The Linux Command Line Stellenbosch University

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Copyright 2008 2013 William E Shotts Jr, This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial No De. rivative Works 3 0 United States License To view a copy of this license visit the link. above or send a letter to Creative Commons 171 Second Street Suite 300 San Fran. cisco California 94105 USA, Linux is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds All other trademarks belong to. their respective owners, This book is part of the LinuxCommand org project a site for Linux education and advo. cacy devoted to helping users of legacy operating systems migrate into the future You. may contact the LinuxCommand org project at http linuxcommand org. This book is also available in printed form published by No Starch Press and may be. purchased wherever fine books are sold No Starch Press also offers this book in elec. tronic formats for most popular e readers http nostarch com tlcl htm. Release History,Version Date Description,13 07 July 6 2013 Second Internet Edition. 09 12 December 14 2009 First Internet Edition, 09 11 November 19 2009 Fourth draft with almost all reviewer feedback.
incorporated and edited through chapter 37, 09 10 October 3 2009 Third draft with revised table formatting. partial application of reviewers feedback and,edited through chapter 18. 09 08 August 12 2009 Second draft incorporating the first editing. 09 07 July 18 2009 Completed first draft,Table of Contents. Introduction xvi,Why Use The Command Line xvi,What This Book Is About xvii. Who Should Read This Book xvii,What s In This Book xviii.
How To Read This Book xviii,Prerequisites xix,Why I Don t Call It GNU Linux xix. Acknowledgments xx,Your Feedback Is Needed xx,What s New In The Second Internet Edition xxi. Further Reading xxi,Colophon xxi,Part 1 Learning The Shell 1. 1 What Is The Shell 2,Terminal Emulators 2,Your First Keystrokes 2. Command History 3,Cursor Movement 3,A Few Words About Mice And Focus 3.
Try Some Simple Commands 4,Ending A Terminal Session 5. The Console Behind The Curtain 5,Summing Up 5,Further Reading 6. 2 Navigation 7,Understanding The File System Tree 7. The Current Working Directory 7,Listing The Contents Of A Directory 8. Changing The Current Working Directory 9,Absolute Pathnames 9.
Relative Pathnames 9,Some Helpful Shortcuts 11,Important Facts About Filenames 11. Summing Up 12,3 Exploring The System 13,More Fun With ls 13. Options And Arguments 14,A Longer Look At Long Format 16. Determining A File s Type With file 17,Viewing File Contents With less 17. What Is Text 17,Less Is More 19,A Guided Tour 19,Symbolic Links 23.
Hard Links 24,Summing Up 24,Further Reading 24,4 Manipulating Files And Directories 25. Wildcards 25,Character Ranges 27,Wildcards Work In The GUI Too 27. mkdir Create Directories 28,cp Copy Files And Directories 28. Useful Options And Examples 29,mv Move And Rename Files 30. Useful Options And Examples 30,rm Remove Files And Directories 31.
Useful Options And Examples 31,Be Careful With rm 32. ln Create Links 33,Hard Links 33,Symbolic Links 33. Let s Build A Playground 34,Creating Directories 34. Copying Files 34,Moving And Renaming Files 35,Creating Hard Links 37. Creating Symbolic Links 38,Removing Files And Directories 39.
Creating Symlinks With The GUI 40,Summing Up 41,Further Reading 41. 5 Working With Commands 42,What Exactly Are Commands 42. Identifying Commands 43,type Display A Command s Type 43. which Display An Executable s Location 43,Getting A Command s Documentation 44. help Get Help For Shell Builtins 44,help Display Usage Information 45.
man Display A Program s Manual Page 45,apropos Display Appropriate Commands 47. whatis Display A Very Brief Description Of A Command 47. The Most Brutal Man Page Of Them All 48,info Display A Program s Info Entry 48. README And Other Program Documentation Files 49,Creating Your Own Commands With alias 50. Summing Up 52,Further Reading 52,6 Redirection 53,Standard Input Output And Error 53. Redirecting Standard Output 54,Redirecting Standard Error 55.
