The World Federation of ADHD

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BOARD OF THE WORLD,FEDERATION OF ADHD,President Secretary General. Prof Luis Rohde Dr Declan Quinn, Federal University of Rio Grando do Sul University of Saskatchewan. Department of Psychiatry Saskatoon Canada,Porto Alegre Brazil. Vice President Prof Manfred Gerlach,Prof Jan Buitelaar University of W rzburg. Radboud University Department of Child and Adolescent. Nijmegen The Netherlands Psychiatry Psychosomatics and. Psychotherapy,Vice President W rzburg Germany,Prof Stephen Faraone.
SUNY Upstate Medical University,Syracuse USA,Luis Augusto Rohde. Jan K Buitelaar,Manfred Gerlach,Stephen V Faraone,Federation of. Copyright 2019 by World Federation of ADHD,All rights reserved. Cover Paola Manica, Graphic design and publishing TIPOS design editorial e fotografia. ARTMED EDITORA LTDA a GRUPO A EDUCA O S A company,Av Jer nimo de Ornelas 670 Santana.
90040 340 Porto Alegre RS,Phone 55 51 3027 7000 Fax 55 51 3027 7070. Rua Doutor Ces rio Mota Jr 63,01221 020 Vila Buarque Sao Paulo SP. Phone 55 11 3221 9033,SAC 0800 703 3444 www grupoa com br. Luis Augusto Rohde ed Professor of Psychiatry Division of Child and Adolescent. Psychiatry Hospital de Cl nicas de Porto Alegre Federal University of Rio Grande do. Sul Brazil, Jan K Buitelaar ed Professor of Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience Radboud University Medical Centre Principal. Investigator at the Donders Institute for Brain Cognition and Behaviour and Head of. Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Centre. Manfred Gerlach ed Associate Professor of Clinical Neurochemistry Department. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy University of. W rzburg Germany, Stephen V Faraone ed Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry SUNY Upstate Me.
dical University Syracuse New York United States of America. David Coghill Financial Markets Foundation Chair of Developmental Mental Health. Department of Paediatrics Faculty of Medicine Dentistry and Health Sciences Univer. sity of Melbourne Australia, Dennis van der Meer Research fellow NORMENT KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis. Research Division of Mental Health and Addiction University Hospital Institute of. Clinical Medicine University of Oslo Oslo Norway, Desiree Silva Professor of Paediatrics University of Western Australia Australia. Francisco R de la Pe a Olvera Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Uni. versidad Nacional Aut noma de M xico Head at Clinical Research Department in the. National Institute of Psychiatry Dr Ram n de la Fuente Mu iz Ciudad de M xico. vi Authors, Jennifer Richards Post doctoral researcher University of Groningen University. Medical Center Groningen Department of Psychiatry Interdisciplinary Center Psycho. pathology and Emotion Regulation ICPE Groningen The Netherlands. Lino Palacios Cruz Associate Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Profes. sor of Faculty of Medicine Universidad Nacional Aut noma de M xico Researcher in. Medical Sciences level D of National Institutes of Health M xico Principal Investigator. PROMETEO ADHD Program Department of Clinical Epidemiology National Insti. tute of Psychiatry Dr Ram n de la Fuente Mu iz Ciudad de M xico M xico. Olayinka Olusola Omigbodun Professor and Head of Psychiatry Director Centre. for Child and Adolescent Mental Health CCAMH College of Medicine University. of Ibadan Consultant in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University College Hospital. Ibadan Nigeria, Philip Asherson Professor of Psychiatry at King s College London United Kingdom. Ryan J Kennedy Clinical Associate Brown Clinic for ADHD and Related Disorders. Manhattan Beach California United States of America. Thomas E Brown Director of Brown Clinic for ADHD and Related Disorders Ma. nhattan Beach California Adjunct Clinical Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Beha. vioral Sciences Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California United. States of America, Tobias Banaschewski Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Medical Di.
