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Primary colors occur equal distance from each other on the color wheel Secondary and tertiary colors. occur between the primary colors from which they form. White black and gray are neutral colors White is the presence of all colors Black is the absence of. all colors White gray and black make up the gray scale. THREE DIMENSIONS OF COLOR HUE VALUE AND CHROMA, A hue is the descriptive name of a color Red orange and violet are examples of hues Each hue rep. resents a family of color or a pie shaped wedge on the color wheel Red is a pure hue It has many. variations Pink is a tint of red Maroon is a shade of red Pink and maroon are members of the red. Colors have other qualities or dimensions including value and chroma Value is the lightness or dark. ness of a hue achieved by the addition of white gray or black The gray scale is a guide for modify. ing the value of any color White added to a hue creates a tint Adding gray creates a tone. Black added to a hue produces a shade Variations of the color blue might include baby blue tint. colonial blue tone and navy blue shade The addition of white lightens and brightens and increases. the value of a color as it increases the reflection of light Black darkens and decreases the value creat. ing more visual weight, Chroma is the third quality or dimension of color It refers to the degree of intensity strength satura. tion or purity of a color The purity of a color refers to its freedom from white black or gray. SCIENTIFIC COMBINATIONS OF COLORS THAT INFLUENCE OUR EMOTIONS. With the foundation of the science of color as a palette a knowledgeable designer is effective in using. color combinations to evoke responses and emotions. Color harmonies result through the combining of tints tones shades and hues from the color wheel. Color harmonies are combinations of color that are pleasing to the eye Numerous harmonies of colors. exist The six classic color harmonies described in the following paragraphs provide a good founda. tion for future creative colorful designs, Color harmonies may be related or contrasting depending on their location on the color wheel Re. lated color harmonies are monochromatic and analogous These harmonies are safe and usually pleas. ing to most people, To provide interest and to avoid monotony in floral designs having related color harmonies designers. often select flowers having different color values In addition the designers use a variety of flower. textures and forms, A monochromatic color harmony includes tints tones and shades of the same hue Although it is a.
basic color harmony it is sometimes challenging to maintain interest Therefore textures forms and. values are necessary to provide interest An example of a floral arrangement of a monochromatic color. harmony is a traditional bridal bouquet of white flowers. An analogous color harmony consists of related colors that are adjacent on the color wheel An analo. gous color harmony is often used to express a mood or seasonal theme Autumn arrangements often. consist of analogous color harmonies Adjacent hues in an analogous color harmony consist of tints. tones and shades They usually include only one primary color An analogous color harmony allows. one color to dominate and others to enhance it, Contrasting color harmonies include complementary split complementary triadic and polychromatic. color schemes Developing these color schemes is more challenging because of the variety of colors. from diverse parts of the color wheel Contrasting color harmonies are dramatic exciting and make. visual statements, A complementary color harmony features colors directly opposite on the color wheel Using a warm. and a cool color these direct opposites create visual depth and make bold color combinations This. type of color harmony emphasizes color differences rather than similarities For example Christmas. arrangements often include the complementary color harmony of red and green. Combining one color with two colors on either side of its direct complement results in a split comple. mentary color harmony An example of a split complementary color harmony is yellow combined with. blue violet and red violet This color combination provides a softer contrast than a direct color com. A triadic color harmony involves three colors equally spaced on the color wheel Although challeng. ing this color harmony allows a skilled designer to create a pleasing combination by allowing one. color to dominate Tints tones and shades are also effective in harmonizing this color scheme The. combination of red yellow and blue is an example of a triadic color harmony. A polychromatic color harmony includes a wide range of colors from warm to cool A polychromatic. color harmony allows a floral designer to blend a variety of spring flowers together with one color. that provides dominance,THE EMOTIONS OF COLOR, Many designers agree that color is the most important element in floral design Color creates moods. and evokes emotions It is often the first consideration that influences a customer s selection Color. changes may occur due to influences of light quantity and quality. A designer must know that color responses are not universal Colors have different meanings and. various emotional associations among the various members of the global community People within. the same culture react differently to color because of educational background culture and personality. Additionally the exposure and experiences individuals have with colors vary. A knowledge of color is a powerful and creative tool for a floral designer When creating an arrange. ment the designer uses this knowledge as a tool to express his her emotions and ideas. Cool and Warm Colors, On the color wheel the colors exist as warm colors or cool colors The warmth or coolness expressed. by each color affects its emotional impact, Warm or advancing colors are those that resemble fire and heat Red red violet red orange and.
yellow orange are examples of warm colors These colors are active and make flowers appear larger. and more dominant in an arrangement, Warm colors appear closer and seem to reach out and grab the attention of the viewer The viewer is. more likely to see warm colors of flowers from greater distances In addition warm flower colors are. more easily seen in dimly lit areas, The colors the human mind considers cool represent water and ice Cool colors also associate with. peace and calm Examples of cool colors include blue blue green and blue violet. Receding colors include the cool colors of blues blue greens and blue violets These colors in a de. sign appear to recede and look smaller They are not easily seen from a distance However cool col. ored flowers do provide depth to a floral arrangement. Some colors such as violet express characteristics of being both warm and cool These colors often. become influenced by their surrounding colors, Lighting also has an effect on color expressions Highly visible colors of warm hues light values and. bright intensities are effective in floral arrangements viewed from a distance Cool colors vanish in. Lighting is an important consideration when planning and preparing floral arrangements for evening. weddings and banquets Tints reflect more light and are more easily seen in dim lighting than the pure. hues tones or shades This knowledge of color is also helpful in expressing moods and emotions with. Throughout time people have used colors to express emotions and convey messages These associa. tions vary from one culture to another As mentioned earlier individuals within a society react differ. ently to a specific color depending on their exposure or experiences with that color Color often sets. the mood and expresses its own emotion and personality. PERSONALITIES OF INDIVIDUAL COLORS, In depth study of the colors on the color wheel reveals the personalities and associations characteristic. of each color As an example orange is an exciting color associated with the autumn season and Hal. Orange gives warmth and energy to an arrangement and conveys a festive emotion Used as a pure. hue the color of orange dominates and sometimes becomes overwhelming As a result florists use. pure hues of orange in small quantities, Light values of orange salmon and peach or dark values rust and brown are not as overwhelming as.