Redirecting Standard Output And Standard Error To One File 56. Disposing Of Unwanted Output 57,dev null In Unix Culture 57. Redirecting Standard Input 57,cat Concatenate Files 57. Pipelines 59,The Difference Between and 60,Filters 61. uniq Report Or Omit Repeated Lines 61,wc Print Line Word And Byte Counts 62. grep Print Lines Matching A Pattern 62,head tail Print First Last Part Of Files 63.
tee Read From Stdin And Output To Stdout And Files 64. Summing Up 65,Linux Is About Imagination 65,7 Seeing The World As The Shell Sees It 67. Expansion 67,Pathname Expansion 68,Pathname Expansion Of Hidden Files 69. Tilde Expansion 69,Arithmetic Expansion 70,Brace Expansion 71. Parameter Expansion 72,Command Substitution 73,Quoting 74. Double Quotes 75,Single Quotes 76,Escaping Characters 77.
Backslash Escape Sequences 77,Summing Up 78,Further Reading 78. 8 Advanced Keyboard Tricks 79,Command Line Editing 79. Cursor Movement 79,Modifying Text 80,Cutting And Pasting Killing And Yanking Text 80. The Meta Key 81,Completion 81,Programmable Completion 83. Using History 83,Searching History 84,History Expansion 86.
Summing Up 86,Further Reading 87,9 Permissions 88,Owners Group Members And Everybody Else 89. Reading Writing And Executing 90,chmod Change File Mode 92. What The Heck Is Octal 93,Setting File Mode With The GUI 95. umask Set Default Permissions 96,Some Special Permissions 98. Changing Identities 99, su Run A Shell With Substitute User And Group IDs 99.
sudo Execute A Command As Another User 101,Ubuntu And sudo 101. chown Change File Owner And Group 102,chgrp Change Group Ownership 103. Exercising Our Privileges 103,Changing Your Password 106. Summing Up 107,Further Reading 107,10 Processes 108. How A Process Works 108,Viewing Processes 109,Viewing Processes Dynamically With top 111.
Controlling Processes 113,Interrupting A Process 114. Putting A Process In The Background 114,Returning A Process To The Foreground 115. Stopping Pausing A Process 116,Signals 117,Sending Signals To Processes With kill 117. Sending Signals To Multiple Processes With killall 120. More Process Related Commands 120,Summing Up 121,Part 2 Configuration And The Environment 123. 11 The Environment 124,What Is Stored In The Environment 124.
Examining The Environment 124,Some Interesting Variables 126. How Is The Environment Established 127,What s In A Startup File 128. Modifying The Environment 130,Which Files Should We Modify 130. Text Editors 130,Using A Text Editor 131,Why Comments Are Important 134. Activating Our Changes 135,Summing Up 135,Further Reading 135.
12 A Gentle Introduction To vi 136,Why We Should Learn vi 136. A Little Background 137,Starting And Stopping vi 137. Compatibility Mode 138,Editing Modes 139,Entering Insert Mode 140. Saving Our Work 140,Moving The Cursor Around 141,Basic Editing 142. Appending Text 142,Opening A Line 143,Deleting Text 144.
Cutting Copying And Pasting Text 145,Joining Lines 147. Search And Replace 147,Searching Within A Line 147. Searching The Entire File 147,Global Search And Replace 148. Editing Multiple Files 150,Switching Between Files 151. Opening Additional Files For Editing 151,Copying Content From One File Into Another 152.
Inserting An Entire File Into Another 153,Saving Our Work 154. Summing Up 155,Further Reading 155,13 Customizing The Prompt 156. Anatomy Of A Prompt 156,Trying Some Alternative Prompt Designs 158. Adding Color 159,Terminal Confusion 160,Moving The Cursor 162. Saving The Prompt 163,Summing Up 164,Further Reading 164.
Part 3 Common Tasks And Essential Tools 165,14 Package Management 166. Packaging Systems 166,How A Package System Works 167. Package Files 167,Repositories 167,Dependencies 168. High And Low level Package Tools 168,Common Package Management Tasks 169. Finding A Package In A Repository 169,Installing A Package From A Repository 169.
Installing A Package From A Package File 170,Removing A Package 170. Updating Packages From A Repository 171,Upgrading A Package From A Package File 171. Listing Installed Packages 172,Determining If A Package Is Installed 172. Displaying Info About An Installed Package 173,Finding Which Package Installed A File 173. Summing Up 173,The Linux Software Installation Myth 174.
Further Reading 175,15 Storage Media 176,Mounting And Unmounting Storage Devices 176. Viewing A List Of Mounted File Systems 178,Why Unmounting Is Important 181. Determining Device Names 182,Creating New File Systems 185. Manipulating Partitions With fdisk 185,Creating A New File System With mkfs 188. Testing And Repairing File Systems 189,What The fsck 189.
