The Measurement of Creativity From Definitional Consensus

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DEFINITION Hargreaves 1927 The grounding of the scientific. investigation of creativity in the individual ability differ. There have been recent integrative efforts to describe ences field led to the construct being considered a predo. and delineate the field of creativity research Batey minantly intellectual trait Notable studies include the. Furnham 2006 Plucker Beghetto Dow 2004 With work of Terman and his associates e g Terman. regard to definitions many researchers have adopted the Oden 1947 1959 Guilford e g 1950 and Torrance. new and useful definition of creativity Mumford 1974 Further the intellectual trait background of. 2003 which suggests that a creative product is that creativity research may have deflected focus from other. which is deemed to be novel or original and useful or important individual differences traits such as person. adaptive Another area of agreement has involved the ality motivation values and interests A recent review. concept that creativity may refer to a person or per has examined the relationships between creativity intel. sons processes products and also the environmental ligence and personality Batey Furnham 2006. press Rhodes 1961 1987 However it is important The development of the domain of psychology has. to consider how the term creativity has come to be also influenced how creativity is assessed As intimated. understood and defined the earliest psychological studies of creativity focused. Downloaded by The University of Manchester Library at 07 07 22 June 2012. The historical background of the term creativity has a upon intellectual factors Following this trend research. significant bearing on attempts to define the construct ers began to assess creativity from the perspective of per. The most significant issues that underpin creativity defi sonality a good example being the meta analysis of. nitions concern Western versus Eastern perspectives Feist 1998 Interest in cognitive psychology led to. and creativity as divine intervention Creativity as the investigations of the creative problem solving process. original product of an individual is a predominantly e g Finke Ward Smith 1992 Newell Shaw. Western perspective The earliest perceptions of creativ Simon 1964 There has also been considerable interest. ity were dominated by the story of the creation in Gen in the situational factors that promote or inhibit creativ. esis From here the concept of creation as originality ity e g Amabile 1996 Shalley Gilson 2004 Cur. and utility arose and influenced subsequent interpreta rently studies of the neurobiology and function of. tions of the properties of creative products This con creatives and creative thinking have been undertaken. trasts with an Eastern view of creativity as the e g Folley Park 2005 Jung et al 2010 Martindale. expression of personal truth or as self growth Lubart 1999 The final frontier for creativity research lies in. 1999 The paradigmatic approach that has dominated efforts to first evaluate and then integrate this diverse. creativity research has almost exclusively adopted this research For this reason confluence or syndrome. Western perspective of creativity as novelty and utility approaches to creativity have been proposed e g. The earliest though predominantly Western concep Mumford Gustafson 1988 Woodman Schoenfeldt. tions of creativity drew on mystical interpretations 1989 Further to integrate conceptually or empirically. Sternberg Lubart 1999 Many ancient Greeks the diverse research on creativity a framework needs to. believed that inspiration and creation resulted from div devised. ine intervention From this perspective creativity was How creativity is defined is crucial to how the con. associated with mystical powers of protection and struct is studied yet what creativity is and what it is. good fortune Albert Runco 1999 p 18 The not hangs as the mythical albatross around the neck. consequence for the concept of creativity was that it of scientific research on creativity Prentky. was considered beyond measurement and comprehen 2000 2001 p 97 As a psychological concept creativity. sion a legacy that arguably remains today has resisted unequivocal definition or clear operationa. In time the Greeks began to reduce the emphasis of lisztion Parkhurst 1999 Plucker et al 2004 Runco. divine intervention by the highest gods instead con 2004 Most researchers agree that creativity may be. sidering creativity to be related to each individual s defined with regard to the terms new and useful. daimon or guardian spirit By the time of Aristotle crea Mumford 2003 Table 1 lists some examples of the. tivity was seen as a natural event that conformed to new and useful approach to defining creativity How. natural law even if it did involve an association with ever recent research has indicated that in many cases. madness and frenzied inspiration Albert Runco peer reviewed creativity studies do not provide a defi. 1999 p 15 Little by little creative acts became associa nition of the construct Plucker et al 2004. ted with the abilities and dispositions of the person As Alongside the growing consensus behind the new and. creativity became associated with individuals so useful definition of creativity there is also concurrence. researchers like Galton began investigations of Heredity regarding the areas to which definitions have been. Genius Galton 1869 1962 and the London school or attributed Rhodes 1961 1987 suggested that defini. differential movement sought to elucidate the most basic tions relate to four areas the person s who creates. component of creative thought production fluency the cognitive processes involved in the creation of ideas. MEASUREMENT OF CREATIVITY 57,Selected Definitions of Creativity. Plucker Beghetto and Dow Creativity is the interaction among aptitude process and environment by which an individual or group produces a. 2004 p 90 perceptible product that is both novel and useful as defined within a social context. Mumford 2003 p 110 Over the course of the last decade however we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves. the production of novel useful products, Sternberg and Lubart Creativity is the ability to produce work that is both novel i e original unexpected and appropriate i e useful. 1999 p 3 adaptive concerning task constraints, Simonton 1999 pp 5 6 creativity must entail the following two separate components First a creative idea or product must be. original However to provide a meaningful criterion originality must be defined with respect to a particular. sociocultural group What may be original with respect to one culture may be old news to the members of some. other culture Second the original idea or product must prove adaptive in some sense The exact nature of this. criterion depends on the type of creativity being displayed. Feist 1998 p 290 Creative thought or behaviour must be both novel original and useful adaptive. Ochse 1990 p 2 Bringing something into being that is Original new unusual novel unexpected and also Valuable useful good. adaptive appropriate, Barron 1955 p 553 if a response is to be called original it must be to some extent adaptive to reality. Downloaded by The University of Manchester Library at 07 07 22 June 2012. the press or environmental influences and lastly the In addition the 4Ps approach indicates that assess. product that results from creative activity This 4Ps ments of creativity may be broad incorporating not. approach appears to have gained relatively wide consen only an assessment of product but also the characteris. sus Runco 2004 How researchers interpret the new tics of the person the press and the processes required. and useful definition of creativity will determine how for creativity Therefore it may be hypothesised that. they assess the construct For example if usefulness is these different approaches have led to multicomponen. taken to mean utility for society as a whole then how tial models and thus measures of creativity whereby. creativity is measured and what populations may be the person process product and press are considered. sampled is very different from the researcher who sees in addition to the importance of social appraisal. usefulness as relating only to the experiment or study In summary it has been suggested that the concep. at hand Those researchers who emphasize the impor tion of creativity as new and useful and the 4Ps approach. tance of social appraisal or ecologically valid appraisals already influences how researchers define and measure. of the novelty and utility of a creative person or product the construct It may be argued that it is now time for. will be inclined to measure the construct using raters or these concepts to be drawn together into a systematic. judges model,Those who emphasize a person centered view of.