rector Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Deputy. Director Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim Germany. Wai Chen Professor of Child Psychiatry University of Western Australia Consultant. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Department of Health Western Australia. Yi Zheng Professor of Psychiatry Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Beijing Anding Hospital Capital Medical University Beijing China. JUNIOR EDITORS, Fausto Campani J lia Stocchero Amaro M rcio Lemos S nego. He Fan Qi Yanjie Huang Huanhuan Qi Junhui Chen Sijian. Luo Jie Yin Shengjian, Adriana Arias Caballero Frinn Galicia Moreno Miriam T Serment Azuara. Maria Rosa Palacios Heredia, Searching the PUBMED or the Web of Science using the words ADHD or. Attention Deficit Disorder your screen will immediately list almost fifty thousand. references If you google ADHD Attention Deficit Disorder book an equally. numerous deluge of titles will be offered instantaneously Thus the first question. is Why another book on ADHD, As part of the current board of the World Federation of ADHD the organizers. of this book thought that our Federation has the unique responsibility to pay spe. cial attention to pediatricians psychiatrists psychologists and other mental health. professionals in Low Middle Income Countries LMIC These colleagues have. little or no access to evidence based information on the disorder So this is not. simply one more book in the ocean of the ADHD literature it is the only book. designed with several features to allow easy access by colleagues in LMIC coun. tries These are as follows, First the book will be open access Professionals from LMICs rarely can afford.
buying books on specific disorders Second it will be an e book Distribution of. hard copy books is too expensive for distributing to the great majority of profes. sionals in LMICs Recent surveys worldwide have shown that over 3 billion people. globally have a smartphone 6 billion will have them by 2020 Smartphones are. more ubiquitous than clean water indoor plumbing and stable electricity Third. we have prepared versions in English Spanish and Chinese which are the three. most commonly spoken languages worldwide allowing us to reach about 25 of. the world s population Here we would like to thank specially our junior colla. borators Adriana Arias Caballero Frinn Galicia Moreno Miriam T Serment. Azuara and Maria Rosa Palacios Heredia from Mexico He Fan Qi Yanjie Huang. Huanhuan Qi Junhui Chen Sijian Luo Jie e Yin Shengjian from China Fausto. Campani Julia Amaro and Marcio S nego from Brazil for their inestimable. viii Preface, Fourth our book focuses on what LMIC professionals need to know about the. essentials for diagnosing and managing ADHD in their daily clinical work For. this reason we decided for a book with 6 chapters translating what is most relevant. when assessing and caring those affected by the disorder and their families while. also including some basic information about epidemiology and risk factors. Fifth this book was designed and written by an international team for an inter. national audience We were very fortunate to have a team of wonderful investiga. tors and clinicians with a long track of experience in different aspects of ADHD. writing these six chapters Our profound gratitude to David Coghill Dennis van. der Meer Desiree Silva Francisco R de la Pe a Olvera Jennifer Richards Lino. Palacios Cruz Olayinka Olusola Omigbodun Philip Asherson Ryan J Kennedy. Thomas E Brown Tobias Banaschewski Wai Chen e Yi Zheng We are proud to. highlight that we had in our team representatives from all continents reinforcing. the worldwide mandate of our Federation and our respect for diversity. This book was only possible based on the partnership with our publisher Artes. M dicas that easily and immediately understood the relevance of this proposal. and efficiently worked to make it possible They are also making available with. reasonable prices both a printed and an e version of the book in Portuguese Our. special thanks to the producing team and more specifically to Claudia Bittencourt. who worked closely with us in this initiative making the process smooth and ef. We are confident that the World Federation ADHD book will be useful clini. cally for a substantial proportion of health care professionals in LMICs dealing. with patients with ADHD Moreover we hope that at the end of the day ADHD. will be more adequately recognized in these countries and that the suffering of. these patients and their families will be mitigated by evidence based interventions. that would be feasible to implement in this context. Luis Augusto Rohde,Jan K Buitelaar,Manfred Gerlach. Stephen V Faraone, UNDERSTANDING THE ESSENTIALS OF THE ETIOLOGY OF ADHD 1. Stephen V Faraone Lino Palacios Cruz Francisco R de la Pe a Olvera. UNDERSTANDING THE ESSENTIALS OF THE ADHD NEUROBIOLOGY 17. Jan K Buitelaar Dennis van der Meer Jennifer Richards. ADHD ASSESSMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN 42, Luis Augusto Rohde David Coghill Philip Asherson Tobias Banaschewski. ESTABLISHING A PSYCHOSOCIAL PLAN TO MANAGE ADHD 63. Thomas E Brown Ryan J Kennedy,ORGANIZING AND DELIVERING TREATMENT FOR ADHD 83.
