 and it appears clearly in W O E. Zahn Grundriss der NT Theologie 1932 and P Oesterley and T H Robinson Hebrew Religion. Feine Theologie des NT 1910 Its Origin and Development 1930 A C. Knudson Religious Teaching of the OT 1918,VIII Victory of Religion over Theology. G A Barton Religion of Israel 1919 and in the, Along with liberalism developed the widely used book of H E Fosdick Guide to the.
religionsgeschichtliche Schule In 1883 appeared Understanding of the Bible 1938 see Eichrodt s. Julius Wellhausen s Prolegomena zur Geschichte criticism in JBL 65 1946 205 217 Although. Israels which has been often called the most this approach has now given way before the. important work in OT criticism in the 19th revival in interest in the theology of the Bible it. century Taking over Vatke s historico persists in such works as I G Matthews. philosophical interpretation Wellhausen gave Religious Pilgrimage of Israel 1947 S V. classic expression to the view that the story of McCasland Religion of the Bible 1960 and R. Israel s religion was not to be interpreted in H Pfeiffer Religion in the OT 1961. terms of divine revelation but in terms of The interpretation of the OT as the story of the. evolutionary principles the religious evolution of one Semitic religion naturally led. development of the OT period embodies to a comparison between Hebrew religion and. particular examples of general religious laws other Semitic religions and to the search for. manifesting themselves in history Wellhausen common patterns particularly of ritual. popularized both the idea of evolutionary practice W R Smith in Religion of the Semites. development of OT religion and the 1889 emphasized the common elements. Theology and Biblical Criticism 5, shared by the Hebrews with the neighboring Theology of the OT 1904 reflects the same. religions The interpretation of biblical religion uneasy truce between history and theology. in terms of its religious environment is called Although he states that the proper subject of OT. the religionsgeschichtliche Methode theology is the history of the religion of Israel. This approach still persists in contemporary p 11 he attempts to create a theology out of. scholarship particularly in what is called the the religious beliefs and ideas in the OT and in. myth and ritual school which believes that a effect he has produced a theology of the OT H. common culture pattern at least in the sphere W Robinson wrote a small book on The. of religious belief and practice had been Religious Ideas of the OT 1913 in which he. diffused throughout the ancient Orient and is presented a few simple yet profound ideas. reflected in the OT See S H Hooke Myth and which he found behind the variety of OT. Ritual 1933 The Labyrinth 1935 E O religion and which he set forth with some. James Myth and Ritual in the Ancient Near East indication of their theological value. 1958 S Mowinckel Psalmenstudien 1922 The works of Schultz and Davidson were the. 24 He That Cometh Engtr 1956 traced the last efforts for a generation to attempt to set. Theology and Biblical Criticism 3 between the two Testaments and interpreted the prophets spiritually with little reference to history A more historical approach was structured by J C K Hofmann in a series of writings beginning in 1841 Verheissung und Erf llung in which he attempted to vindicate

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