The effect of the renin angiotensin system on

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The effect of the renin,angiotensin system on,contractility of retinal arterioles. Krist n Heba G slad ttir,A thesis for 90 ECTS credits towards a Magister. Scientiarum degree in Natural Resource Sciences,Supervisors. rs ll M r Arnarsson,Kristinn P Magn sson,Natural Resource Sciences. School of Science,University of Akureyri,Akureyri 11 June 2014.
The effect of the renin angiotensin system on contractility of retinal. arterioles, A thesis for 90 ECTS credits towards a Magister Scientiarum degree in. Natural Resource Sciences,H fundarr ttur 2014 Krist n Heba G slad ttir. ll r ttindi skilin,Au lindadeild,Raunv sindasvi,H sk linn Akureyri. S lborg Nor ursl 2,600 Akureyri,S mi 460 8000,Skr ningaruppl singar. Krist n Heba G slad ttir 2014 The effect of the renin angiotensin system. on contractility of retinal arterioles meistararitger au lindadeild. H sk linn Akureyri 68 bls,Prentun Stell,Akureyri 11 j n 2014.
essari in vivo ranns kn var samdr ttur slag linga augnbotni. rannsaka ur me Myograph t kni Markmi i var a rannsaka ferli. sta bundna renin angiotensin kerfisins samdr tt slag linga sj nhimnu. RAS kerfi gegnir mikilv gu hlutverki stj rnun bl r stings jafnv gi. l kamsvessa og j nefna l kamanum Tali er a augum s sta bundi RAS. kerfi sem og a allir ttir RAS kerfisins s u til sta ar sj nhimnu og. augum ar me tali Ang II myndunar kerfi RAS kerfi spilar mikilv gt. hlutverk r un sykurs kissj nkvilla sj nkvilla fyrirbura aldursbundinni. sj ndepilsr rnunar og gl ku ACE hamlarar hindra umbreytingu Ang I Ang. II sem lei ir til minni virkni AT1R og AT2R ACE hamlarar koma veg fyrir. samdr tt a og ferli sem h kka bl r sting auk ess a hamla n myndun. a skertri starfssemi a els ak lkun b lgum og st r um frumudau a. ab tarnir sem rannsaka ir voru voru fjarl g ir r sj nhimnu og. slag lingarnir r ddir Myograph 410a Grunnm lingar voru teknar. hverjum ab ti ur en vi komandi efnum var seytt t, Sta bundi RAS kerfi er til sta ar slag lingum sj nhimnu nautgripa. Adrenal n Ang II og Ang I ullu samdr tti slag lingum DIZE hamla i. samdr tti Ang II markt kt en hamla i ekki samdr tti Ang I markt kt. Captopril dr markt kt r samdr tti Ang I, Lykilor Renin angiotensin kerfi Angiotensin II Angiotensin I Captoril. Diminazeneaceturate DIZE bl fl i um augnbotn, In this in vivo study the contractility of small vessels in bovine retina was. examined using Myograph technology The purpose was to investigate the. effects of the local renin angiotensin pathway on the contractility in those. retinal arterioles, RAS has an essential role throughout the body in controlling blood pressure. body fluid balance and electrolyte homoeostasis Evidence suggests that a. local tissue RAS system is present in the eyes All components of the RAS. are believed to be expressed in the retina and the eye contains an Ang II. formation system The RAS is known to play important role in the. development of diabetic retinopathy retinopathy of prematurity age related. macular degeneration and glaucoma ACE inhibitors block the conversion of. Ang I to Ang II leading to decreased activation of both AT 1R and AT2R. ACE inhibitors inhibit vasoconstriction and other mechanisms that raise. blood pressure as well as vascular hypertrophy endothelial dysfunction. atherosclerosis inflammation and apoptosis is reduced. The vessel segment investigated was removed from the retina and an arteriole. was threaded in a Myograph 410a The contraction of the arteriole was. recorded before and after adding the chemicals that was tested each time to. the Myograph chamber, Local RAS system is percent in bovine retinal arterioles Epinephrine Ang II.
and Ang I all caused constriction in those arterioles DIZE significantly. inhibited the contraction induced by Ang II but did not significantly inhibit. the contraction induced by Ang I Captopril significantly inhibited the. contraction of Ang I, Keywords Renin angiotensin system Angiotensin II Angiotensin I Captoril. Diminazeneaceturate DIZE ocular blood flow,Table of contents. List of figures vii,List of tables ix,List of abbreviations x. Acknowledgements 11,1 Introduction 13,1 1 Ocular blood flow 13. Retinal blood flow 17,1 2 Renin angiotensin system 20.
Angiotensin II 21,Angiotensin converting enzyme 22. Angiotensin converting enzyme II 23,Angiotensin 1 7 23. Other components of the RAS 24,Local RAS 24,Local RAS in the retina 25. 1 3 RAS and ophthalmic diseases 27,Diabetic retinopathy 28. Retinopathy of prematurity 29,Age related macular degeneration 30.
Glaucoma 30,1 4 Drugs and the RAS system 32,Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors 32. Angiotensin receptor blockers 34,2 Methods 37,2 1 Myograph 37. 2 2 Solutions and chemicals 38,Krebs solution 38,2 3 Experimental procedure 40. 2 4 Myograph maintenance 45,Myograph calibration 45. Force transducer 45,2 5 Data collection and analysis 45.
