Sustainable management of Pinus radiata plantations

Sustainable Management Of Pinus Radiata Plantations-Free PDF

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2 Sustainable management of Pinus radiata plantations. life of a stand Figure 1 1 After a stand is harvested the cycle begins anew but the. removal of mature trees causes dramatic changes to the microclimate The new planting. site may differ from the previous rotation because of harvesting impacts and changing. weed and pest spectra Such changes will influence silvicultural practices The cyclic. continuum shown in Figure 1 1 is an example of a systems approach the individual. operations should be viewed as part of an integrated system rather than as subjects. in their own right One way of ensuring this integration is to define the desired state. that will achieve the management objectives It is also important to use an adaptive. management approach in which the plantations are monitored and management is. altered as needed, This book describes the underlying biological mechanisms or processes that occur. in trees and stands thus enabling the plantation manager to determine appropriate. management responses in differing situations However as this is not a physiological. text that aspect is covered only lightly, The book places considerable emphasis on principles as this enables knowledge to. be applied to different situations Technology is constantly changing the weed control. techniques used today are quite different from those of only 30 years ago and no doubt. will continue to change but the principles behind weed control are likely to endure. The book illustrates these principles through examples that show how various forest. managers have approached their specific situations and requirements. FIGURE 1 1, The plantation cycle with major operations related to the planting stock production. establishment stand tending and clearfelling of the crop. Plant production,Establishment,Seed via tree breeding. Site preparation,Vegetative methods,Clearfelling Pruning and thinning.
Harvesting and Fertilizer,end use Disease and pest control. Overview 3,HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, Pinus radiata D Don without doubt the best known expatriate of the North. American conifers is the world s most extensively planted exotic softwood The. specific name radiata comes from its radiating cone scales In early literature the. species was often called P insignis Doug as it was separately described a little later. by Douglas Bannister 1954 Lavery and Mead 1998 The almost universal common. name for the species and the timber is radiata pine or pino radiata in Spanish but it. is still referred to as Monterey pine in the United States of America and some other. English speaking countries or as pino insigne or pino de Monterrey in some Spanish. speaking areas Insignis or insigne in Spanish can be translated as remarkable a. term that the species lives up to, Radiata pine was first formally described by David Don Professor of Botany. at Kings College London to the Linnean Society on 2 June 1835 from specimens. collected in 1829 or 1830 by Dr Coulter Don 1836 Bannister 1954 However the. species was apparently first collected and taken to Europe in 1787 by the La P rouse. expedition and there are much earlier reports of the species in its native habitat and its. use as timber Bannister 1954 Contesse 1987 Libby 1997 Radiata pine at Monterey. was noted in Spanish records perhaps as early as 1542 and was used in the Carmel. Mission in 1769 Contesse 1987 In 1833 the Scot David Douglas of Douglas fir. fame apparently was responsible for the earliest successful introduction of the species. to England from seed collected in,FIGURE 1 2 1830 This appears to have been the. The Mt Peel radiata pine in Canterbury New first planting of radiata pine outside. Zealand planted in 1859 as a three year old its native habitat. The introduction of radiata,pine to Australia may have been.
as early as the 1840s although the,first record of seed was in 1857 for. the Melbourne and Sydney botanic,gardens 1 It is also recorded as being. in cultivation in Hobart in the same,year From 1859 seedlings from. this collection were distributed,widely in Victoria and later in other. states Two 3 year old plants from,Sydney were planted in 1859 by.