David Coghill Wai Chen Desiree Silva, TALKING ABOUT ADHD WITH PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES 110. Luis Augusto Rohde Olayinka Olusola Omigbodun Manfred Gerlach Yi Zheng. UNDERSTANDING THE,ESSENTIALS OF THE,ETIOLOGY OF ADHD. Stephen V Faraone,Lino Palacios Cruz,Francisco R de la Pe a Olvera. For decades many scientists have been searching for the etiology of attention defi. cit hyperactivity disorder ADHD This search has been motivated by the belief that. if we can find the causes of the disorder we may be able to improve our unders. tanding of ADHD psychopathology and discover more accurate treatments or even. prevent the onset of this frequently disabling condition We will consider two sour. ces of etiology the DNA variants coded in our genome and shared and non shared. environment factors that impact the developing brain. GENETIC CAUSES OF ADHD,EPIDEMIOLOGY, The first evidence for the heritability of ADHD comes from several studies of. families This work showed that the siblings mothers and fathers of children with. ADHD were at increased risk for the disorder Figure 1 1 shows examples of early. family studies In Figure 1 1A the risk to siblings found by Manshadi and col. leagues1 is especially interesting because the ADHD patients in that study were. adults These studies were the first evidence that ADHD might have a genetic. 2 Rohde Buitelaar Gerlach Faraone, component They also alert clinicians treating ADHD children that many of the.
parents of those children will also have ADHD which could make it difficult for. them to carry out instructions about how to implement medical or psychosocial. treatments for their children, Because disorders can cluster in families due to environmental causes such as. infections or mutual proximity to toxins it is essential to consider adoption and. twin studies when evaluating the possible genetic component to ADHD s etiolo. gy An example is shown in Figure 1 2 It shows that rates of ADHD are greater. among biological relatives of non adopted ADHD children than the adoptive re. latives of adopted ADHD children The risk to adoptive relatives for ADHD was. similar to the risk to relatives of children who did not have ADHD 2 3 This finding. suggests that it is the genetic relationship that mediates the familial transmission. A more powerful method of separating genetic and environmental causes is. the twin Study Twin studies rely on a natural experiment Identical or monozygo. tic MZ twins share nearly their entire DNA In contrast fraternal or dizygotic. DZ twins share on average 50 of their DNA They are not more genetically. similar to one another than ordinary siblings By studying MZ and DZ twins one. can compute the heritability statistic which quantifies the fraction of ADHD s. etiology that can be attributed to DNA variation Here and elsewhere we use the. term DNA variation rather than genes because much of our DNA does not. consist of genes Instead it provides instructions that create special molecules that. regulate how genes are expressed, There have been 37 twin studies of ADHD For a review see Faraone and Lar. sson 4 When considered together the twins studies of ADHD lead to a heritability. estimate of 74 This heritability of ADHD does not differ by sex and is the same. for inattentive and hyperactive impulsive symptoms Twin studies have also been. able to test if ADHD is best described as a categorical disorder or a continuous. trait in the population This work suggests that ADHD is best described as a quan. titative trait that ranges from nonexistent and mild to moderate and severe Under. this model the diagnosis of ADHD is the extreme of a trait that occurs in all indi. viduals As we will discuss later such data have clinical implications for how one. should subthreshold cases of ADHD that are referred to clinical settings. Twin studies have also been used to shed light on the development and per. sistence of ADHD from childhood into adulthood The heritability of clinically. diagnosed ADHD in adults is 72 which is similar to what is found in children 5. As discussed in by Faraone and Larsson 4 the heritability of ADHD is stable during. As part of the current board of the World Federation of ADHD the organizers of this book thought that our Federation has the unique responsibility to pay spe cial attention to pediatricians psychiatrists psychologists and other mental health professionals in Low Middle Income Countries LMIC These colleagues have little or no access to evidence based information on the disorder So

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