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07 Phalla 20081129 4th Completed San Phalla 1 2 2009 11 10 AM Page 180. San Phalla, part palaces preserve stepped roofs and a finial spire though some do adopt Angkorian type ped. iments and are crowned with a prang form comparable with what we see in Bangkok at the Royal. Palace and Wat Phra Keo Giteau 1975 290, Around twenty years after the publication of Giteau s work Jacqueline and Guy Nafilyan who. studied mural paintings in Cambodian Buddhist temples confirmed Giteau s proposition of Siamese influence. They wrote, The influence of Thai art on Cambodian painting takes several paths essentially three. The first and the most obvious has to do with geographical location The Battambang Siem. Reap region was under the authority of Bangkok from 1794 to 1907 This implies the presence of. craftsmen expertise and materials coming from Bangkok for more than one century The painting. of the monasteries of these areas is strongly marked by Thai art. The second passes through the sending of Cambodian artists to further their training in Thailand. on the occasion of a commission We have previously said how Ok Tep Nimit Mak went to perfect. his painting knowledge in Bangkok before fulfilling the Royal Palace commission and the frescoes. of the walls of the enclosure gallery of Vat Prah Keo Morokot. The third passes through reference to iconographical handbooks canonical texts and anthologies of. models This path was also followed by the other artistic disciplines of dance theater goldworking. weaving etc Nafilyan 1997 65 66, Although Giteau s hypothesis sounds very convincing little supporting evidence is provided and. she never actually discussed the story itself The Nafilyans on the other hand provide very interesting. information about the influence of Siamese art on Cambodian painting but only concerning the causes of. influence So far no in depth study of the influence of the Ramakien murals in the Siamese Grand Palace. on the Reamker murals in the Cambodian Royal Palace has been done and the question of the source of. this complete version in the Cambodian Royal Palace remains unanswered. This article attempts to answer this question through a detailed comparative analysis of the. Cambodian and Siamese Palace mural paintings considering storyline compositional organization and. technique The socio cultural context of the creation of both paintings will also be examined in order to. identify key factors responsible for the similarities and differences between the Reamker and Ramakien murals. Siamese Influence on the Cambodian Royal Court in the Reigns of King Ang Duong and. King Norodom, The influence of the Ramakien murals on the Reamker murals was in a most general manner an.
outcome of Cambodia s historical relations with Siam I will therefore briefly characterize the historical. relations of the two kingdoms in the period in question. 07 Phalla 20081129 4th Completed San Phalla 1 2 2009 11 10 AM Page 181. The influence of the Ramakien murals in the Grand Palace of Siam. The 19th century was to see a sort of restoration of Cambodian political and cultural stability after. centuries of instability beginning with the fall of the capital at Angkor after Siamese attack in the 15th. century At least two Cambodian monarchs were responsible for this restoration King Ang Duong and his. son King Norodom The two kings spent much of their lives in Siam a fact which led to an important. augmentation of Siamese influence The Cambodian court came under direct influence of Siamese arts. and culture in the reign of Ang Duong Siamese influence is also easily detectable in Cambodian Buddhism. of this and subsequent periods Ang Duong is known for having instituted extensive legal reforms developed. infrastructures and generally rehabilitated the court This campaign to restore national unity was underpinned. by an important reformation of Cambodian Buddhism The King gave alms and built monasteries He. gathered around him scholars of Buddhism and literature and encouraged them to write to teach those. who wanted to learn and to revise and update texts He personally trained monks and laymen as well Jacob. 1996 65 66 Remarkably in 1854 Ang Duong petitioned the Siamese king to send a complete version of. the Tripitaka Buddhist canon in the pure form of Pali recently championed by the monastic reformers. of that country on the grounds that nothing of the sort existed in Cambodia Led by Maha Pan 1824. 