The Impact of Lexical and Cohesive Devices

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In the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful, the most Gracious It is He Who has taught the quran He has created. man He has taught him an intelligent speech,Dedication. To the souls of my late father and mother who wished to see this day and who loved me. To my beloved wife who created the good atmosphere for me to finish this work. To my sons Uday and Luay who helped me much in writing this thesis. To my daughters Shereen and Shaza who helped me much in different aspects. To my beloved dear baby and the youngest son Helmi. To my beloved niece Ghadah my brothers especially Dr Wail and my sisters. especially Wafaa Kefah for their continuous and endless encouragement. Acknowledgments, All praise to Allah the almighty the one to whom all dignity honor and glory are. due Peace and blessing of Allah be upon all the prophets and messengers As prophet. Mohammad peace be upon him said Who does not thank people will not thank Allah. I would like to acknowledge my sincere thanks and gratitude to my supervisors. Prof Ezzo Afana and Dr Waleed Amer for their steadfast and endless support guidance. stimulation and dedicating labour Their useful comments and advice were frankly and. certainly a marvelous help at every stage, I am indebted to doctors Mohammed Shogeir Mahmoud Baroud Kamal. Mourtaja Nazmi Al Masri Sami Breem Awad Keshta Mohamed Hamdan Wail El. Hewity Mohamed Atia AbedlRaheem Hamdan al Sofi Sadek Ferwana Abdullmo ti. Al Agha Mr Salah Abu Shamalah and Mr Mohammed Al Zayaan for their support and. caring My gratitude to all of them is limitless, Especial thanks to my dear and generous professors Dr Mohammed Sadek and.
Dr Riad Znaad and all the lecturers in the English department of Al Aqsa University. and the supervisors Mr Mo een Kiheal and Mr Haider Abu Shaweesh for their endless. encouragement, Thanks to my best friends and colleagues especially Mr Alaa Al Jekhlib Mr. Islaam Al Amoudi Mr Muraad Hamed Mr Anas Al Sayed Mr Islaam Abu Esha and. Mr Essa Al Astal for their endless stimulation, My deepest thank goes to Dr Awad Keshta and Dr Mohammed Ateya Abd. AlRaheem for accepting to discuss this research study and for their limitless help. In Addition my thanks goes to the headmaster Mr Saleh al Bardaweel of. Abdullkader school for easifying the processing of the tests of my study. Moreover I am deeply grateful to the Islamic University of Gaza Ministry of. Education and Higher education in Gaza and the Directorate of Education in Khanyounis. and their staff for all the facilitations help and advice they offered. But last and not the least all appreciations to those whose kindness patience and. support were the candles that enlightened my path towards success. This Study aimed at recognizing the impact of vocabulary and cohesive devices. knowledge especially pronouns and conjunctions on the literary 11th graders reading. comprehension The researcher here applied pre and post tests on a random sample of. two intact classes of sixty literary 11th male graders divided into control and experimental. groups These sixty learners represented nearly 38 of the learners the researcher has. been teaching English The first part of the pre test represented vocabulary test and the. second one pronouns and conjunctions test This pre test was applied on the learners of. both groups to diagnose their abilities and to know whether both groups were equal in. their knowledge After the researcher made sure that both groups were approximately. equal regarding their previous knowledge in terms of vocabulary pronouns and. conjunctions he subjected these graders to some treatment during eight lessons through. three texts from the graders syllabus in terms of vocabulary and the meant devices After. that the researcher carried out a post test to identify the effect of knowledge of. vocabulary and cohesive devices on students reading comprehension skill Both tests. were carried out during the second term of 2011 The researcher discovered that each. independent variable either vocabulary or pronouns remarkably and positively affected. reading comprehension Moreover each independent variable has the ability to predict. reading comprehension However vocabulary affected reading comprehension more than. pronouns and conjunctions did In conclusion the researcher recommended carrying out. further studies to identify the effect of either increasing or decreasing pronouns in a text. on reading comprehension and critical thinking,Table of Contents. Problem Statement and Background Page No,Introduction 2. Need for the Study 4,Statement of the Problem 5,Research Questions 5.
