The Transformer Engineering

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Transformer Core, The composition of a transformer core depends on voltage current and. frequency Commonly used core materials are air soft iron and steel Each of. these materials is suitable for certain applications Generally air core. transformers are used when the voltage source has a high frequency above 20. kHz Iron core transformers are usually used when the source frequency is low. below 20 kHz, A soft iron core transformer is very useful where the transformer must be. physically small yet efficient The iron core transformer provides better power. transfer than does the air core transformer A transformer whose core is. constructed of laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat readily thus it provides. for the efficient transfer of power, The majority of transformers contain laminated steel cores These steel. laminations are insulated with a nonconducting material such as varnish and. then formed into a core It takes about 40 laminations to make a core of 2 cm. thick The purpose of the laminations is to reduce losses which will be discussed. later in this chapter, The most efficient transformer core is one that offers the best path for the most. lines of flux with the least loss in magnetic and electrical energy. Ideal Transformer Center tapped Transformer,Operation of an Ideal Transformer.
Figure 7 33,Impedance Reflection Across a Transformer. The Maximum Power Transfer Problem in AC Circuits,Figure 7 35. Maximum Power Transfer in an AC Circuit with a Transformer. Figure 7 36, Electric Power Transmission a Direct Power Transmission b. Power Transmission with Transformers,Figure 7 37a, Electric Power Transmission c Equivalent Circuit Seen by. Generator d Equivalent Circuit Seen by Load,Figure 7 37c d.
A Typical Residential Wiring Arrangement,Structure of an AC Power Distribution Network. Example 1 A transformer reduces voltage from 120 volts in the primary. to 6 volts in the secondary If the primary winding has 300 turns and the. secondary has 15 turns find the voltage and turns ratio. Example 2 Example 2 An iron core transformer with a primary voltage. of 240 volts has 250 turns in the primary and 50 turns in the secondary. Find the secondary voltage, Example 3 When operated at 120 V in the primary of an iron core. transformer the current in the primary is 4 A Find the current in the. secondary if the voltage is stepped up to 500 V, Example 4 A transformer with 480 turns on the primary and 60 turns on. the secondary draws 0 6 amps from a 120 V line Find Is. The enclosure which protects the transformer from dirt moisture and mechanical damage 17 Applications of Transformers Transformers have many applications in power transmission and electronics They may be used to minimise energy losses due to voltage drop in transmitting electricity over long distances They match loads with internal resistance so that there is maximum

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