The Alchemy of Happiness nur nu

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TRANSLATED BY CLAUD FIELD 1910, Notes in are editorial notes that were not in the original copy of this work. Renan whose easy going mind was the exact antithesis to the intense earnestness of. Ghazzali called him the most original mind among Arabian philosophers 1. Notwithstanding this his fame as a philosopher has been greatly overshadowed by. Avicenna his predecessor and Averroes his successor and opponent It is a significant. fact that the Encyclopaedia Britannica devotes five columns to each of the others and. only a column and a half to Ghazzali Yet it is doubtful whether it is as a philosopher that. he would have wished to be chiefly remembered Several of his works it is true are. polemics against the philosophers especially his Tehafot al falasifa or Destruction of. the Philosophers and as Solomon Munk says in his Melanges de philosophic Juive et. Arabe Ghazzali dealt a fatal blow to Arabian philosophy in the East from which it. never recovered though it revived for a while in Spain and culminated in Averroes. Philosopher and sceptic as he was by nature Ghazzali s chief work was that of a. theologian moralist and mystic though his mysticism was strongly balanced by. common sense He had as he tells us in his Confessions experienced conversion God. had arrested him on the edge of the fire and thenceforth what Browning says of the. French poet Rene Gentilhomme was true of him,Human praises scare. Rather than soothe ears all a tingle yet,With tones few hear and live and none forget. In the same work he tells us that one of his besetting weaknesses had been the craving for. applause and in Ihya ul ulum Revival of the Religious Sciences he devotes a long. chapter to the dangers involved in a love of notoriety and the cure for it. After his conversion he retired into religious seclusion for eleven years at Damascus a. corner of the mosque there still bears his name The Ghazzali Corner and Jerusalem. where he gave himself up to intense and prolonged meditation But he was too noble a. character to concentrate himself entirely on his own soul and its eternal prospects The. requests of his children and other family affairs of which we have no exact information. caused him to return home Besides this the continued progress of the Ismailians. connected with the famous Assassins the spread of irreligious doctrines and the. increasing religious indifference of the masses not only filled Ghazzali and his Sufi. friends with profound grief but determined them to stem the evil with the whole force of. their philosophy the ardour of vital conviction and the authority of noble example. Ghazzali 4 SIME journal majalla org, In his autobiography referred to above Ghazzali tells us that after emerging from a state. of Pyrrhonic the doctrines of a school of ancient extreme skeptics who suspended judgment on every proposition. scepticism he had finally arrived at the conclusion that the mystics were on the right path. and true Arfin or Knowers of God 2 But in saying this he meant those Sufis whose. mysticism did not carry them into extravagant utterances like that of Mansur Hallaj who. was crucified at Baghdad A D 922 for exclaiming I am the Truth or God In his. Ihya ul ulum Ghazzali says The matter went so far that certain persons boasted of a. union with the Deity and that in His unveiled presence they beheld Him and enjoyed. familiar converse with Him saying Thus it was spoken unto us and thus we speak. Bayazid Bistami ob A D 875 is reported to have exclaimed Glory be to me This. style of discourse exerts a very pernicious influence on the common people Some. husbandmen indeed letting their farms run to waste set up similar pretensions for. themselves for human nature is pleased with maxims like these which permit one to. neglect useful labour with the idea of acquiring spiritual purity through the attainment of. certain mysterious degrees and qualities This notion is productive of great injury so that. the death of one of these foolish babblers would be a greater benefit to the cause of true. religion than the saving alive often of them, For himself Ghazzali was a practical mystic His aim was to make men better by leading.
them from a merely notional acquiescence in the stereotyped creed of Islam to a real. knowledge of God The first four chapters of The Alchemy of Happiness are a. commentary on the famous verse in the Hadis traditional sayings of Muhammad He. who knows himself knows God He is especially scornful of the parrot like repetition of. orthodox phrases Thus alluding to the almost hourly use by Muhammadans of the. phrase I take refuge in God Na udhib illah Ghazzali says in the Ihya ul ulum. Satan laughs at such pious ejaculations Those who utter them are like a man who. should meet a lion in a desert while there is a fort at no great distance and when he sees. the evil beast should stand exclaiming I take refuge in that fortress without moving a. step towards it What will such an ejaculation profit him In the same way the mere. exclamation I take refuge in God will not protect thee from the terrors of His judgment. unless thou really take refuge in Him It is related of some unknown Sufi that when. asked for a definition of religious sincerity he drew a red hot piece of iron out of a. blacksmith s forge and said Behold it This red hot sincerity is certainly. characteristic of Ghazzali and there is no wonder that he did not admire his. contemporary Omar Khayyam, The little picture of the lion and the fort in the above passage is a small instance of. another conspicuous trait in Ghazzali s mind his turn for allegory Emerson says. Whoever thinks intently will find an image more or less luminous rise in his mind In. Ghazzali s writings many such images arise some grotesque and some beautiful His. alleeorv of the soul as a fortress beleasruered bv the armies of Satan is a striking. anticipation of the Holy War of Bunyan The greatest of all the Sufi poets Jalaluddin. Rumi born a century after Ghazzali s death A D 1207 has paid him the compliment of. incorporating several of these allegories which occur in the Ihya into his own Masnavi. Such is the famous one of the Chinese and Greek artists which runs as follows. Ghazzali 5 SIME journal majalla org, Once upon a time the Chinese having challenged the Greeks to a trial of skill in painting. the Sultan summoned them both into edifices built for the purpose directly facing each. other and commanded them to show proof of their art The painters of the two nations. immediately applied themselves with diligence to their work The Chinese sought and. obtained of the king every day a great quantity of colours but the Greeks not the least. particle Both worked in profound silence until the Chinese with a clangor of cymbals. and of trumpets announced the end of their labours Immediately the king with his. courtiers hastened to their temple and there stood amazed at the wonderful splendour of. the Chinese painting and the exquisite beauty of the colours But meanwhile the Greeks. who had not sought to adorn the walls with paints but laboured rather to erase every. colour drew aside the veil which concealed their work Then wonderful to tell the. manifold variety of the Chinese colours was seen still more delicately and beautifully. reflected from the walls of the Grecian temple as it stood illuminated by the rays of the. midday sun, This parable of course illustrates the favourite Sufi tenet that the heart must be kept pure. and calm as an unspotted mirror Similarly the epilogue of the elephant in the dark vide. chap II has been borrowed by Jalaluddin Rumi from Ghazzali. Another characteristic of Ghazzali which appeals to the modern mind is the way in which. he expounds the religious argument from probability much as Bishop Butler and. Browning do vide the end of Chapter IV in the present book Ghazzali might have said. with Blougram,With me faith means perpetual unbelief. Kept quiet like the snake neath Michael s foot,Who stands calm just because he feels it writhe.