Formatting Floppy Disks 189,Moving Data Directly To From Devices 190. Creating CD ROM Images 191,Creating An Image Copy Of A CD ROM 191. Creating An Image From A Collection Of Files 191,A Program By Any Other Name 192. Writing CD ROM Images 192,Mounting An ISO Image Directly 192. Blanking A Re Writable CD ROM 193,Writing An Image 193.
Summing Up 193,Further Reading 193,Extra Credit 193. 16 Networking 195,Examining And Monitoring A Network 196. traceroute 197,netstat 198,Transporting Files Over A Network 199. lftp A Better ftp 202,Secure Communication With Remote Hosts 202. Tunneling With SSH 206,scp And sftp 207,An SSH Client For Windows 208.
Summing Up 208,Further Reading 208,17 Searching For Files 209. locate Find Files The Easy Way 209,Where Does The locate Database Come From 211. find Find Files The Hard Way 211,Operators 214,Predefined Actions 217. User Defined Actions 219,Improving Efficiency 220,Dealing With Funny Filenames 221. A Return To The Playground 221,Options 224,Summing Up 225.
Further Reading 225,18 Archiving And Backup 226,Compressing Files 226. Don t Be Compressive Compulsive 230,Archiving Files 230. Synchronizing Files And Directories 238,Using rsync Over A Network 240. Summing Up 241,Further Reading 241,19 Regular Expressions 243. What Are Regular Expressions 243,Metacharacters And Literals 245.
The Any Character 246,Anchors 247,A Crossword Puzzle Helper 247. Bracket Expressions And Character Classes 248,Negation 248. Traditional Character Ranges 249,POSIX Character Classes 250. Reverting To Traditional Collation Order 253,POSIX Basic Vs Extended Regular Expressions 254. Alternation 255,Quantifiers 256,Match An Element Zero Or One Time 256.
Match An Element Zero Or More Times 257,Match An Element One Or More Times 258. Match An Element A Specific Number Of Times 258,Putting Regular Expressions To Work 259. Validating A Phone List With grep 259,Finding Ugly Filenames With find 260. Searching For Files With locate 261,Searching For Text With less And vim 261. Summing Up 263,Further Reading 263,20 Text Processing 264.
Applications Of Text 264,Documents 265,Web Pages 265. Printer Output 265,Program Source Code 265,Revisiting Some Old Friends 265. MS DOS Text Vs Unix Text 267,Slicing And Dicing 276. Expanding Tabs 279,Comparing Text 283,Editing On The Fly 288. ROT13 The Not So Secret Decoder Ring 290,People Who Like sed Also Like 299.
aspell 299,Summing Up 303,Further Reading 303,Extra Credit 304. 21 Formatting Output 305,Simple Formatting Tools 305. nl Number Lines 305,fold Wrap Each Line To A Specified Length 309. fmt A Simple Text Formatter 309,pr Format Text For Printing 313. printf Format And Print Data 314,Document Formatting Systems 317.
Summing Up 324,Further Reading 324,22 Printing 326. A Brief History Of Printing 326,Printing In The Dim Times 326. Character based Printers 327,Graphical Printers 328. Printing With Linux 329,Preparing Files For Printing 329. pr Convert Text Files For Printing 329,Sending A Print Job To A Printer 331.
lpr Print Files Berkeley Style 331,lp Print Files System V Style 332. Another Option a2ps 333,Monitoring And Controlling Print Jobs 336. lpstat Display Print System Status 336,lpq Display Printer Queue Status 337. lprm cancel Cancel Print Jobs 338,Summing Up 338,Further Reading 338. 23 Compiling Programs 340,What Is Compiling 340,Are All Programs Compiled 341.
Compiling A C Program 342,Obtaining The Source Code 342. Examining The Source Tree 344,Building The Program 346. Installing The Program 350,Summing Up 350,Further Reading 350. Part 4 Writing Shell Scripts 353,24 Writing Your First Script 354. What Are Shell Scripts 354,How To Write A Shell Script 354.
Script File Format 355,Executable Permissions 356,Script File Location 356. Good Locations For Scripts 358,More Formatting Tricks 358. Long Option Names 358,Indentation And line continuation 358. Configuring vim For Script Writing 359,Summing Up 360. 13 07 July 6 2013 Second Internet Edition 09 12 December 14 2009 First Internet Edition 09 11 November 19 2009 Fourth draft with almost all reviewer feedback incorporated and edited through chapter 37 09 10 October 3 2009 Third draft with revised table formatting partial application of reviewers feedback and edited through chapter 18

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