STUDY OF THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND ACCEPTABILITY OF

Study Of The Nutritional Quality And Acceptability Of-Free PDF

  • Date:22 Nov 2020
  • Views:3
  • Downloads:0
  • Pages:9
  • Size:360.79 KB

Share Pdf : Study Of The Nutritional Quality And Acceptability Of

Download and Preview : Study Of The Nutritional Quality And Acceptability Of


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Study Of The Nutritional Quality And Acceptability Of


Transcription:

European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research. Vol 7 No 1 pp 29 37 March 2019, Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK www eajournals org. to eat foods such as biscuits are important drivers for nutritional enrichment Honda and Jood 2005. They represent an important part of the people s diet The introduction of legumes into the production. of biscuits is a way to improve the nutritional status of people. In developed countries such as France and Australia nutrition guides recommend adding of legumes. Jeppesen 2011 Ancellin 2011 Australian Dietary Guidelines summary 2013 Legumes are. characterized by high levels of protein 18 34 Evans and Boulter 1974 Hama Ba et al 2017. compared to cereals They are rich in essential amino acids such as lysine tryptophan and methionine. Frota et al 2017 Vasconcelos et al 2010 In addition legumes have the advantage of being. traditionally produced and consumed in many developing countries where nutritional deficiencies are. a public health problem According to the ICRISAT report 2015 over 80 of cowpea production. comes from sub Saharan Africa Many studies on the enrichment of biscuits with legumes have. yielded interesting nutritional and technological results Aaron et al 2013 Aziah et al 2012 In. Burkina Faso cowpeas and Bambara groundnut voandzou are two legumes that are traditionally. eaten and of good nutritional value Hama Ba et al 2017 In 2016 annual production amounted to. 571 304 tons for cowpea and 46 876 tons for voandzou MARHASA 2015. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the use of flours made from millet and cowpea. and Bambara groundnut called voandzou legumes on the nutritional quality and acceptability of. biscuits This study will be of great interest for the agri food industries working for the promotion of. local products and in the fight against the nutritional deficiencies of the people. MATERIALS AND METHODS,Biological material,Cereal and legume varieties. The cereal used are millet Pennissetum glaucum L with the Misari 1 variety The legumes used are. cowpea Vigna unguiculata L with the improved Tiligr variety and the voandzou Vigna. subteranea L with a local white variety of Nob r Nob r is located in the south center region of. Burkina Faso Cereal and legume varieties were obtained from seed researchers at the Institute for. Environment and Agricultural Research of Burkina Faso INERA. Ingredients, Ingredients added during biscuit production are sugar vegetable oil eggs milk corn starch baking. powder and bicarbonate The same amount has been added in the different formulations. Biscuit production,Formulations, The biscuits were produced from the formulations shown in Table 1 The control formulas consisted. solely of millet FM The other formulas are composed of millet and legumes with different. proportions with respectively 15 30 and 50 addition of cowpea FN and voandzou FV flour. Print ISSN ISSN 2054 6319 Print Online ISSN ISSN 2054 6327 online. European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research. Vol 7 No 1 pp 29 37 March 2019, Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK www eajournals org.
Tableau 1 Composition of different flours for biscuits production. Control Millet Cowpea flour FN Millet Voandzou flour FV. Ingredients Flour,FM 15 30 50 15 30 50,Millet flour 50 42 5 35 25 42 5 35 25. Cowpea Voand,0 7 5 15 25 7 5 15 25,Sugar 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5. 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5 12 5,Eggs 9 9 9 9 9 9 9. Milk powder,10 10 10 10 10 10 10,Starch Maize,3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5. Baking Powder,2 2 2 2 2 2 2,Bicarbonate 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5.
