The Morals of the Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli

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for generosity he will have to load his people with exorbitant taxes Notes Page 2. and squeeze money out of them in every way he can This is the first. step in making him odious to his subjects for when he is poor nobody. will respect him Then when his generosity has angered many and. brought rewards to a few the slightest difficulty will trouble him and. at the first approach of danger down he goes If by chance he. foresees this and tries to change his ways he will immediately be. labeled a miser, Since a prince cannot use this virtue of liberality in such a way as to. become known for it unless he harms his own security he won t mind. if he judges prudently of things being known as a miser In due course. he will be thought the more liberal man when people see that his. parsimony enables him to live on his income to defend himself. against his enemies and to undertake major projects without. burdening his people with taxes Thus he will be acting liberally. toward all those people from whom he takes nothing and there are. an immense number of them and in a stingy way toward those. people on whom he bestows nothing and they are very few In our. times we have seen great things being accomplished only by men who 3 The speaker says that a prince must be shrewd. have had the name of misers all the others have gone under Pope enough to avoid the public disgrace of those vices. Julius II though he used his reputation as a generous man to gain the that would lose him his estate Explain an. papacy sacrificed it in order to be able to make war the present king underlying assumption behind that statement. of France has waged many wars without levying a single extra tax on. his people simply because he could take care of the extra expenses. out of the savings from his long parsimony If the present king of. Spain had a reputation for generosity he would never have been able. to undertake so many campaigns or win so many of them. 5 Hence a prince who prefers not to rob his subjects who wants to. be able to defend himself who wants to avoid poverty and contempt. and who doesn t want to become a plunderer should not mind in the. least if people consider him a miser this is simply one of the vices. that enables him to reign Someone may object that Caesar used a. reputation for generosity to become emperor and many other people. have also risen in the world because they were generous or were. supposed to be so Well I answer either you are a prince already or. you are in the process of becoming one in the first case this. reputation for generosity is harmful to you in the second case it is 4 Identify the appeal to logos in paragraph 4. very necessary Caesar was one of those who wanted to become ruler. in Rome but after he had reached his goal if he had lived and had. not cut down his expenses he would have ruined the empire itself. Someone may say there have been plenty of princes very successful. in warfare who have had a reputation for generosity But I answer. either the prince is spending his own money and that of his subjects. or he is spending someone else s In the first case he ought to be. sparing in the second case he ought to spend money like water Any. prince at the head of his army which lives on loot extortion and. plunder disposes of other people s property and is bound to be very. generous otherwise his soldiers would desert him You can always. be a more generous giver when what you give is not yours or your. subjects Cyrus Caesar and Alexander were generous in this way. Spending what belongs to other people does no harm to your. reputation rather it enhances it only spending your own substance. harms you And there is nothing that wears out faster than. generosity even as you practice it you lose the means of practicing it. and you become either poor and contemptible or in the course of. escaping poverty rapacious and hateful The thing above all against. which a prince must protect himself is being contemptible and hateful Notes Page 3. generosity leads to both Thus it s much wiser to put up with the. reputation of being a miser which brings you shame without hate. than to be forced just because you want to appear generous into a. reputation for rapacity which brings shame on you and hate along. ON CRUELTY AND CLEMENCY WHETHER IT IS BETTER TO BE LOVED. Continuing now with our list of qualities let me say that every prince. should prefer to be considered merciful rather than cruel yet he. should be careful not to mismanage this clemency of his People. thought Cesare Borgia was cruel but that cruelty of his reorganized. the Romagna united it and established it in peace and loyalty. Anyone who views the mater realistically will see that this prince was. much more merciful than the people of Florence who to avoid the. reputation of cruelty allowed Pistoia to be destroyed Thus no prince. should mind being called cruel for what he does to keep his subjects. united and loyal he may make examples of a very few but he will be. more merciful in reality than those who in their tenderheartedness 5 Explain the effect of the series of words loot. allow disorders to occur with their attendant murders and lootings extortion and plunder in paragraph 5. Such turbulence brings harm to an entire community while the. executions ordered by a prince affect only one individual at a time A. new prince above all others cannot possibly avoid a name for cruelty. since new states are always in danger And Virgil speaking through. the mouth of Dido says,My cruel fate,And doubts attending an unsettled state. Force me to guard my coast from foreign foes, Yet a prince should be slow to believe rumors and to commit himself. to action on the basis of them He should not be afraid of his own. thoughts he ought to proceed cautiously moderating his conduct. with prudence and humanity allowing neither overconfidence to. make him careless nor overtimidity to make him intolerable. Here the question arises is it better to be loved than feared or vice. versa I don t doubt that every prince would like to be both but since. it is hard to accommodate these qualities if you have to make a. choice to be feared is much safer than to be loved For it is a good. general rule about men that they are ungrateful fickle liars and. deceivers fearful of danger and greedy for gain While you serve their. welfare they are all yours offering their blood their belongings their. lives and their children s lives as we noted above so long as the. danger is remote But when the danger is close at hand they turn. against you Then any prince who has relied on their words and has. made no other preparations will come to grief because friendships. that are bought at a price and not