1894 a Khmer monk based at Wat Bowonivet Bangkok a delegation of eight monks representing. Siamese King Mongkut s rationalist and reformist Dhammayut sect subsequently arrived at the Cambodian. royal court at Oudong carrying bundles of some eighty sacred writings Thus under royal patronage the. still powerful Dhammayutikanikaya was established in Cambodia and Maha Pan became its first chief. Harris 2006 106 Khing 2003 13, Siamese influence can be also seen in literature composed at the time King Ang Duong was himself. a distinguished scholar and poet He knew Pali and the canonical texts well and wrote poetry One of his. well known compositions is the narrative poem RioeN NaN Kaki This story resembles the Kakati Jataka as. well as the Sussonati Jataka some episodes differ from the Siamese version Kaki But the Cambodian story. of Kaki was clearly adopted from the Siamese Bearing witness to this at the end of the Cambodian story. is the note of the royal author himself the story of Kakei was translated from the Siamese Khing 2003. 23 36 Moreover according to Judith Jacob it was during this time that the poetic meters of pad p ky 7. seven syllable meter and pad p ky 9 nine syllable meter were also borrowed from the Siamese These. meters were very popular with the court poets of the 19th century and continued to be used in the 20th. century Jacob 1996 45 54, Likewise the rebirth of Cambodian classical dance in the 19th century owes much to Siam Toni. Phim and Ashley Thompson point out that Khmer kings who had been raised in Siam including King Ang. Duong and his sons brought many Siamese to the court some of whom were apparently dancers Phim. and Thompson 1999 40 When Ang Duong became king he found classical dance to be on the verge of. disappearance The few dancers that remained at the court still preserved the classical tradition but had. introduced some rather unorthodox changes Ang Duong therefore undertook to return to the royal. dances their original meaning and classical beauty as well as to restore them to their level of dignity in. votive ceremonies to the gods and solemn palace festivals This renewal and reorganization was carried out. 07 Phalla 20081129 4th Completed San Phalla 1 2 2009 11 10 AM Page 182. San Phalla, with care and most of the changes introduced at that time have remained until today Jeldres 1999 97. After reforming and establishing the choreographic side of the ballet the King turned his attention to the. costumes Until then it is believed the dancers had worn Angkorian costume almost unchanged from that. of the stone figures in the great temples It consisted mainly of a light sampot often draped round the. waist and leaving leg movements completely free Jeldres 1999 97 The reforms undertaken by Ang. Duong introduced heavy pieces of silver and gold braided silk either because the semi nudity of the. dancers was no longer suited to the morals and beliefs of the time or more probably in imitation of the. Siamese This changed the appearance of dancers and by greatly limiting their freedom of movement was. to have a considerable effect on the future of Khmer choreography Jeldres 1999 97. During Norodom s reign no doubt the Siamese influence on Buddhism and literature that had. been transplanted to Cambodian soil since the reign of King Ang Duong remained intact although French. colonial powers attempted to prevent Siamese domination In regard to court dance Norodom always. remained open to outside influence In the early part of his reign he was eclectic in support of numerous. Southeast Asian musical traditions inviting performers from Laos Burma China Vietnam Malaysia and. of course Siam to reside in the capital Cravath 1985 155 As noted earlier King Norodom who had been. brought up at the royal palace in Bangkok was fond of the Siamese language which therefore was used. for performance Lecl re 1910 257 59 Furthermore according to the contemporary account of Moura. the repertoire included the Siamese Ramakien not the Cambodian Reamker Moura 1883 414 In general. there were many more Siamese officials at Norodom s court than had been at that of Ang Duong Like his. father Norodom maintained a great number of women concubines or dancers of Siamese origin in his court. Cravath 1985 159, This evidence demonstrates quite clearly that since the middle of the 19th century every aspect of. royal Cambodian arts and culture was heavily influenced by the Siamese Therefore it is of no surprise that. King Norodom decorated his new Palace and the Temple of the Emerald Buddha with reference to the. murals in the Siamese Grand Palace The resemblance between the two struck viewers from the very. beginning as we can see in the testimony of Frank Vincent an American traveler who visited the. Cambodian Royal Palace in 1872 Vincent declared the Cambodian Palace to be superior in every. aspect excepting size to that at Bangkok Vincent 1988 278. Construction of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha in Bangkok and the Ramakien Mural Paintings. On 6 April 1782 shortly after succeeding King Taksin to the throne King Rama I founder of the. Chakri dynasty moved the capital to the east bank of the Chao Praya River The King named the capital. Ratanakosin the Jewel of Indra often called Krung Thep meaning the City of Gods Office of. the National Environment Board 1991 5 The city is also known as Bangkok and has remained the. capital ever since On 6 May 1782 the King began construction of his palace The walls of the palace. 