creativity will probably assess creativity with reference. to trait attributes like intelligence or personality e g PREVIOUS APPROACHES TO THE. Eysenck 1993 Guilford 1950 Those who emphasize ASSESSMENT OF CREATIVITY. a process centered view will probably assess creativity. with reference to problem solving e g Finke et al In the same way that it may be contended that the his. 1992 Mednick 1962 Those who emphasize the role torical background to the understanding of creativity. of the environment will focus on the climate for creativ impacts upon the way it is measured so too may the. ity Amabile 1996 Dul Ceylan 2011 However the research background In addition a number of different. dominant definition of the moment is the new and useful creativity researchers have attempted to taxonomize the. product oriented approach Over the course of the last ways in which creativity may be assessed Therefore a. decade however we seem to have reached a general few early monumental creativity research efforts are. agreement that creativity involves the production of briefly introduced here before a consideration of differ. novel useful products Mumford 2003 p 107 1 This ent taxonomies of creativity measurement. indicates that advocates of this approach will look to. define creativity in terms of the outputs or products of. an individual Then by proxy the person who produced Galton Terman and Hargreaves. the novel and useful product will be deemed creative Francis Galton conducted early historiometric analyses. of eminence genius and productive creators In his, 1 book Hereditary Genius 1869 1962 Galton sought to. Unfortunately many of the tests or assessments of creativity do. not assess creative potential using novelty and utility as criteria e g. examine the extent to which eminence or genius could. Remote Associates Test Mednick Mednick 1967 and the be passed down through the generations Genius. Barron Welsh Art Scale Welsh Barron 1963 was assessed with reference to rated social achievement. based upon surveys of biographical dictionaries The spective Trait measures of creativity are those for which. significant legacy of Galton s research was the use of rat the distribution of scores conforms to the normal distri. ings of creativity from archival sources Another impor bution Therefore DT tests intelligence tests person. tant research stream was the Genetic Studies of Genius ality inventories and creativity specific self report. conducted by Lewis Terman and associates at Stanford measures would be included on the basis that when. University e g Terman Oden 1959 In a study administered to a cohort the scores obtained tend to. initiated in the 1920s some 1 600 high IQ schoolchil follow a normal distribution He further subdivided trait. dren taken from a sample of a quarter of a million were creativity measures into cognitive variables e g intelli. followed to examine the relationship between intellect gence knowledge technical skills etc environmental. and real world achievement The legacy of the approach variables e g cultural factors socioeconomic factors. taken by the Terman group is that objective measures of educational factors etc and last personality variables. traits can be applied to rated achievement Although the internal motivation confidence non conformity etc. investigations of Galton and Terman and colleagues had Each of these normally distributed trait measures are. operationalized creativity in terms of ratings of social postulated to synergistically interact to produce achieve. achievements other researchers have approached ment creativity which is not normally distributed. Downloaded by The University of Manchester Library at 07 07 22 June 2012. the problem of creativity measurement through the use Rather achievement creativity has been demonstrated. of objective tests Following on from the work of to follow a Poissonian J shaped distribution e g. Spearman 1904 Hargreaves 1927 in his studies of Lotka 1926 Moles 1958 1968 Price 1963 Mumford. The Faculty of Imagination was able to isolate a factor and Gustafson 1988 indicated that achievement mea. of intelligence that corresponded with fluent ideational sures may be based upon three different criteria first. production but was independent of g or general intelli overt production criteria such as number of patents. gence The tests used to identify this f or fluency factor awarded second professional recognition criteria such. called for multiple responses to objects seen in an as prizes awarded for achievement in a domain last. inkblot completions to an incomplete picture or the social recognition criteria that would normally involve. production of long lists of words The legacy of this ju. The Measurement of Creativity From De nitional Consensus to the Introduction of a New Heuristic Framework Mark Batey Psychometrics at Work Research Group Manchester Business School

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