The Past And Future Impacts Of Health Medical Informatics

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MEDICAL SCIENCES Vol I The Past and Future Impacts of Health Medical Informatics on Healthcare Delivery Denis J. In addition a person s state of health is the result of the complex interaction between. their unique genetics brain environment and habits For example while some. individuals may be able to carry on fairly normal activities despite severe loss of 80. percent of their pulmonary capacity others may be disabled by minor arthritis Careful. reproduction of a healthcare process that results in a good outcome for the first will not. help the second Managing to a good outcome requires adaptation and matching of the. process to the individual and it may not be possible to find a gold standard for a process. that guarantees good outcomes for individuals, Humans are biological creatures and biological systems are inherently variable Every. individual has its own copy of genetic material material that mutates and evolves. randomly Because of the variability the number of formulas and data points required to. document each instantiation of a biological system increases several fold As a result. the number of conditions that need to be handled by uniform data standards is much. greater than that required by standards for simpler physical production or materials. handling systems however large or geographically widespread they may be. Healthcare services are not only unique in their variety and range of services and. products they are typically not chosen by the customer but by someone acting on. their behalf usually a doctor who is increasingly influenced by the payer and or. government In most industries the market is driven by the customer but not always is. that the case in healthcare, Health industry requirements are also exceptionally demanding in a number of areas. Most notable are the implications of violations of personal privacy whilst involving all. those who need to know dual responsibility for personal and public health the. complexity and expansion of the knowledge base and terminology the high risk to the. providers livelihood combined with pressures to make critical decisions continuously. and rapidly and poorly defined outcomes all of this in the context as Forget put it of a. guild system of responsibility accountability and power The health care industry also. has to support personal and moral values which in itself are very complex The. judgments taken about personal attitudes to risk and potential benefit on interventions. are all driven by our unique physical and mental make up and local context And our. values change over time, Physicians practice in a state of incomplete information much of the time according to. Dr Marc Overhage an American physician and many others In their opinion they. often do not apply best evidence to their decision making at the point of care It is little. wonder since medical information doubles almost every five years and new knowledge. often makes established treatments obsolete There are over 22 000 new journal articles. per year at least 30 new drugs per year and more than 6 000 combinations of drug. compatibilities to consider The number of drugs has grown 500 in just the last decade. to over 17 000 trade and generic names for pharmaceuticals marketed in North America. alone The information flood long working hours and a busy schedule make it. increasingly difficult for clinicians to keep up with and incorporate current knowledge. Healthcare services are perhaps the most complex large scale business of any country s. economy More variability and uncertainty at the point of service as to causality. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS, MEDICAL SCIENCES Vol I The Past and Future Impacts of Health Medical Informatics on Healthcare Delivery Denis J. processes and to the outcome of that investment exists in healthcare than in any other. sector With such variability and uncertainty in the healthcare business it is not. surprising that identifying and measuring let alone valuing a financial return on. investment ROI from computers in healthcare presents special challenges. The difficulties in measuring the computer s value contributions are that. many infrastructure investments cannot be cost justified on a return on. investment ROI basis, new systems are often implemented to change difficult to measure actions.
strategic systems usually elude measurement, many of the investments do not take account of prior costs. efficiency doing things right is easier to measure than effectiveness doing the. right things, since effectiveness doing the right things and innovation doing new things. can not be readily quantified in terms of traditional outputs improvements are. not usually reflected in economic efficiency statistics. Computers are purchased for use in healthcare primarily to capture and manipulate data. for improved decision making both clinically and administratively As Bend and. others have pointed out part of the value of computer technology investments derives. from improvements in the effectiveness of the clinical decision making process That is. an electronic record system should enable physicians and nurses to make better quicker. decisions through mechanisms such as on line access to evidence based results for. designated disease conditions assistance in placing orders detecting a drug drug. interaction before the order for a medication is actually placed and receiving an alert. electronically after a significantly abnormal test result Increasing the effectiveness of. the clinical decision making process should also lead to higher efficiency of that process. fewer errors should be made and fewer resources should be consumed. The impact of information technology IT on patient care can be quite substantial. Some of the potential benefits include, Improved communication between providers and between providers and. patients In many countries the flow of information has grown exponentially. In a number of countries the implementation of IT among various professions. has created momentum for working in teams The electronic health record. EHR has been a catalyst for accelerating this key element of health care. innovation widely supported at the policy level throughout the world. Patient empowerment Increasingly people have access to their EHR They can. review information such as laboratory results and prescriptions to improve self. care particularly important for chronic disease management They can see. which providers have viewed their records which allows them to monitor. Improved adherence to preventive measures The literature suggests that. electronically generated reminders for screening and follow up increases. adherence by 10 to 15,Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS. MEDICAL SCIENCES Vol I The Past and Future Impacts of Health Medical Informatics on Healthcare Delivery Denis J. Improved delivery of recommended care for various conditions The Vanguard. group in Boston delivered recommended care about 60 of the time in a. baseline study It improved to over 90 by combining team based practice with. Nation wide implementation of the EHR in the USA including e prescribing. with decision support tools built in could reduce adverse drug events by 2. million annually preventing 190 000 hospitalizations. According to the literature introducing IT into the ICU reduces ICU mortality. by 46 to 68 complications by 44 to 50 and overall hospital mortality by. A major touted benefit of the EHR is chronic disease management CDM. Some believe the benefits have already been demonstrated and there is. consensus that the EHR is a necessary but perhaps not sufficient tool to. improve CDM, The number of case studies of the overall impact of IT is growing not only from a.