J B A Acland at Mt Peel in South,Canterbury New Zealand this is. the first recorded planting of radiata,pine in that country Figure 1 2. although there are unconfirmed,suggestions of earlier plantings in. Canterbury and Auckland The,earliest confirmed milling of radiata. pine was by Duncan Rutherford at,Culverdon Canterbury in 1893 the.
timber being used for farm buildings,During the 1860s there were further. introductions to both Australia and, Note The tree is 3 1 m in diameter and almost 50 m tall photograph. taken in 2010 New Zealand including a few larger,importations of seed direct from. California to New Zealand between, 1 This discussion on the introduction of radiata pine to countries is based on Contesse 1987 Libby. 1997 Lavery and Mead 1998 Burdon and Miller 1992 Shepherd 1990 Wu et al 2007 Johnson et al. 4 Sustainable management of Pinus radiata plantations. the late 1860s and the early 1880s It appears that most of the latter importations came. from the A o Nuevo area near San Fransisco Burdon 2001. The first commercial plantation of radiata pine in Australia was in 1876 at Bundaleer. in South Australia In the same year the species was also planted on coastal sand dunes. near Bunbury in Western Australia but that planting was a failure The first plantations. in New South Wales and Victoria were established in 1878 and 1880 respectively Even. though the New South Wales stands were milled in 1908 the first commercial radiata. pine plantation in New South Wales was planted in 1912 The first recorded use of. radiata pine wood in Australia for apple crates was in 1902 at Wirrabara in South. Australia The following year the South Australian Woods and Forests Department. established its own sawmill, In New Zealand the potential of radiata pine was also quickly recognized and by the.
mid 1870s it was being planted extensively for shelterbelts and woodlots particularly. in Canterbury In 1881 there were reported to be 3 284 hectares ha of radiata pine. plantations in Canterbury The plantings made up to the 1880s were presumably the. seed source for the major plantings that took place in New Zealand in the 1920s and. early 1930s, A few specimens of radiata pine were introduced unintentionally to Chile in. 1886 or perhaps a few years earlier but the first plantation of 10 ha was planted near. Concepci n in 1893 Contesse 1987 In the early 1900s the Government of Chile. hired a German forester Federico Albert who recommended planting radiata pine. and eucalypts to control severe soil erosion this led to the beginnings of a plantation. programme in 1910 although major plantings of radiata pine did not begin until. about 1935 Following the implementation of government subsidies to private growers. in 1974 there was a large increase in new radiata pine plantations. In Uruguay radiata pine was introduced in 1871 and was planted in the 1940s. and 1950s but most of those plantations were abandoned as the species proved. unsuitable In Ecuador radiata pine was introduced in 1905 with the first recorded. plot planted in 1925 at an altitude of 3 350 m Miller 1974 Garrison and Pita 1992. Radiata pine was planted between 3 000 m and 3 800 m from the 1960s with a total of. 20 000 ha established by 1990, Radiata pine was perhaps introduced to South Africa in about 1850 although the. records are poor The first plantation near Cape Town dates from 1885 Donald 1993. Interestingly the first recorded diseases of radiata pine were recorded there in 1893. Lundquist 1987, In Spain the first recorded planting of radiata pine was in 1840 in a botanical garden. near Lekeitio Goldazarena Rom n and L pez 2012 The species was not planted. widely until the 1950s, Finally as recently as 1990 radiata pine was introduced to Sichuan Province China. as a reforestation species Hui quan et al 2003, The planting of radiata pine as an exotic gave the species a new lease of life Before.