For the millet flour production the millet was washed very well and dried before grounded The. cowpea and voandzou seeds were soaked overnight then dried and grounded. Biscuit production, The ingredients were weighed according to the table 1 The dry products were mixed well then the. eggs were added The paste were cut into small squares The dough pieces were baked at 150 C for. 30 minutes The biscuits obtained were cooled for 10 minutes before packaged in plastic bags for. physico chemical analyzes,Biochemical composition, Biochemical tests were made on the raw materials and the biscuit samples from the formulations. They consisted of determining the water content macronutrient contents and those of iron zinc. The water content of the samples was determined by differential weighing of 5 g sample before and. after putting it in an oven at 130 C for 2 h according to the French standard NF V 03 707 2000. The protein content was determined according to the Kjeldahl method of the AFNOR standard NF. V03 050 1970 The conversion factor considered is 6 25. The lipid content was determined according to ISO 659 June 1998 with the Soxhlet extraction. The ash was determined by incineration in a muffle furnace at 550 C according to ISO 2171 2007. The carbohydrate content was calculated Egan et al 1981. Total Carbohydrate Content 100 protein lipid ash water. Iron contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry digestion of biscuit flours. by ashing according to the AOAC method, Print ISSN ISSN 2054 6319 Print Online ISSN ISSN 2054 6327 online. European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research. Vol 7 No 1 pp 29 37 March 2019, Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK www eajournals org. The energy value was calculated using the Atwater and Benedict coefficients 1899 according to the. following formula Energy Kcal 100g carbohydrates 4 Kcal proteins 4 Kcal. lipids 9 Kcal,Acceptability tests, A panel of 30 adults 15 women and 15 men assessed the biscuits A profile test and a hedonic test.
were performed The profile test focused on the color 1 very nice 2 nice 3 poor the smell 1. very pleasant 2 pleasant 3 fair 4 bad 5 very bad and the texture 1 very soft 2 soft 3 neither. soft nor hard 4 hard 5 very hard The hedonic test was performed on a hedonic scale of 5 points. 1 very pleasant 2 pleasant 3 neither pleasant nor unpleasant 4 unpleasant 5 very unpleasant. The plate of each taster is composed of biscuits of the 3 formulations of the same legume and a millet. based control biscuit,Statistical analysis, Averages and standard deviations were calculated on Excel Analysis of variance ANOVA was. performed using the Statgraphics Plus 5 1 software Each analysis was performed three times per. sample and an average was determined,Nutritional composition of raw materials. The nutritional composition of millet and legumes varieties were presented in the table 2 There is a. significant difference in protein lipids ash iron and zinc contents The protein content of legume. varieties is about 1 5 times higher than that of the millet variety Lipid levels are low for both millet. and legumes less than 7 Iron and zinc contents are low in millet cowpea and voandzou Only the. cowpea variety Tiligr has high iron contents of 7 06 mg 100 g 2 times higher than those of cereals. Tableau 2 Nutritional composition of raw material exprim en g 100 g de mati re s che. Misari 1 Tiligr cowpea Voandzou voandzou,Millet variety variety. Carbohydrates g 100 g 74 66 1 09 67 98 0 37 61 33 1 12. Lipids g 100 g 4 56 0 13 1 42 0 05 6 54 0 06,Proteins g 100 g 11 8 0 93 19 72 0 30 21 34 1 00. Ash g 100 g 1 53 004 2 92 0 01 3 02 0 02,Iron mg 100 g 5 02 0 03 7 06 0 21 3 23 0 23.
Zinc mg 100 g 3 01 0 23 2 65 0 09 1 85 0 27, Print ISSN ISSN 2054 6319 Print Online ISSN ISSN 2054 6327 online. European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research. Vol 7 No 1 pp 29 37 March 2019, Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK www eajournals org. Nutritional composition of biscuits, The nutritional analyzes results were presented in the table 3 and 4 respectively for cowpea and. voandzou formulations There was no significant difference P 0 05 between the lipid iron and zinc. contents of biscuits with millet cowpea and millet voandzou formulations While the difference. is significant in the levels of protein carbohydrates content and energy value. Tableau 3 Nutritional composition of biscuits with Millet Cowpea. Biscuit Biscuit Biscuit Biscuit,control Millet 15 Millet 30 Millet 50. cowpea cowpea cowpea,Humidity 6 38 0 09 6 77 0 11 7 40 0 06 8 57 0 08.
Carbohydrates 69 34 0 23 69 43 0 40 67 95 0 31 66 84 0 77. Lipids 20 15 0 13 19 19 0 33 18 33 0 20 17 92 0 48. Proteins 7 85 0 11 8 78 0 07 11 14 0 11 12 82 0 30. Energy 490 07 0 66 485 52 1 69 481 32 1 04 479 89 2 39. Iron 2 44 0 10 2 82 0 34 3 60 0 08 2 23 0 74,Zinc 2 22 0 10 2 10 0 12 2 05 0 01 1 94 0 14. Tableau 4 Nutritional composition of biscuits with Millet Voandzou. Biscuit Biscuit Biscuit,Voandzou Voandzou Voandzou. Humidy 5 74 0 16 6 26 0 02 8 00 0 09,Carbohydrates 67 74 0 28 68 65 0 22 68 26 0 23. Lipids 20 35 0 37 19 24 0 10 18 33 0 31,Proteins 9 19 0 08 9 34 0 11 10 47 0 08. Energy 490 90 1 87 485 09 0 50 479 87 1 56,Iron 1 64 0 18 1 85 0 41 1 87 0 19.