Research Hypotheses 6,Purpose of the Study 6,Significance of the Study 7. Scope of the Study 8,Limitations of the Study 8,Definition of Terms 9. Summary 12,Chapter II,Review of Literature,Theoretical Framework. Introduction 14,Lexical Knowledge and Comprehension 16. Readability of Text 19,Cohesive devices knowledge and Comprehension 20.
Types of Cohesion 23,Summary 37,Section II,An Overview of Related previous Studies. Introduction 39, Previous Studies Related to Vocabulary Knowledge 39. Commentary on the previous Studies 53, Previous Studies Related to Cohesive Devices Knowledge 57. Commentary on the previous Studies 64,Summary 68,Chapter III. The Methodology,Introduction 70,Type of Research Design 70.
Procedures of the study 70,Sample procedures 72,Instrumentation 72. Pilot Study 72,The Pre Post Tests 74,Validity of lexical and cohesive devices Tests 76. Reliability of the lexical and cohesive devices Tests 82. Controlling the Variables 83,Statistical Analysis Procedures 85. Summary 87,Chapter IV,The Results and Analysis of Data. Examination the First question and Hypothesis 89,Examination the Second question and Hypothesis 91.
Examination the Third question and Hypothesis 94,Examination the Fourth question and Hypothesis 95. Summary 99, Findings Discussion Conclusion and Recommendations. Summary 102,Findings and Discussion 103, The discussion of the results of the 1st hypothesis and question 104. The discussion of the results of the 2nd hypothesis and question 105. The discussion of the results of the 3rd hypothesis and question 106. The discussion of the results of the 4th hypothesis and question 107. Conclusion 109,Recommendations 109,References 113,Appendices 127. Appendix 1 The text for treating 11th graders unknown pronouns 128. Appendix 2 The text for treating 11th graders unknown pronouns 129. Appendix 3 The text for treating 11th graders unknown conjunctions 130. Appendix 4 The pre and post tests related to vocabulary effect on control 131. and experimental groups reading comprehension, Appendix 5 The pre and post tests related to cohesive devices effect on control 134.
and experimental groups reading comprehension, Appendix 6 The answers of the pre post tests related to vocabulary 137. effect on control and experimental groups reading comprehension. Appendix 7 The answers of pre post tests related to cohesive 141. devices effect on control and experimental groups,Appendix 8 List of Referees 143. Appendix 9 Consultation form of the pre post tests related to 145. Vocabulary and cohesive devices effect on control experimental. groups 11th graders reading comprehension, Appendix 10 permission from the ministry of education and higher 146. education to apply the pre post tests on Abdullkader school s 11th graders. Arabic Abstract 147,List of Tables,No Table Page,2 1 Demonstratives singular and plural 26. 2 2 Demonstratives as determiner or pronoun 26,2 3 Reciprocal and reciprocal possessive 28.
3 1 Correlation coefficient of each item and the total of the first part A 77. 3 2 Correlation coefficient of each item and the total of second part B 78. 3 3 Correlation coefficient of each item and the total of third part C 78. 3 4 Correlation coefficient of each item and the total of forth part D 79. 3 5 Correlation coefficient of each item and the total of fifth part E 79. 3 6 Correlation coefficient of each item and the total of first part 80. 3 7 Correlation coefficient of each item and the total of second part 80. 3 8 Correlation coefficient of each item and the total of third part 81. 3 9 Correlation coefficient of each part of the test and the whole of test 82. 3 10 Correlation coefficient of each part of the test and the whole test itself 82. 3 11 T Test results of controlling pre lexical test 84. 3 12 T Test results of controlling pre cohesive devices test 84. 3 13 reference table to determine the level of effect size according to 2 87. 4 1 Lexical post test scores between both groups 90. 4 2 Reading comprehension Lexical Knowledge 91,4 3 Prediction equation Lexis Control group 92. 4 4 Model Statement Reading comprehension Lexical Knowledge 93. 4 5 Prediction equation Lexis Experimental group 93. 4 6 Devices post test between experimental and control group 95. 4 7 Model Statement Reading comprehension Lexical Knowledge 96. 4 8 Prediction equation Cohesive devices Control group 97. 4 9 Model Statement Reading comprehension cohesive devices Knowledge 98. 4 10 Prediction equation Cohesive devices Experimental group 98. Problem Statement and Background,Introduction,Need for the Study. Statement of the Problem,Research Questions,Research Hypotheses. Purpose of the Study,Significance of the Study,Scope of the Study. Limitations of the Study,Definitions of Terminology.