This combination of ecstatic assurance and scepticism is one of those antinomies. fundamental and apparently unresolvable conflict or contradiction of the human mind which annoy the. rationalist and rejoice the mystic Those in whom they co exist like Ghazzali in the. eleventh century and Cardinal Newman in the nineteenth are a perpetual problem to. understand and therefore perennially interesting,He may believe and yet and yet. How can he, Another point in which Ghazzali anticipates Bishop Butler is his representation of. punishment as the natural working out of consequences and not an arbitrary infliction. imposed ab extra He tries to rationalise the lurid threatenings of the Koran. In his own day Ghazzali was accused of having one doctrine for the multitude and one. for himself and his intimate friends Professor D B Macdonald of Hartford after going. thoroughly into the matter says If the charge of a secret doctrine is to be proved against. Ghazzali it must be on other and better evidence than that which is now before us. Ghazzali 6 SIME journal majalla org, At any rate Ghazzali has been accepted as an orthodox authority by the Muhammadans. among whom his title is Hujjat el lslam The Proof of Islam and it has been said If. all the books of Islam were destroyed it would be but a slight loss if only the Ihya of. Ghazzli were preserved The great modern reformer of Islam in India the late Sir Syed. Ahmed has had some portions of this enormous work printed separately for the purpose. of familiarising the young Moslems at Aligarh with Ghazzali. The Ihya was written in Arabic and Ghazzali himself wrote an abridgment of it in Persian. for popular use which he entitled Kimiya e Saadat The Alchemy of Happiness This. little book contains eight sections of that abridgment. Theologians are the best judges of theologians and in conclusion we may quote Dr. August Tholuck s opinion of Ghazzali This man if ever any have deserved the name. was truly a divine and he may be justly placed on a level with Origen so remarkable. was he for learning and ingenuity and gifted with such a rare faculty for the skilful and. worthy exposition of doctrine All that is good noble and sublime that his great soul had. compassed he bestowed upon Muhammadanism and he adorned the doctrines of the. Koran with so much piety and learning that in the form given them by him they seem in. my opinion worthy the assent of Christians Whatsoever was most excellent in the. philosophy of Aristotle or in the Sufi mysticism he discreetly adapted to the. Muhammadan theology from every school he sought the means of shedding light and. honour upon religion while his sincere piety and lofty conscientiousness imparted to all. his writings a sacred majesty He was the first of Muhammadan divines. 1 Renan Averroes et Averroisme, 2 It may be noted that there was a contemporary sect called Laadrria agnostics. THE ALCHEMY OF HAPPINESS,INTRODUCTION, Know O beloved that man was not created in jest or at random but marvelously made.
and for some great end Although he is not from everlasting yet he lives for ever and. though his body is mean and earthly yet his spirit is lofty and divine When in the. crucible of abstinence he is purged from carnal passions he attains to the highest and in. place of being a slave to lust and anger becomes endued with angelic qualities Attaining. that state he finds his heaven in the contemplation of Eternal Beauty and no longer in. fleshly delights The spiritual alchemy which operates this change in him like that which. transmutes base metals into gold is not easily discovered nor to be found in the house of. every old woman It is to explain that alchemy and its methods of operation that the. author has undertaken this work which he has entitled The Alchemy of Happiness Now. the treasuries of God in which this alchemy is to be sought are the hearts of the. prophets and he who seeks it elsewhere will be disappointed and bankrupt on the day of. judgment when he hears the word We have lifted the veil from off thee and thy sight. to day is keen, God has sent on earth a hundred and twenty four thousand prophets 1 to teach men the. prescription of this alchemy and how to purify their hearts from baser qualities in the. crucible of abstinence This alchemy may be briefly described as turning away from the. world to God and its constituents are four,1 The knowledge of self. 2 The knowledge of God,3 The knowledge of this world as it really is. 4 The knowledge of the next world as it really is, We shall now proceed to expound these four constituents in order. 1 This is the fixed number of the prophets according to Muhammadan tradition. Ghazzali 8 SIME journal majalla org,THE KNOWLEDGE OF SELF.
Knowledge of self is the key to the knowledge of God according to the saying He who. knows himself knows God 1 and as it is written in the Koran We will show them. Our signs in the world and in themselves that the truth may be manifest to them Now. THE ALCHEMY OF HAPPINESS by Imam Al Ghazzali TRANSLATED BY CLAUD FIELD 1910 Notes in are editorial notes that were not in the original copy of this work PREFACE Renan whose easy going mind was the exact antithesis to the intense earnestness of Ghazzali called him the most original mind among Arabian philosophers 1 Notwithstanding this his fame as a philosopher has been greatly

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