The Gallipoli Campaign 1915

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The British 29th Division landed at five beaches at. Cape Helles code named S V W X and Y W and V,were heavily defended and troops ran into. underwater wire mines machine gun and shell fire,At S X and Y beaches little resistance was. encountered but confusion on the part of the Allied. command allowed the Turks to halt the advance, The priority for operations at Helles was the capture. of Achi Baba the prominent hill feature giving a,commanding view of the Helles beachheads. Repeated attempts to advance north most notably at. the battles of Krithia in April May and June all failed. AWM G00425, with heavy casualties Allied attacks on Gully Ravine in.
June and Achi Baba itself in July similarly failed with. huge numbers killed and wounded,Royal Irish Fusiliers Helles. Anzac and Suvla,The Anzacs overshot their planned,landing beaches at Gaba Tepe and. instead came ashore at Ari Burnu,two miles to the north a narrow. beach which was swept by heavy,Turkish gunfire Instead of the low. foothills they had expected they,were faced with sheer cliffs Their.
advance to the heights of Sari Bair,was halted by a division led by. IWM Q13325,Turkish Colonel Mustafa Kemal and,driven back to the beach they dug. in first earning their nickname, diggers The cost of battle Stretcher bearers take away the wounded. On 19 May Commonwealth troops successfully defended their position in the face. of a heavy but unsuccessful Turkish attempt to drive the invaders back into the. sea The Allies inflicted so many casualties on the attackers that a few days later a. truce had to be called to allow the Turks to reclaim their dead from the battlefield. On 6 August Hamilton with his force doubled to eleven divisions tried to break. the deadlock with an assault on Suvla Bay Five divisions led by Lieutenant. General Sir Frederick Stopford were to link the Suvla beachhead with that. at Anzac and seize the heights at Teke Tepe at the heart of the. A diversionary attack was launched at Helles and at Anzac. two attacks took place At Lone Pine the Anzacs were. successful but unable to hold their position and at Sari Bair. The Nek the Australians were cut down as they advanced However confusion. led to the advance at Suvla being stopped and by the time it resumed the Turks. had sent in reinforcements, August saw further desperate actions as the New Zealanders Australians British. and Indian forces attempted to take Chunuk Bair but were eventually forced. back The final significant actions took place on 21 August at Hill 60 and Scimitar. Hill as the forces at,Anzac and Suvla,attempted to.
but were driven,back with no gains,AWM J03022,Landing at Anzac. Evacuation, In October with the campaign once again stalled Hamilton was relieved of. command He was replaced by Sir Charles Monro who immediately. recommended that the Allies should evacuate This proved to be the most. successful part of the entire operation Anzac Cove and Suvla Bay were evacuated. in December 1915 and the Helles area was emptied of troops by 9 January 1916. Only a handful of lives were lost an ironic end to a campaign which had cost the. lives of almost 36 000 Commonwealth 10 000 French and around 86 000 Turks. The Challenge,of Commemoration, Following the evacuation of Gallipoli Commonwealth. forces were unable to revisit the peninsula until after. the Armistice By this time many of the original wooden. grave markers to survive the shelling and fighting had. been stolen lost destroyed by nature or had become. illegible and the thousands of unburied dead were,beyond identification. After mammoth battlefield,clearance operations 31 Commonwealth cemeteries.
were left containing 19 000 graves of which only,6 000 were identified A further 2 500 of the dead. believed to be buried among the unidentified are,commemorated in the cemeteries by Special. Memorials bearing an inscription to this effect The. remainder of those buried in unknown graves or,whose remains were never found make up the. 27 000 named on six memorials to the missing on, The high proportion of unknown burials and Special. Memorials give the cemeteries of Gallipoli a unique. character The burial places of unknown casualties, are marked on cemetery plans but the graves are not marked on the ground.
meaning that some cemeteries have wide expanses of open space dotted with just. a few grave markers Special Memorials form a regular pattern in the cemetery. Due to the extreme weather and unstable ground the. cemeteries on Gallipoli have a number of design features. which distinguish them from Commonwealth,cemeteries elsewhere To prevent masonry. sinking into soggy ground the Commission,uses stone faced pedestal grave markers. instead of headstones and a walled cross,feature instead of the free standing Cross of. Sacrifice Rubble walled channels surround,the cemeteries to take flood water away The. majority of the cemeteries and memorials on,the peninsula were designed by the eminent.