Problem Statement and Background,Introduction, Reading is considered the road to self improvement civic competence pleasure. and critical consciousness Accordingly the researcher is interested in reading. comprehension skill and in looking for the factors that affect it in English English has. been taught to Palestinian learners for 12 years as a main school subject among other. subjects However some learners who the researcher is currently teaching may be low. achievers in terms of some reading comprehension skills This problem might be due to. learners poorness in terms of vocabulary and cohesive devices knowledge Reading. comprehension is a main skill besides the other three skills listening speaking. writing which are taught at the Palestinian schools. Reading is one skill second or foreign language learners should acquire in their. language learning process if they are to become well rounded users of the target. language The ability to read is seen as the most stable and durable of the second. language skills Language learners acquire most of their vocabulary through reading. particularly if they do not stay in a country where that language is spoken Learners can. lose their writing and speaking skills but still be able to comprehend text with some. degree of proficiency Rivers 1981 cited in Salah 2008. Reading comprehension is the process of constructing meaning from the text The. goal of reading instruction is ultimately targeted at helping a reader to comprehend a. given text Reading comprehension involves at least two people the reader and the. writer The process of comprehending involves decoding the writer s words and then. using background knowledge to construct an approximate understanding of the writer s. message Kirby 2006 161, When Learners read a text their main goal is to comprehend its meaning. Traditionally reading was seen as a receptive skill and the readers are passive recipients. but in fact reading is a process of interaction between the text and the reader The. reader interacts with the text to create meaning as the reader s mental processes interact. with each other at different levels e g letter lexical syntactic or semantic to make the. text meaningful Barnett 1989 29, The reader is actually involved in an active and constructive process building. meaning from a text Meaning does not exist in a text but in readers and the. representations they build Hass Flower 1988 167, Reading can be seen as an interactive process between a reader and a text which. leads to reading fluency In this process the reader interacts dynamically with the text as. he tries to elicit the meaning and where various kinds of knowledge are being used. linguistic or systematic knowledge through bottom up processing as well as schematic. knowledge through top down processing Alyousef 2005 144. Additionally reading comprehension ability needs some important requirements that. depend on the reader or the learner such as lexis and cohesive devices knowledge With. these two aspects and others the learner can interact with reading comprehension texts. effectively, There has been much debate about the relative roles which lexis and cohesive.
devices play in reading comprehension Some writers argue that vocabulary knowledge. is the most important factor in successful reading Adams believes that it is the. knowledge of lexis rather than syntax that distinguishes a good reader from a less able. one Adams 1990 cited in Al Yafaee 2003, Stanovich 1999 28 says that vocabulary is insufficient for good reading. comprehension Although good reading comprehension indicates a high level of lexical. knowledge it is possible for a person to have adequate word recognition skills yet still. display poor reading comprehension because of other supporting factors such as. syntactic knowledge, Nuttall 1996 78 proves that syntax in terms of long sentences and difficult. Raid Helmi Al Farra Supervised by Dr Ezzo Afana Dr Walid M Amer Professor of curriculum and teaching methods Professor of linguistics A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Of Master of Curricula and Methodology English October 2011

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