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The SDLC and Six Sigma, THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE SDLC A BRIEF REVIEW. A literature review of history of the Systems Development Life. Cycle SDLC dates back to the mid 1960s While working for the. United States Department of Defense A Enthoven and Henry. Rowan developed a heuristic process for managing large. information systems projects 10 This process developed into a. linear list of stages in project development that could be recycled. as needed Winston Royce introduced the first formal SDLC. model in 1970 14 This model was to become the well known. Waterfall Model also known as the Linear Sequential Model or. Classic Life Cycle All subsequent direct permutations of this. model can be summed as some permutation of the 4Ds Discover. Design Develop and Deliver The early history of this model did. not include the end user to any great extent and cost overruns. were legend Both of these failings can perhaps be understood. given the nature of the hardware and the real lack of financial experience versus the scope of the. projects This was to a large extent the realm of the engineer. In the early 1980s the more flexible,Incremental Model was introduced Linear. sequential processes are applied in a staggered,fashion over a period of time Each sequence. produces a deliverable output or increment of,the project All additional feature features. remain undeveloped until the user reviews and,approves the current build This process is.
repeated until the project is completed Here the,user representative is expressly included in the. review of each sequence which quite often,causes maintenance delays and cost overruns. when the user fails to accept a particular build, If in the end the project proved useful in some degree to the user the project was often. considered a success in spite of cost creep concerns This was to a large extent the realm of the. By the 1990s newer SDLC models began to appear Of particular important was the Spiral Model of. Barry W Boehm 1 7 This model was designed in the first instance to improve risk management and. system survivability This it did by beginning with a limited prototype using polar coordinates which. enabled each build to expand on each coordinate with risk management always a central factor This. model does include the user representative as an input to the success of each cycle it does not provide a. strong vehicle for end user involvement It also is difficult to apply cost time and schedule estimates. across a project portfolio, Volume V No 1 2004 37 Issues in Information Systems. The SDLC and Six Sigma,Boehm with his subsequent Next Generation.
Process Model NGPM addressed some of these,difficulties in 1994 This iteration of the Spiral. Model involved the stakeholders to a much larger,degree and better identified user s needs at the. outset of the project However there remained the,real possibility of conflicts among stakeholders. and by the end of the decade Boehm had,introduced the Win Win Spiral Model This. iteration added activates to each spiral that, expressly identified the stakeholders their win conditions and methods for resolving any.
conflicts At the same time stronger risk management techniques were added The result was an. SDLC which provided a great rate of acceptance and buy in by the stakeholders and much. stronger risk control which led to much stronger financial control But stakeholder should not in. every case be considered synonymous with the end user and the identification methodology for. risk needed clarification This is the realm of the manager. By the turn of the century a new direction for the. SDLC had been introduced in Germany the V,Model 17 19 Currently this model is the. model required in Germany for all military civil, and federal IT projects It is also a guideline for. anyone that works on federal projects The V,Model focuses on project management software. development quality assurance and configuration,management with special attention for better. communication between developer and customer,Cost are expected to be significantly lowered.
though its quality assurance modules The V Model has become internationally accepted and. reflect standards such as ISO IEC 12207 or ISO 9001 A newer model the Project WEIT model. is scheduled for April 2005 to address issues such as scalability change adoption and application. formulation,One addition model with a similar format is the. W Model of the Frauenhofer Institute of,Production Technology 16 This Model. focuses primarily on coding and testing to,achieve more cost effective code under risk. evaluation In the same direction is the Rational,Unified Model and Unified Modeling Language. Prominent developers include Microsoft,Oracle HP IBM and Texas Instruments There.
is ample opportunity for user feedback but the,primary interest remains code and coding. practices This is the realm of the software developer. Volume V No 1 2004 38 Issues in Information Systems. The SDLC and Six Sigma, In this brief historical review of the SDLC from the realm of the engineer to that of the software. developer the end user is seldom totally left out of consideration However one might speak. more of distant concern than of actual methodologies for total end user participation At the. same time it is instructive that major projects have been known to train end users to develop. interfaces Cost concerns can be found in all the realms and have driven a great many changes in. Systems Analysis and Project Management However massive failures are well known. especially in public projects where the public has access to project data On the other hand IT is. not without successes payrolls are excepting in rare instances processed as expected. SIX SIGMA 6, Sigma standard deviation indicates in Six Sigma literature the extent to which a product. deviates from the ideal norm The number six indicate statistically how many failed parts 3 4. defects per million are acceptable This includes manufacturing processes as well as data. processing When someone ferrets out a defective process the correction of which will lead to. better customer satisfaction or an improved delivery process Six Sigma kicks in The core of this. process is labeled DMAIC Define the problem Measure where you stand Analyze the. problem Improve the situation and Control the new process to see that the problem has been. corrected 12, In corporations from General Electric Motorola and Allied Signal Honeywell to Home Depot. and even in military training schools Six Sigma is presented as a challenge for every employee. Every level of the organization is recruited with titles such as in order from the top Executive. Leadership Champion Master Black Belt Black Belt Green Belt and Team Member DMAIC. focuses on improvement and successes can be demonstrated The end user is foremost and cost. improvement at the core of any proposal Six Sigma organizations believe that they can be. creative and rational focus on the big picture and minute details reduce errors and get things. done faster and make customers happy and make a lot of money Six Sigma is an operating. philosophy that is customer focused and strives to drive out waste raise levels of quality and. improve financial performance 15 A user cost combination that has proven itself effective. At the core is the realm of the engineer identify the opportunity for improvement and make the. product better,DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA DFSS, By the turn of the century the analyst was not far behind Six Sigma received a new definition.