Scottish architect Sir John Burnet, The French losses are commemorated in the French War Cemetery at Morto Bay. Some of the dead are buried in individual or mass graves whilst the remains of. others are contained in ossuaries within the cemetery. The Canakkale Martyrs Memorial is dedicated to the memory of the Turkish. soldiers who died in the Gallipoli campaign There are a number of other smaller. Turkish memorials and cemeteries on the peninsula although the cemeteries are. mostly symbolic and contain few actual graves,Cemeteries and. Memorials in Helles,V Beach Cemetery Identified 20. Unknown 480 Special Memorials,196 was begun the day after the. disastrous landing at the well fortified,beach and was used until May 1915.
although several graves were brought,in after the Armistice. Seddel Bahr Military Grave is the,only isolated Commonwealth war. V Beach Cemetery,grave on Gallipoli On the morning of. 26 April Lieutenant Colonel Doughty,Wylie and Captain Walford led the. survivors of the V Beach landing to the,village and fort of Seddel Bahr Both.
won the Victoria Cross but were killed,during the fight Captain Walford lies. in V Beach Cemetery Doughty Wylie The Helles Memorial. on the spot where he fell, The Helles Memorial stands on the tip of the peninsula It is the battle memorial. for the entire Gallipoli campaign and the place of commemoration for missing. Australians who died at Helles and British and Indian servicemen who died. throughout the peninsula and have no known grave It bears over 21 000 names. The 180 New Zealanders who died at Helles and whose places of burial are not. known are commemorated on the Twelve Tree Copse New Zealand. Memorial which stands in Twelve Tree Copse,Cemetery Identified 477 Unknown 2 226. Special Memorials 657 The cemetery was,made after the Armistice when graves were. brought in from small burial grounds in the,surrounding area.
Redoubt Cemetery Identified 285 Unknown,1 393 Special Memorials 349 was begun by the. Australians in May 1915 and was used until the,evacuation It takes its name from the chain of. forts made by the Turks across the southern end, of the peninsula in the fighting for Krithia and the. Redoubt Line on which the advance halted in,Seddel Bahr Military Grave. Skew Bridge Cemetery Identified 126 Unknown 351 Special Memorials. 130 was named from a wooden skew bridge carrying the Krithia road across the. Dere River just behind the centre of the line occupied by the Allied forces on 27. April 1915 It was begun during the fighting of 6 8 May and used throughout the. occupation At the Armistice it contained only 53 graves but was greatly enlarged. when further burials were brought in from the battlefields or small burial grounds. in the area,Lancashire Landing Cemetery,Identified 1 091 Unknown 135.
Special Memorials 10 is named,after the area of W Beach on which. the 1st Lancashire Fusiliers landed,under sever fire and cut their way. through wire entanglements and,trenches to the edge of the cliff. Most of the cemetery was created,during the occupation Row I. contains the graves of over 80 men,of the 1st Lancashire Fusiliers who.
died in the first two days following,the landing Further graves were. brought from islands of the Aegean,after the Armistice. Lancashire Landing Cemetery,Cemeteries and Memorials in Anzac. The entire Anzac Area has been preserved as a memorial to the men who died. there It contains 21 cemeteries and three memorials The cemeteries can be split. into three main areas the landing beaches the front line and the valleys and slopes. in between In the area round Anzac Cove the front line was only one mile from. the landing beach and the cemeteries are clearly concentrated in a very small area. Ari Burnu Cemetery Identified 203 Unknown 42 Special Memorials 8. named from the Cape at the north end of Anzac Cove was made in 1915 and. enlarged in the 1920s when graves were brought in from other cemeteries on the. Beach Cemetery Identified 357 Unknown 22 Special Memorials 12 is. situated on what was known as Hell Spit at the southern point of Anzac Cove It. was used from the first day of the landings until the evacuation. Canterbury Cemetery is one of,the central cemeteries in Anzac and. contains 27 burials mostly of the,New Zealand Mounted Rifles Five.
