Technical Advisory on Working Safely in Confined Spaces

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1 Preface 04,2 Scope 05,3 Definitions 06,3 1 Confined Space 06. 3 2 Characteristics of Confined Space 06,3 3 Responsible Person 06. 3 4 Authorised Manager 06,3 5 Competent Person 07,3 6 Confined Space Safety Assessor 07. 3 7 Confined Space Attendant 07,3 8 Entrant 07,3 9 Confined Space Entry Permit 07. 3 10 Entry 07,3 11 Hazardous Atmosphere 07,4 Introduction 08.
4 1 Background 08, 4 1 1 Why Working in Confined Spaces is Hazardous 08. 4 1 2 Why Entry into a Confined Space is Needed 08. 4 2 Requirements for Working Safely in Confined Spaces 08. 4 3 Types of Injury 09,5 Risk Management Approach to Confined Spaces 10. 5 1 Key Elements of Risk Assessment for Confined Spaces 10. 5 1 1 Assess Need for Entry into a Confined Space 10. 5 1 2 Identification and Evaluation of Confined Spaces 10. 5 1 3 Control of Confined Space Hazards 11,5 2 Communication 11. 5 3 Periodic Risk Assessment 12,5 4 Documentation 12. 6 Types Of Hazards in Confined Spaces 13,6 1 Suffocation Hazards By Oxygen Deficiency 13.
6 2 Fire Explosion Hazards By Flammable Gases and Vapours 14. 6 3 Poisoning By Toxic Gases Vapours or Fumes 15,6 4 Other Confined Space Hazards 16. 7 Working Safely in Confined Spaces 19,7 1 Confined Space Entry Permit 19. Year of Issue 2010 7 2 Information Required on the Entry Permit 19. 7 3 Risk Assessment 20,7 4 Issuance of Entry Permit 20. 7 4 1 STAGE 1 Application of Entry Permit by Supervisor 21 9 Training for Personnel Involved in Confined Space Entry and Work 59. 7 4 2 STAGE 2 Evaluation by Confined Space Safety Assessor 21 9 1 Personnel to be Trained 59. 7 4 3 STAGE 3 Issuance by Authorised Manager 21 9 2 Planning an Effective Training Programme 60. 7 4 4 STAGE 4 Posting of Entry Permit 21 9 3 Elements of Training and Training Courses 60. 7 5 Display of Entry Permit 22 9 3 1 Key Elements of Training 61. 7 6 Review and Endorsement of Entry Permit 22 9 3 2 Training Courses 64. 7 7 Revocation of Entry Permit 22 9 4 Criteria for Training Refresher or Supplementary Training 64. 7 8 Re certification of Confined Spaces 22 9 5 Competency of Trainers 64. 7 9 Record Keeping 23 9 6 Assessment of Training 65. 7 10 Control of Hazardous Energy 23, 7 10 1 Energy Isolation and Lockout 23 10 Annexes 66. 7 10 2 Forms of Hazardous Energy 24 10 1 Annex 1 Guidelines for Welding in Confined Spaces 66. 7 11 General Requirements 24 10 1 1 Local Exhaust Ventilation System 66. 7 11 1 Openings of Confined Spaces 24 10 1 2 Dilution or Forced Ventilation 66. 7 11 2 Barricade 24 10 2 Annex 2 Guidelines for Painting in Confined Spaces 66. 7 11 3 Communication Warning Signs 24 10 2 1 Spray Painting 66. 7 11 4 Confined Space Attendant CSA 25 10 2 2 Brush and Roller Painting 66. 7 11 5 Access and Egress 25 10 3 Annex 3 Sample of Confined Space Entry Permit 67. 7 11 6 Display of Name and Identification Badge 25 10 4 Annex 4 Sample Flowchart of Permit Application 69. 7 11 7 Communication 26 10 5 Annex 5 Sample of Risk Assessment 70. 7 11 8 Lighting and Electrical Equipment 26 10 6 Annex 6 Energy Isolation and Lockout Methods 74. 7 11 9 Respiratory Protective Equipment 27 10 6 1 Lockout Devices 74. 7 11 10 Gas Testing and Monitoring of the Confined Space Atmosphere 31 10 6 2 Methods of Isolation from Contaminants 75. 7 11 11 What to Test and What are the Acceptable Limits 32 10 6 3 Methods of Isolation from Moving Parts 76. 7 11 12 Types of Testing Methods Equipment 32 10 6 4 Removal of Means of Isolation 76. 7 11 13 Testing Procedures and Considerations 33 10 7 Annex 7 Confined Space Plan Checklist 77. 7 11 14 Continuous Monitoring and Frequency of Tests 36. 7 11 15 Maintenance of Equipment General 36 11 Case Studies 80. 7 12 Purging and Ventilation 42 11 1 Case 1 Explosion from Chemical Storage Tank 80. 7 12 1 Purging 42 11 2 Case 2 Exposure to Phosgene Gas during Gas Testing 81. 7 12 2 Ventilation 43 11 3 Case 3 Toxic Poisoning in Food Reactor 82. 11 4 Case 4 Death by Suffocation 83,8 Emergency and Rescue Procedures 51.