that it was a relict species in its natural habitat covering about 10 000 ha within 5 km. of the coast it was able to survive against more long lived species such as Douglas fir. because of its resilience to fire and the climatic niche Today the area of radiata pine. with a natural understorey Figure 1 3 in California is about 5 300 ha and there are. another 4 500 ha in developed areas with varying canopy cover Zander Associates. 2002 However estimates of the current area of radiata pine vary widely partly. because of this urbanization For example Rogers 2004 estimated the current area. of natural forest to be between 4 300 and 7 700 ha of which only 1 353 ha were fully. protected while Burdon 2001 suggested an intermediate figure There are 130 ha. of radiata pine remaining on Cedros Island and only 220 trees on Gaudalupe Island. Rogers 2004 In California the species is considered an amenity tree rather than a. timber species McDonald and Laacke 1990,Overview 5. Radiata pine belongs to the closed cone pine group subsection Attenuatae that. also includes P muricata and P attenuata Five provenances are recognized with. three taxonomic varieties The three mainland provenances A o Nuevo Monterey. and Cambria which are between latitudes 35 5 N and 37 N belong to var radiata. Most plantations are derived from the A o Nuevo and Monterey seed sources The. var binata comes from Guadalupe Island latitude 29 N and var cedrosensis from. Cedros Island latitude 28 N Both these varieties have paired needles and tend to have. FIGURE 1 3,Natural radiata pine stand at Monterey California. 6 Sustainable management of Pinus radiata plantations. persistent thin smooth bark More information on the natural stands and their ecology. can be found in McDonald and Laacke 1990, THE FOUR PHASES OF RADIATA PINE PLANTATION DEVELOPMENT. The history of radiata pine its discovery introduction domestication and development. is a fascinating story It has been suggested that the development of radiata pine into. the pre eminent exotic plantation conifer is the forestry equivalent of the development. of rice wheat and maize during the Green Revolution Bentley 1997 Table 1 1 shows. a timeline for key silvicultural and other technical developments We can also divide. this timeline into phases Figure 1 4, The discovery phase lasted from the eighteenth century through to the mid. 1870s in New Zealand and Australia and even longer in other countries In this phase. people started to become aware of the potential and limitations of radiata pine There. were early prophets such as Baron Von Mueller in Australia but at first most people. thought the species a curiosity Box 1 1 By the end of this phase however its virtue. of rapid growth coupled with reasonably wide site tolerance was starting to be. recognized, In the second acceptance phase perceptions evolved to the point where radiata.
pine was accepted as a prime candidate as a plantation species While this could be. seen as a natural progression given its performance for many people it required a. major shift in thinking The people promoting radiata pine had come from Europe. where they were accustomed to hardwoods like oaks and European beech and slower. growing conifers such as Baltic pine Many such people grew up equating slow growth. with high wood quality It was therefore a considerable leap of faith to accept fast. growing radiata pine a species unknown and unproven in its native country as a prime. candidate for timber supply Europe is only now beginning to accept radiata pine. timber for other than low value uses, Several conditions made the acceptance of radiata pine easier in the Southern. Hemisphere In parts of recently colonized countries settlers needed to plant trees for. FIGURE 1 4, Phases in the development of radiata pine plantation forestry. Acceptance,Development,Domestication,Consolidation. domesticated,Overview 7, Timeline for the domestication of radiata pine and the development of silviculture. Year Event Country People or group, 1786 87 First seed collected France La P rouse expedition.
1833 First nursery plants UK D Douglas collected 1830. 1839 First rooted cuttings Europe Nurserymen, 1840 Introduced to Spain Spain Carlos Ad n de Yarza. 1850 First seed imported to Southern SA,Hemisphere. 1857 First confirmed seed import Aus Botanical Gardens. 1859 First confirmed planting in NZ NZ J B A Acland Mt Peel. 1866 First commercial recommendation Aus F von Mueller. 1870 80s Shelter and first plantations NZ Aus,1880s Introduced Chile Chile A Junge. 1913 Large scale use recommended NZ Royal Commission. 1920 30 High pruning used SA a,1925 35 First planting boom NZ State and private. 1926 Wood properties NZ A R Entrican,1929 First newsprint used NZb.
1928 30 Biological control of Sirex NZc Cawthron Institute FRI. 1939 First fertilizer trial results Aus W V Ludbrook. 1950s Serious breeding begins NZ Aus SA Research institutes. 1955 First aerial application of phosphate NZd M J Conway. 1957 First seed orchards Aus NZ,1960s Mill studies NZ SA G S Brown and others. 1965 First computer growth model NZ Aus J W Shirley. 1968 Economic evaluation NZ R Fenton W R J Sutton,1968 Nutrient cycling NZe G M Will. of over a century of research observation and practice It is often considered a model for growers of other plantation species This book explores current knowledge and experience with radiata pine forest plantation management and examines its long term sustainability Forest plantations are stands of trees established by planting or artificial seeding Silviculture is the art and science of

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