a comprehensive and flexible system for achieving sustaining and maximizing business. success Six Sigma is uniquely driven by close understanding of customer needs disciplined use. of facts data and statistical analysis and diligent attention to managing improving and. reinventing business processes 12 Where the initial emphasis was on pin pointing a problem. and improving it with enthusiasm and determination the system was now expanded to include its. design Catch the problem before it happens, Design for Six Sigma DFSS presents it own steps Identify the opportunity for improvement. Define the requirements Develop the concept Optimize the design and Verify it IDDOV is. designed to attack new processes and improvement 8 This includes areas such as tightening. Volume V No 1 2004 39 Issues in Information Systems. The SDLC and Six Sigma, tolerances reducing variations as in a transaction processes and employing robust design. techniques The goal is to generate fewer problems in the first place. In some ways Six Sigma represents several of the Systems Ten Commandments done well. while the SDLC represents all the commandments This is not a negative comment Maintenance. projects have long been a staple of IT project portfolios The history of the SDLC demonstrates. if nothing else that analysts have spent almost half a decade pursing better and more effective. processes To have several parts greatly improved on the one hand is not a negation of the other. It is a contribution the success of which can be taken seriously The end user is extremely. important and cost management mandatory,However one should not confuse better. engineering with better information,systems analysis and design It can be. dangerous to simply transfer engineering,considerations to Information Technology.
IT portfolio management One might as,an example consider outcomes when. formal Project Management tools are,simply transferred to an IT problem. without careful consideration The, diagram on the left shows how a Pareto Diagram might be used to resolve a problem with a. system that is not performing well The problem of inaccurate reports is marginally recognized. the company should focus on making it easier to log in to the system to improve quality since. the majority of the complaints fall under that category The company should also address why. the system locks up Because the Figure shows that the problem of inaccurate reports is barely. mentioned the project manager should investigate who made this complaint before spending a. lot of time on addressing that potentially critical problem with the system 15. The presentation then moves to a recreation,of this same scenario with a Fishbone. diagram The incorrect management reports,are not included For an information system.
professional an incorrect management,report is not a matter of who made the. complaint Rather it is one of corporate,information management and of central. concern for any IT project If the reports are,not accurate a better engineered system will. not improve business practices If the,inaccurate reports are corrected the level of. engineering can be ascertained to improve, performance There is a difference for an information system professional.
Volume V No 1 2004 40 Issues in Information Systems. The SDLC and Six Sigma, The SDLC itself could indeed use some converts and enthusiasm for identifying and executing. projects that make an impact on the corporation The necessity for top down leadership has. always been noted identify the primary user end user concerns have been constantly increased. you can complete the best project in the world but if the end user doesn t use it you have. nothing and cost estimation and management have been emphasized IT students are instructed. in financial principles However Six Sigma as a subset of the SDLC forces one to look at these. areas with renewed interest If Six Sigma teaches nothing else it is that IT scholarship needs to. continue to examine the SDLC and that analysts need to keep a focus on all aspects of the SDLC. or new religions will continue to find anchor,BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1 Boehm B W Egyed A Kwan J Port D Shah A Madachy R J Using the WinWin. Spiral Model A Case Study IEEE Computer 31 7 1998 33 44. 2 Boehm B W Elwell J F Pyster A B Stuckle E D Williams R D The TRW. Software Productivity System Proceedings 6th International Conference on Software. Engineering 1982 148 156, 3 Boehm B W Egyed A Kwan J Port D Shah A Madachy R J Using the WinWin. Spiral Model A Case Study IEEE Computer 31 7 1998 33 44. 4 Boehm B W Bose P A Collaborative Spiral Software Process Model Based on Theory. W Proceedings 3rd International Conference on the Software Process Applying the. Software Process 1994, 5 Boehm Barry W and Rony Ross Theory W Software Project Management Principals and. Examples IEE Transactions on Software Engineering 15 7 1989 902 916. 6 Boehm B W Egyed A Kwan J Port D Shah A Madachy R J Using Developing. Multimedia Applications with the WinWin Spiral Model Proceedings ESEC FSE. 7 Boehm Barry W Guidelines for Verifying and Validation Software Requirements and. Design Specifications 1979, http www informatik uni bremen de uniform gdpa def def v V MODEL htm.
8 Chowdhury Subir Design for Six Sigma The Revolutionary Process for Achieving. Extraordinary Profits Trade Publishing 2002, 9 The Federal Government Co ordination and Advisory Agency for IT in the Federal. Administration KBSt Das V Modell Chance zum maschinellen Workflow. Management 2003, http www kbst bund de Themen und Projekte 232 V Modell htm. 10 Gross Paul F Systems Analysis and Design for Management 1976. 11 Harry Mikel and Richard Schroeder Six Sigma The Breakthrough Management Strategy. Revolutionizing the World s Top Corporations New York Doubleday 20. THE SDLC AND SIX SIGMA AN ESSAY ON WHICH IS WHICH AND WHY Dr Roy A Boggs Florida Gulf Coast University rboggs fgcu edu ABSTRACT The Systems Development Life Cycle SDLC has been in existence for almost half a century while Six Sigma has only recently appeared in IT literature Given all of the areas of concern

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