3 Results 47,3 1 Epinephrine 47,3 2 Angiotensin II 48. 3 3 Angiotensin I 50,3 4 Diminazeneaceturate 52,3 5 Captopril 54. 4 Discussions 57,References 61,List of figures, Figure 1 Blood flow to the eye Kitaba et al 2013 14. Figure 2 The ocular circulation Part A shows the vascular supply of. the retina and choroid Part B shows the vasculature of the. retina and choroid Kur et al 2012 15, Figure 3 The vascular supply of the fovea Anand Apte Hollyfield. Figure 4 Schematric diagram of the main components of the RAS. Fletcher et al 2010 21, Figure 5 The RAS components and their effects on ROP and DP.
Wilkinson Berka Agrotis Deliyanti 2012 28,Figure 6 Bovine eye before dissection 40. Figure 7 Scissors were used to cut around the cornea which was. then lifted from the eye 41,Figure 8 The posterior part of the eye 41. Figure 9 The vessel segment from the top of the choroid being. removed 42, Figure 10 The vessel segment has been pined down and arteriole. has been threaded 43,Figure 11 Small vessel Myograph 410a 43. Figure 12 The Myograph chamber 44, Figure 13 The contraction in mN on wall tension in bovine retinal.
arterioles elicited by Epinephrine in the strength 10 4. 0 31 0 20 mN n 5 47, Figure 14 The average contraction in mN on wall tension in bovine. retinal arterioles elicited by Ang II 48,Figure 15 Ang II cumulative response curve 49. Figure 16 The contraction in mN on wall tension in bovine retinal. arterioles elicited by Ang I in the strength 10 4 50. Figure 17 Ang I cumulative response curve Each dose was added. on the top of the other 51, Figure 18 The contraction of Ang II in different strengths orange. and the contraction of Ang II after DIZE had been admitted. Figure 19 The contraction of Ang I in different strengths orange. and the contraction of Ang II after DIZE had been admitted. Figure 20 Ang I in the strength 10 orange and Ang I after. Captopril blue 55,List of tables,Table 1 Krebs solution 38. Table 2 Chemicals used in the research 39,List of abbreviations.
Age related macular degeneration AMD,Angiotensin converting enzyme II ACE2. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ACE inhibitor. Angiotensin converting enzyme ACE1,Angiotensin I Ang I. Angiotensin II Ang II,Angiotensin receptor blocker ARB. Angiotensin receptor type 1 AT1R,Angiotensin receptor type 2 AT2R. Diabetic retinopathy DP,Diminazeneaceturate DIZE,Intra ocular pressure IOP.
Nitric oxide NO,Renin angiotensin system RAS,Retina derived relaxing factor RRF. Retinopathy of prematurity ROP,Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF. Pro renin receptor P RR,Acknowledgements, This study was conducted at the Neuroscience Laboratory at Borgir. University of Akureyri and was largely executed by the author and Arnar. ssur Har arsson under the supervision of rs ll M r Arnarsson Kristinn P. Magn sson and Stef n B Sigur sson, The sampling material was mainly supplied by the B Jensen abattoir and. partly from Nor lenska abattoir The KEA University of Akureyri research. fund contributed to this project I would like to thank these contributers for. their valuable support, My supervisor rs ll M r Arnarsson I would like to thank for his.
cooperation valuable guidance encouragement and finally for teaching me. one of the most important things in life not to give up Stef n B Sigur sson I. would like to thank for his valued instructions and for his endless interest in. this project Kristinn P Magn sson I would like to thank for valuable support. and advice Sean Michael Scully I would like to thank for all the help. provided My sister Sigr n Halla G slad ttir I would like to thank for. reviewing this essay To the employees at the Icelandic Institute of Natural. history Fri bj rn M ller and everyone that have helped making this research. possible thank you, To my family and friends thanks for all the support and patience Finally I. would like to think my beloved Arnar r Arnarsson for being supportive. patient helpful for believing in me and putting up with me no matter what. 1 Introduction, In this study the contractility of small vessels in bovine retina was examined. using Myograph technology The aim was to investigate the effects of the. local renin angiotensin pathway on the contractility in those retinal arterioles. To this end effect of Epinephrine Angiotensin II Ang II Angiotensin I. Ang I Captopril and Diminazeneaceturate DIZE on the contractility of. bovine arterioles was studied,1 1 Ocular blood flow. The circulatory system has important role it transfers nutrients and chemicals. necessary for cellular function Dorrell Friedlander Smith 2007 The. majority of the ocular blood supply is provided through the ophthalmic. artery A branch of the ophthalmic artery is the central retinal artery which. supplies blood to the the inner layers of the retina The central retinal artery. enters the optic disc through the lamina cribrosa There it branches into four. principal intra retinal arteries The arterioles bifurcate to form smaller. arteriole branches and terminal arterioles which feed into a capillary bed as. they extend toward the peripheral retina Retinal arterioles are typically. surrounded by a capillary free zone because of the higher oxygen content of. the blood they carry Kur Newman Chan ling 2012 Kitaba Martin. Gopalakrishnan Tobias 2013 Mackenzie Cioffi 2008 Anand Apte. Lykilor Renin angiotensin kerfi Angiotensin II Angiotensin I Captoril Diminazeneaceturate DIZE bl fl i um augnbotn Abstract In this in vivo study the contractility of small vessels in bovine retina was examined using Myograph technology The purpose was to investigate the effects of the local renin angiotensin pathway on the contractility in those retinal arterioles RAS has

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