with greatness and nobility of soul. may be paid for but they are not acquired and they cannot be used in. time of need People are less concerned with offending a man who. makes himself loved than one who makes himself feared the reason is. that love is a link of obligation which men because they are rotten. will break any time they think doing so serves their advantage but. fear involves dread of punishment from which they can never escape. Still a prince should make himself feared in such a way that even if he. gets no love he gets no hate either because it is perfectly possible to. be feared and not hated and this will be the result if only the prince Notes Page 4. will keep his hands off the property of his subjects and citizens and off. their women When he does have to shed blood he should be sure to. have a strong justification and manifest cause but above all he should. not confiscate people s property because men are quicker to forget. the death of a father than the loss of a patrimony Besides pretexts. for confiscation are always plentiful it never fails that a prince who. starts living by plunder can find reasons to rob someone else Excuses. for proceeding against someone s life are much rarer and more quickly. But a prince at the head of his armies and commanding a multitude of. soldiers should not care a bit if he is considered cruel without such a. reputation he could never hold his army together and ready for action. Among the marvelous deeds of Hannibal this was prime that having. an immense army which included men of many different races and. nations and which he led to battle in distant countries he never. allowed them to fight among themselves or to rise against him. whether his fortune was good or bad The reason for this could only. be his inhuman cruelty which along with his countless other talents 6 Identify and explain an assumption underlying the. made him an object of awe and terror to his soldiers and without the speaker s position in paragraph 7 and 8. cruelty his other qualities would never have sufficed The historians. who pass snap judgments on these matters admire his. accomplishments and at the same time condemn the cruelty which. was their main cause, 10 When I say His other qualities would never have sufficed we. can see that this is true from the example of Scipio an outstanding. man not only among those of his own time but in all recorded history. yet his armies revolted in Spain for no other reason than his excessive. leniency in allowing his soldiers more freedom than military discipline. permits Fabius Maximus rebuked him in the senate for this failing. calling him the corrupter of the Roman armies When a lieutenant of. Scipio s plundered the Locrians he took no action in behalf of the. people and did nothing to discipline that insolent lieutenant again. this was the result of his easygoing nature Indeed when someone in. the senate wanted to excuse him on this occasion he said there are. many men who knew better how to avoid error themselves than how. to correct error in others Such a soft temper would in time have. tarnished the fame and glory of Scipio had he brought it to the office. of the emperor but as he lived under the control of the senate this. harmful quality of his not only remained hidden but was considered. creditable, Returning to the question of being feared or loved I conclude that.
since men love at their own inclination but can be made to fear at the. inclination of the prince a shrewd prince will lay his foundations on. what is under his own control not on what is controlled by others He. should simply take pains not to be hated as I said. THE WAY PRINCES SHOULD KEEP THEIR WORD, How praiseworthy it is for a prince to keep his word and live with. integrity rather than by craftiness everyone understands yet we see. from recent experience that those princes have accomplished most. who paid little heed to keeping their promises but who knew how. craftily to manipulate the minds of men In the end they won out. over those who tried to act honestly, You should consider then that there are two ways of fighting one Notes Page 5. with laws and the other with force The first is properly a human. method the second belongs to beasts But as the first method does. not always suffice you sometimes have to turn to the second Thus a. prince must know how to make good use of both the beast and the. man Ancient writers made subtle note of this fact when they wrote. that Achilles and many other princes of antiquity were sent to be. reared by Chiron the Centaur who trained them in his discipline. Having a teacher who is half man and half beast can only meant that a. prince must know how to use both these two natures and that one. without the other has no lasting effect, Since a prince must know how to use the character of beasts he. should pick for imitation the fox and the lion As the lion cannot. protect himself from traps and the fox cannot defend himself from. wolves you have to be a fox in order to be wary of traps and a lion to. overawe the wolves Those who try to live by the lion alone are badly. mistaken Thus a prudent prince cannot and should not keep his word. when to do so would go against his interest or when the reasons that. made him pledge it no longer apply Doubtless if all men were good 7 Identify several contrasts the speaker presents in. this rule would be bad but since they are a sad lot and keep no faith the last section paragraphs 12 17. with you you in your turn are under no obligation to keep it with. 15 Besides a prince will never lack for legitimate excuses to explain. away his breaches of faith Modern history will furnish innumerable. examples of this behavior showing how many treaties and promises. have been made null and void by the faithlessness of princes and how. the man succeeded best who knew best how to play the fox But it is. a necessary part of this nature that you must conceal it carefully you. must be a great liar and hypocrite Men are so simple of mind and so. much dominated by their immediate needs that a deceitful man will. always find plenty who are ready to be deceived One of many recent. examples calls for mention Alexander VI never did anything else. never had another thought except to deceive men and he always. found fresh material to work on Never was there a man more. convincing in his assertions who sealed his promises with more. solemn oaths and who observed them less Yet his deceptions were. always successful because he knew exactly how to manage this sort of. In actual fact a prince may not have all the admirable qualities we. The Morals of the Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli good all the time is bound to come to ruin among the great number all the others have gone under

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