clinical perspective but also from a managerial point of view Space does not permit a. full discussion of the impact that data warehousing and business intelligence emerging. technologies such as RFID management information systems and expert systems are. having Hence a few examples have been chosen to describe the impact that health. informatics and medical informatics is having on health care delivery. TO ACCESS ALL THE 15 PAGES OF THIS CHAPTER, Visit http www eolss net Eolss sampleAllChapter aspx. Bibliography, Aylin P Tanna S Bottle A Jarman B 2004 How Often Are Adverse Events Reported In English. Hospital Statistics BMJ 329 369 14 A review of the status of incident reporting around adverse events. in England, Bend J 2004 In Pursuit of the Elusive Public Value of E Health Institute for Public Policy Research. London A an assessment that the benefit of information technology in health care in England has not. been proven, Bolch E 2004 America s Health Care System in Crisis The Case for Telemedicine Caring 23 7 pp. 6 11 An argument to increase investments in telemedicine. Della Mea V 2001 What is e Health 2 The Death of Telemedicine Journal of Medical Internet. Research 3 2 e22 Apr Jun 2001 URL http www jmir org 2001 2 e22 An argument that. telemedicine should cease being treated as a separate field. Halamandaris V 2004 Telemedicine Revolution Makes the Home the Center of Health Care Caring. 23 7 52 5 A case study of successful application of telemedicine in home care. Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America 2001 Crossing the Quality. Chasm A New Health System for the 21st Century Washington DC National Academy Press Seminal. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS, MEDICAL SCIENCES Vol I The Past and Future Impacts of Health Medical Informatics on Healthcare Delivery Denis J.
work on the impact of medical errors and the need to introduce information technology more widely. Johansen I 2006 What Makes a High Performance Health Care System and How Do We Get There. Commonwealth Fund International Symposium Washington A testimony to Denmark s success in the. use of health information technology, Kvedar J 2005 Telethinking Telemedicine and e Health 11 1 pp 6 11 Arguing the need to use. telemedicine to enhance care in the home and reduce the impact on hospitals. Middleton B 2004 The Value of Healthcare Information Exchange and Interoperability Chairman. Center for IT Leadership Harvard Medical School Boston MA Making a case for standards in health. informatics, Overhage JM Middleton B Miller RA Zielstorff R Hersh WR 2002 Does National Regulatory. Mandate of Provider Order Entry Portend Greater Benefit Than Risk for Health Care Delivery Journal of. the American Medical Informatics Association Volume 9 Number 3 An exposition of the issues and. challenges surrounding CPOE, Protti DJ Graham S 2003 More Lessons To Be Learned About Primary Care Computing From Another. Small Nation Electronic Healthcare Vol 2 No 3 p 27 35 A description of the success New Zealand. has achieved with the use computers by primary care physicians. Protti DJ Wright G Treweek S 2006 Primary care computing in England and Scotland a comparison. with Denmark Informatics in Primary Care 14 93 99 An analysis of how the countries compare in the. degree to which their GPs are automated, Protti DJ and Smit C 2006 The Netherlands Another European Country where GP s have been using. electronic medical records for over twenty years Healthcare Information Management. Communications Canada Vol 20 No 3 An assessment of the progress that the Dutch have made in. primary care computing, Tamblyn R Huang A Perreault R Jacques A Roy D Hanley J McLeod R Laprise R 2003 The.
medical office of the 21st century effectiveness of computerized decision making support in reducing. inappropriate prescribing in primary care CMAJ 169 6 A case study within a Quebec health care. organization,Biographical Sketch, Denis Protti was the founding Director of the University of Victoria s School of Health Information. Science in 1981 a position he relinquished in 1994 His research and areas of expertise include National. Health Information Management Technology Strategies Electronic Health Records Primary Care. Computing and Evaluating Clinical Information Systems Professor Protti has written hundreds of. publications in books and journals and has given even more presentations to a wide range of audiences. around the world He is on the advisory board of a number of overseas academic programs in Health. Informatics He regularly advises and sits on expert panels for health care organizations and government. agencies in both Canada and abroad In 1998 Professor Protti was commissioned by the Her Majesty s. Treasury to review the proposed National Health Service NHS Information Strategy for England prior to. its release He later developed the evaluation methodology that was used to monitor the local. implementation of their national strategy a process referred to as the Protti scores Since then he has. been invited annually by the Government and a variety of English organizations to conduct on site. reviews give seminars and comment on their progress with the Electronic Health Records journey In. 2006 he was appointed chair of the Informing Healthcare s International Advisory Group for NHS. Wales and visiting professor and chair of Health Informatics at City University London. MEDICAL SCIENCES Vol I The Past and Future Impacts of Health Medical Informatics on Healthcare Delivery Denis J Protti Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS In addition a person s state of health is the result of the complex interaction between their unique genetics brain environment and habits For example while some individuals may be able to carry on fairly normal

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