8 1 Establishment of Rescue Operation Plans 51 12 Acknowledgements 85. 8 2 Rescue Arrangements 51,8 3 Rescue Considerations 52 13 References 86. 8 3 1 Characteristics when Deciding the Appropriate Rescue Plan 52. 8 3 2 Conducting of Drills 53 14 List of Figures 88. 8 4 Rescue Logistics 53, 8 5 Training of Rescue Personnel 55 15 List of Tables 90. 8 6 Provision of Rescue Equipment 55,8 6 1 Supplied Air breathing Apparatus 56. 8 6 2 Full Body Harness with Lifeline 56,8 6 3 Hoist Retrieval System 56. 8 6 4 Resuscitating Equipment 56,8 6 5 Personal Protective Equipment 57.
8 6 6 Availability and Maintenance 57,8 7 Provision of Safety Data Sheet 58. 1 Preface 2 Scope, Confined spaces can be deadly This Technical Advisory TA aims to provide detailed information on what needs to be done to. meet the requirements of relevant legislation and Code s of Practice in all workplaces where. Many people are killed or seriously injured in confined spaces each year in Singapore According entry into or work in confined spaces is required It also aims to provide practical guidance on the. to the Workplace Safety and Health Council1 10 of workplace fatalities were due to work necessary measures for safe entry into and work in confined spaces. related accidents in confined spaces, These fatal accidents happened across a range of industries from complex plants to simple. storage vessels Those killed were not only people who worked in the confined spaces but also. those who tried to rescue them, Therefore it is important to implement good safety practices to ensure a safe working. environment for everyone, Workplace Safety and Health Council 2008 Workspace Safety Health 2008 National Statistics Singapore.
3 Definitions 3 5 Competent Person, A competent person refers to a person who has sufficient experience and training to perform. the work required to be carried out,3 6 Confined Space Safety Assessor. A confined space safety assessor is a safety assessor appointed under regulation 9 b of the WSH. 3 1 Confined Space Confined Spaces Regulations, A confined space is any chamber tank manhole vat silo pit pipe flue or any other enclosed. space in which,3 7 Confined Space Attendant, dangerous gases vapours or fumes are liable to be present to such an extent as to involve risk A confined space attendant is an attendant appointed under regulation 22 of the WSH Confined. of fire or explosion or persons being overcome thereby Spaces Regulations. the supply of air is inadequate or is likely to be reduced to be inadequate for sustaining. 3 8 Entrant, there is a risk of engulfment by material A person required to enter confined spaces to carry out inspections or work.
3 2 Characteristics of Confined Space 3 9 Confined Space Entry Permit. A confined space is any enclosed or partially enclosed area that Confined space entry permit means a permit issued under regulation 13 of the WSH Confined. is not primarily designed or intended for human occupancy Spaces Regulations. has a restricted entrance or exit by way of location size or means. may contain a hazardous atmosphere 3 10 Entry, contains material that could trap or bury an entrant Entry refers to ingress by persons into a confined space This occurs when a person s head. has such a shape that an entrant could become trapped or asphyxiated or passes through an opening into the confined space. can present a risk to the health and safety of anyone who enters due to one or more of the. following factors 3 11 Hazardous Atmosphere, i its design construction location or atmosphere Hazardous atmosphere means an atmosphere where. ii the materials or substances in it the level of oxygen in the atmosphere is less than 19 5 or more than 23 5 by volume. iii work activities being carried out in it or the level of flammable gases or vapours in the atmosphere is 10 or more than its Lower. iv the mechanical electrical process and safety hazards present Explosive Limit LEL or. the levels of toxic substances in the atmosphere exceed the Permissible Exposure Levels. PEL as specified in the First Schedule of the WSH General Provisions Regulations. 3 3 Responsible Person, A responsible person in relation to a person entering or working in a confined space is. his employer or, the principal under whose direction he enters or works in the confined space. 3 4 Authorised Manager, An authorised manager is a person appointed under regulation 9 of the Workplace Safety.