Zinc 1 71 0 10 1 71 0 17 1 94 0 18,Acceptability tests. Millet Cowpea Biscuit, Profile tests showed a significant difference p 0 05 for smell while there was no significant. difference in color and texture results For the control biscuits 15 and 30 were assessed as having. good smell while 50 cowpeas biscuits were assessed as having very bad smell All the biscuits were. assessed as having nice color At the texture level the 30 and 50 biscuits were assessed soft. compared to the 15 control biscuit which was assessed less soft In the hedonic test there is no. significant difference in the assessment of the biscuits From 30 the biscuits were considered neither. pleasant nor unpleasant while the control biscuits and those of 15 were assessed pleasant. Mil Voandzou Biscuits, The Mil Voandzou biscuits were assessed as having nice color and the control ones as having poor. color There is no significant difference in the smell of biscuits The control biscuit was assessed as. having good smell and the voandzou biscuits were assessed as having fair smell All the biscuits were. assessed soft, Print ISSN ISSN 2054 6319 Print Online ISSN ISSN 2054 6327 online. European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research. Vol 7 No 1 pp 29 37 March 2019, Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK www eajournals org.
The hedonic test showed a pleasant appreciation for all the biscuits except the 50 voandzou biscuit. which was considered unpleasant,DISCUSSION, The Misari 1 variety like the other varieties of millet is characterized by a high carbohydrate content. and a low fat content The cowpea and voandzou varieties used have protein contents 2 to 3 times. higher than cereals Similar results were obtained on some cowpea and voandzou varieties consumed. in Burkina Faso Hama Ba et al 2017, The biscuits formulated have moisture contents of less than 13 High moisture content has been. associated with short shelf life of baked products as they encourage microbial proliferation that lead. to spoilage Ezeama 2007 avoiding any microbial growth The carbohydrate lipid protein and. energy contents of the various biscuits are in accordance with the recommendations of the Codex. Alimentarius STAN 074 1981 Rev 2006 E, The energy values of the biscuits are high For all biscuits the energetic value of biscuits is dominated. by carbohydrates 60 to 70 It decreases when the proportion of legumes increases because of. the importance of carbohydrates in cereals Millet supplementation with legumes improved protein. levels The control biscuit has a low protein content Cereal based biscuits are poor nutritional value. Protein levels of 5 4 and 10 5 were reported respectively by Adeyeye and Akingbala 2014 on. corn biscuits and by Folorunso et al 2016 on rice biscuits The protein content of biscuits increases. as the quantity of legume flour increases Similar results were obtained with wheat biscuits. supplemented with chickpeas and mung beans Aziah et al 2012 The cowpea biscuits have higher. protein contents than the voandzou biscuits Nearly 35 of protein losses were noticed in voandzou. enriched biscuits Legumes are rich in soluble proteins 51 of globulins and 45 of albumins. Freitas et al 2004, Legume supplementation did not improve the iron and zinc levels of biscuits The cowpea biscuits. have higher iron and zinc contents than those in the voandzou The cowpea has iron contents 2 times. higher than that of the voandzou However significant losses were observed during processing. operations including soaking resulting in reduced iron and zinc levels. On the organoleptic level supplementation with cowpea and voandzou improved the color of the. biscuits The color of the voandzou biscuits has a better average In terms of texture the addition of. cowpea hardened the biscuits while that of the voandzou did not change the texture of the control. biscuit Biscuits supplemented with legumes are accepted up to 30 of supplementation At 50 the. smell and taste of biscuits has changed significantly At 15 the supplemented biscuits are not. significantly different from the control millet biscuit when it comes to smell and taste The biscuits. supplemented with legumes were assessed as having nice color and soft texture At the hedonic level. there is no significant difference between the control and the 15 biscuit Biscuits with 50 cowpea. and voandzou supplementation were less appreciated for smell than for taste. nutritional quality and acceptability of millet biscuits The macronutrients iron and zinc contents were determined using standard AOAC methods The acceptability test of cookies were performed with a panel of 30 tasters The protein content of cookies increased proportionally with the supplementation The protein contents of cowpea cookies were higher than Bambara groundnut cookies 12 82 g

Related Books