07 Phalla 20081129 4th Completed San Phalla 1 2 2009 11 10 AM Page 183. The influence of the Ramakien murals in the Grand Palace of Siam. measured 410 meters on the north 510 meters on the east 360 meters on the south and 360 meters on. the west these remain unchanged until the present day Hangvivat 2004 7 At that time King Rama I had. a Buddhist temple built in the northeast corner of the Grand Palace compound The tradition of con. structing a Buddhist temple in the precincts of the Royal Palace had existed in Siam since the Sukhothai. period Diskul 1982 17 The temple s official name is Wat Phra Sri Ratanasasdaram Diskul 1982 7 but. it is called the Temple of the Emerald Buddha because the Ubosot ordination hall shelters the so called. Emerald Buddha3 that King Rama I had obtained from the city of Vientiane in Laos in 1778 Diskul 1982. 17 19 The construction of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha began in 1783 and was completed in 1785. Hangvivat 2004 7 The Temple and the Royal Palace itself were consecrated at the same time Bureau of. the Royal Household 2005 20 figure 1, Figure1 Plan of the Grand Palace of Siam The Temple of the Emerald Buddha is situated at.
the northeast corner of the palace precinct The Bureau of the Royal Household 2005 30 31. Unlike other Buddhist monasteries no monks reside in the Temple of the Emerald Buddha The. temple serves as a royal chapel where the monarch can perform charitable functions and ceremonies such. as Drinking the Water of Allegiance Bureau of the Royal Household 2005 219. 3 Though it is now known that the image is made of a single piece of jade the name Emerald has stuck Dhaninivat. 1963 17 18, 07 Phalla 20081129 4th Completed San Phalla 1 2 2009 11 10 AM Page 184. San Phalla,The Ubosot, The Ubosot or Ordination Hall the largest and most important structure of the temple was built. for housing the Emerald Buddha which is regarded as the palladium of the Siamese Monarchy Dhaninivat. 1963 17 18 The Ubosot faces east and is located in the southern part of the temple precinct. Since construction in 1785 the chapel has never been allowed to fall into decay According to. Buddhist teachings regarding the virtue of gratitude and to show respect for tradition every monarch must. take upon himself the restoration of both the Grand Palace and the Temple of the Emerald Buddha and. ensure their lasting embellishment Bureau of the Royal Household 2005 29 During previous renovations. the chapel was made to undergo many changes both to the interior and exterior but during the present. reign major renovations have been carried out with a view to leaving ancient characteristics undisturbed. Hangvivat 2004 64,Figure 2 The Ubosot view from the northeast. The Galleries, The temple of the Emerald Buddha complex is surrounded by cloisters forming a covered gallery. This type of gallery enclosing a central sacred area is also frequent in Siamese monastic architecture. According to Rita Ringis the concept was originally derived from ancient Khmer architecture although the. construction materials and methods differ Ringis 1990 37 38 The enclosed galleries can be accessed. through seven gates two on the east one on the south three on the west and one on the north. 07 Phalla 20081129 4th Completed San Phalla 1 2 2009 11 10 AM Page 185. The influence of the Ramakien murals in the Grand Palace of Siam. The Mural Paintings, The paintings are mainly located in two places the interior wall of the Ubosot and the galleries.
surrounding the Temple of the Emerald Buddha Although the mural painting inside the Ubosot is not. The influence of the Ramakien murals on the Reamker murals was in a most general manner an outcome of Cambodia s historical relations with Siam I will therefore briefly characterize the historical relations of the two kingdoms in the period in question 180 San Phalla 07 Phalla 20081129 4th Completed San Phalla 1 2 2009 11 10 AM Page 180 The 19th century was to see a sort of restoration

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