the pure hue As a result florists use these colors in greater amounts. Brown is an earth tone color often used as a color for a container and autumnal effects The comple. ment of orange on the color wheel is blue The dramatic color harmony occurs naturally in the flowers. of Strelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise,COLOR RELATED TO DESIGN PRINCIPLES. A knowledge of the relationship of color to the principles of design is an important creative tool of a. skillful floral designer The following paragraphs describe some of the relationships color has to the. principles of floral design, A floral designer uses color in several ways to develop the focal area of a floral arrangement The de. signer creates dominance with color by allowing one color to dominate In addition the use of con. trast in flower color is effective for developing the focal area The use of warm colors and heavy col. ors is also a method the designer uses to develop the focal area in an arrangement. Repetition of color results in unity throughout a floral arrangement If a floral designer uses a white. container for an arrangement the arrangement must contain white flowers or variegated foliages to. establish unity Otherwise the container will appear separate from the arrangement. Color balance establishes visual balance in an arrangement Dark colors appear to have more visual. weight When placed lower in an arrangement the darker colored flowers provide visual stability. Dark flowers and cool colors placed deep into an arrangement contribute to depth The dark flowers. and cool colors are the first to draw the attention of the viewer. Proportion,To establish proportion in a floral arrange. ment a floral designer places smaller,lighter colored flowers in greater quantities. at the perimeter of the arrangement Larger,flowers of darker shades or pure hues.
placed in the focal area are fewer in num,ber than the lighter colored flowers. Repeating a color throughout an arrange,ment develops rhythm A floral designer. accomplishes this by using one color at the,focal point and repeating it throughout the. arrangement with a tint tone or shade of,the color This encourages the viewer s. eyes to travel throughout the arrangement,COLOR AND ITS INTERRELATIONSHIP WITH DESIGN.
Color is a powerful element in floral design It speaks and plays on the viewer s senses and evokes. emotions A floral designer uses knowledge of the science of color and its qualities and dimensions to. establish pleasing and effective color harmonies in floral arrangements A designer uses the power of. the language of color and blends it with knowledge of the principles and elements of design to create. arrangements that are beautiful and unique,Acknowledgements. Jane Gloyd TMF AAF Horticulture Professor Richland College. Dallas Texas developed and organized the material for this topic. Keith W Zamzow Curriculum Specialist Instructional Materials Service. Texas A M University edited this topic, Vickie Marriott Office Software Associate Instructional Materials Service. Texas A M University edited and prepared the layout and design for this topic. Christine Stetter Artist Instructional Materials Service. Texas A M University prepared the illustrations for this topic. REFERENCES, The references listed below were used in the development of this topic and can be researched for addi. tional information References indicated with 1 were consulted and permission for use was given. Anderson Gary Floral Design and Marketing Columbus OH Ohio Agricultural Education Cur. riculum Materials Service 1995, Benz M and James L Johnson Flowers Geometric Form College Station TX San Jacinto Pub. lishing Co 1986 1, Biondo Ronald J and Dianne A Noland Floriculture From Greenhouse Production to Floral De.
sign Danville IL Interstate Publishers Inc 2000, Book of Floral Terminology Baltimore MD The American Institute of Floral Designers 1999 1. Design Master As a Designer Boulder CO Design Master Color Tool Inc 1998. Encycloflora Advanced Floral Design Los Angeles CA Teleflora 1994 1. Encycloflora Basic Floral Design Los Angeles CA Teleflora 1994 1. Flowers by Design Lansing MI The John Henry Company 1998 1. Griner Charles Floriculture Designing and Merchandising Albany NY Delmar Publishers. Hunter Norah T The Art of Floral Design Albany NY Delmar Publishers Inc 2000. Ingels Jack E Ornamental Horticulture Science Operations and Management Albany NY. Delmar Publishers Inc 2001,GLOSSARY OF TERMS, Definitions for terms in this glossary are taken from Book of Floral Terminology developed by the. Education Committee of the American Institute of Floral Designers. Advancing colors Warm colors consisting of red yellow red violet red red orange orange yel. low orange yellow and yellow green, Chroma The degree of intensity strength saturation or purity of a color. Color Visual response of the eyes to reflected rays of light consists of hue value and chroma. Color harmony A compatible and or useful combination of colors. Color wheel A diagrammatic guide to the color system in which all hues appear in the proper. ing this color harmony allows a skilled designer to create a pleasing combination by allowing one color to dominate Tints tones and shades are also effective in harmonizing this color scheme The combination of red yellow and blue is an example of a triadic color harmony A polychromatic color harmony includes a wide range of colors from

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