and Health WSH Confined Spaces Regulations and includes any other person appointed to. perform the duties of an authorised manager by the responsible person. 4 Introduction, Safety and health training on working in confined spaces for workers and supervisors. Emergency rescue operations in confined spaces which include the establishment of a rescue. plan and provision of rescue equipment for confined space. Appointment of a confined space attendant and,The worker is fit to work in confined spaces. 4 1 Background 4 3 Types of Injury, 4 1 1 Why Working in Confined Spaces is Hazardous According to Workplace Safety Health 2008 National Statistics about 10 of workplace. Working in confined spaces is more hazardous than working in other workplaces because fatalities in 2008 were related to accidents in confined spaces. The entrances exits of confined spaces might not allow the entrant to evacuate effectively if. there is a flood or collapse of free flowing material. Self rescue by entrant is more difficult 2008 2007. Rescue of the victim is more difficult The interior configuration of a confined space often. restricts the movement of people or equipment within it Total 67 63. Natural ventilation alone is often not sufficient to maintain breathable quality air because the Falls from height 19 23. interior configuration of some confined spaces does not allow air movement to circulate. Struck by falling objects 14 12,Conditions can change very quickly. Due to collapse or failure of structure and equipment 8 5. The space outside the confined space can impact on the conditions inside the confined From heights 6 7. space and vice versa or,Struck by moving objects 12 5.
Work activities may introduce hazards not present initially By prime movers trailers roll on bin truck 5 2. Fires and explosions 5 7, 4 1 2 Why Entry into a Confined Space is Needed Occuring in confined spaces 3 3. People enter a confined space for,Caught in between objects 4 5. Electrocution 4 2,Inspection, Maintenance and repair Collapse of tower crane 3 0. Construction or Slips and trips 2 2, Rescue etc Other incident types e g drowning exposure to heat 0 5. Figure 1 Number of workplace fatalities by type of incident 2007 and 2008 Workplace Safety Health. 4 2 Requirements for Working Safely in Confined Spaces 2008 National Statistics. When any person enters or carries out any work in a confined space the Employer and or. Principal shall comply with the regulations strictly Under the legislation the responsible person. The types of injuries relevant to confined space accidents include. has to ensure safe entry working in confined spaces These include. Injuries arising from fire and explosion, Identification Record Warning Signs Information of all confined spaces at the workplace.
Loss of consciousness or asphyxiation arising from harmful gases vapours or fumes free. Evaluation of the need for entry into the confined space. flowing solids or lack of oxygen, Safe means of access to and egress from the confined space. Drowning arising from an increase in level of liquid. Safe practices for opening the entrance of a confined space. Heat related disorders, Sufficient and suitable lighting for entry into or work in a confined space. Electrocution, Adequate ventilation of the space to sustain life before entry and during work in a confined. Physical contact with moving or rotating parts and. Falls from height, Procedures and control of entry into a confined space including gas testing. 5 Risk Management Approach to 5 1 3 Control of Confined Space Hazards. It is important to follow the steps in the hierarchy of control measures to manage the identified. Confined Spaces risks,Elimination, Eliminate all hazards in the space or control the hazards so that the entrants can accomplish their.
tasks and exit the space safely For example disconnect Lockout Tagout LOTO all electrical. In line with WSH Risk Management Regulations 2006 risk assessments must be conducted to energy sources of equipment in the confined space to eliminate the hazards remove remnants. identify safety and health hazards associated with personnel entering and working in confined of sludge and remove any potential trapped products or gases through continual cleaning. spaces and to implement reasonable practicable measures to eliminate or mitigate the risks. Substitution, Instead of entering a confined space to carry out an activity consider the possibility of using. 5 1 Key Elements of Risk Assessment for Confined Spaces alternative methods to do the job without entering For example using a vacuum machine and. Conducting risk assessments is the key to reducing risks related to entering and working in an extended hose to suck out the sludge instead of having workers enter the confined space to. confined spaces Everyone from employer to worker must work together to ensure that the risk manually remove it. assessment process identifies any expected risk and adopt all reasonably practicable measures. Technical Advisory on Working Safely in Confined Spaces Year of Issue 2010 1 Preface 04 2 Scope 05 3 Definitions 06 3 1 Confined Space 06 3 2 Characteristics of Confined Space 06 3 3 Responsible Person 06 3 4 Authorised Manager 06 3 5 Competent Person 07 3 6 Confined Space Safety Assessor 07 3 7 Confined Space Attendant 07 3 8 Entrant 07 3 9 Confined Space Entry Permit 07 3 10 Entry 07 3

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