of the burials are unidentified,Embarkation Pier Cemetery. Identified 20 Unknown 662,Special Memorials 262 is largely. made up of burials brought in after,the Armistice from smaller sites and. from isolated graves in the area,Embarkation Pier was made for the. purpose of evacuating wounded,from the Battle of Sari Bair but it.
came under heavy rifle and shell fire,and was abandoned after just two. Canterbury Cemetery, No 2 Post was the scene of heavy fighting at the end of May and it was one of the. starting points for the Battle of Sari Bair It contained the best well in Anzac and. medical facilities were established close by No 2 Outpost Cemetery. Identified 38 Unknown 66 Special Memorials 48 was made during the. occupation 100 metres away New Zealand No 2 Outpost Cemetery. Identified 2 Unknown 150 Special Memorials 31 was created from burials. carried out by the Canterbury Infantry Regiment and is in fact one long grave. which was made in September 1915,Shell Green was captured and passed by the. Australians on 25 April but remained close to,the Turkish front line throughout the. campaign and was subject to frequent shelling,Shell Green Cemetery Identified 395.
Unknown 11 was used from May to,December 1915 and enlarged further after. the Armistice,Johnston s Jolly Cemetery Identified 1. Unknown 144 Special Memorials 36 stands,New Zealand No 2 Outpost Cemetery. on the northern part of Plateau 400 and marks,the position reached by the Australians on 25. April but lost the next day and never retaken,This unusual name is attributed to the.
repeated saying of Colonel J L Johnston of the 11th West. Australian Battalion that if he could bring Howitzers to bear. on that point he would have a jolly good time The, cemetery was made after the Armistice from battlefield. graves Almost all the casualties buried in this cemetery. were killed in the capture of Lone Pine in August 1915. Quinn s Post was established on the afternoon of 25 April by. a New Zealand machine gun crew and was the subject of. incessant attacks and continual hand to hand fighting with. the Turkish post opposite who knew it as Bomba Sirt. Bomb Ridge The post was named after Major Hugh, Quinn of the 15th Battalion Australian Infantry who was. killed there during a fierce attack on 29 May Major Quinn. is buried in Shrapnel Valley Cemetery Quinn s Post. Cemetery Identified 115 Unknown 394 Special,Memorials 64 was made after the Armistice. Quinn s Post Cemetery,The Nek Cemetery Identified 5 Unknown 316 Special. Memorials 5 was made after the Armistice in what had. been No Man s Land during the Battle of Sari Bair The. 7th Field Ambulance Cemetery Identified 157,Unknown 276 Special Memorials 207 was named from.
the 7th Australian Field Ambulance which landed on. Gallipoli in September,1915 but over 300 of the,graves were brought in. from earlier cemeteries,after the Armistice,Courtney s and Steel s Post Cemetery. Courtney s and Steel s Post Cemetery,Identified 7 Unknown 160 Special. Memorials 58 named after two positions,taken on the day of the landings and held until. the evacuation Courtney s Post towards the,northern end of the original Anzac line was.
named after Lieut Colonel R E Courtney CB,VD who brought the 14th Australian Infantry. Battalion to it on 27 April 1915 Steel s Post,was next to it on the south west and was. named after Major T H Steel 14th Battalion,Shell Green Cemetery. Lone Pine was a strategically,important plateau in the south Lone Pine Cemetery. of Anzac It was stormed by,the Australians on 6 August.
and held until the evacuation,The original small battle. cemetery was enlarged after,the Armistice and Lone Pine. Cemetery Identified 482,Unknown 504 Special,Memorials 183 contains. mostly Australian casualties,Within the cemetery stands. The Gallipoli Campaign 1915 AWM ART 02931 The Taking of Lone Pine by Fred Leist Commonwealth War Graves Commission the driving force behind a grand scheme to strike at the B y early 1915 with deadlock on the Western Front and the Russian army struggling in the east First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill became

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