Strength and conditioning for professional boxing

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Title Strength and conditioning for professional boxing Recommendations for physical. preparation, Professional boxing is a popular pan global sport that attracts considerable interest and. revenue It is a high intensity sport that requires a range of well adapted physiological. characteristics as likely pre requisites for successful performance Serious consideration has. been given to medical aspects and potential health risks from partaking in training and. competition However there are no comprehensive sources of applied sport science research. on the preparation of professional boxers for competition In this review we present research. from physiology and strength and conditioning to form a knowledge base for those involved. in preparing professional boxers for competition, Key words Boxing physiology strength combat force physical preparation. Introduction, Professional boxing is regarded as one of the most physically and mentally demanding sports. in the world yet despite this recognition and popularity professional boxing has received. little attention within the scientific literature A PubMed search 23rd July 2015 for. Professional Boxing returned 44 results the majority of which had a specific focus on brain. injury In contrast to this low volume of academic interest professional boxing contests have. the potential to generate considerable interest and local and international revenue Indeed in. a May 12th 2015 article in The Guardian unverified reports estimated revenue in excess of. 500 million for a single professional boxing event To date however there are no. comprehensive scientific reviews or practical recommendations for the preparation of. professional boxers for training and competition The reasons for the lack of applied sport. science research are likely diverse and beyond the scope of this article but it is surprising. given the growing body of scientific research in sports with similar world wide interest. A professional boxer s preparation is complicated by the requirement to include conditioning. strength and boxing specific training within a short time frame before a contest usually 8 to. 12 weeks figure 1 Given the complexity of the training process and time demands. professional boxers and their trainers would benefit from evidence based guidance to. supplement existing training practices The preparation of a boxer should be considered in. context with a clear understanding of the determinants of successful performance Therefore. this article will provide an overview of the rules governing professional boxing competition. highlight a variety of theory and research relevant to the demands of professional boxing and. provide practical recommendations for testing and developing strength and conditioning. programmes,INSERT FIGURE 1 HERE,Boxing competition and successful performance. Similar to most body mass restricted combat sports professional boxers are required to weigh. in and meet their contest body mass 36 to 24 hours prior to competition Lower standard. contests might comprise of 4 x 2 min with a 1 minute interval between rounds but an elite. professional boxing contest can last up to 12 x 3 minute rounds During the one minute. interval between rounds a trainer is allowed in the ring to offer coaching instructions they. might also wish to provide ice iced towels and water but stimulants which include. carbohydrate electrolyte beverages are prohibited Perhaps the most well known way to win. a boxing match is by knockout A knockout is usually caused by a single blow but is often. preceded by repeated high force legitimate blows In the case of a head strike a knockout is. caused by acute neurological trauma due to large magnitudes of internal torque applied to the. cerebellum and brain stem 14 A second way to win a contest is by technical knockout This. occurs when the referee has decided that the opponent is in no position to defend their self or. is being outclassed This is most likely preceded by demonstration of attacking skills and. accompanying high force blows in this circumstance it is common for the corner to throw. the towel in if they are concerned for their boxer However a professional boxer s primary. aim is not to knockout their opponent but demonstrate superior physical technical and. tactical skills these are paramount in the third way to win a boxing contest by a points. decision Points are awarded using subjective criteria but are based on the boxers attacking. and defensive skills the relative importance and content of these broad categories are both. judge and contest specific In this circumstance preparation of the professional boxer is. crucial to improve their chance of winning a round and the whole contest as poor physical. fitness would limit performance capacity,Physiological demands.
Data regarding physiological demands and exercise to rest ratios in professional boxing are. not available in scientific literature however based on our experience it is reasonable to. assume along with data relating to punch volume and intensity 33 force velocity 30 and. impulse momentum relationships 28 that professional boxing comprises repeated high. intensity actions interspersed with brief periods of low intensity actions or recovery These. high intensity actions are derived from electrical chemical and mechanical physiological. processes most of which require rapid hydrolysis and phosphorylation of adenosine tri. phosphate via non oxidative energy pathways However due to the repeated high intensity. demands these needs cannot be met in full by non oxidative sources Hence energy derived. primarily though oxidation of muscle glycogen supports a large proportion of adenosine tri. phosphate hydrolysis and phosphorylation to meet systemic demand the magnitude of which. is likely a determinant of professional boxing performance The assertion that performance. demands a large contribution from oxidative energy pathways is supported by peak oxygen. uptake values derived from incremental exercise tests of 58 7 mL kg 1 min 1 in Italian. middleweight amateur boxers 13 and up to 64 mL kg 1 min 1 in senior international amateur. boxers 32 and 60 mL kg 1 min 1 in our unpublished observations of elite professional. boxers Simulated amateur boxing has been reported to elicit large energy demands 4 31. approximately 80 to 90 peak oxygen uptake with 77 19 and 4 of energy derived. from aerobic phosphocreatine and anaerobic glycolysis energy pathways respectively 9 that. suggests a reliance on muscle glycogen as a primary fuel source. Impact of physiological demands on technical ability. Professional boxing is primarily a technical and tactical sport external demands such as the. requirement to attack or evade determines physiological strain A boxer must perform. appropriate attacking or defensive actions at an intensity that does not exceed their ability to. control the ring using footwork skills and the precision of their attacking or controlling. punches If a boxer can perform at an intensity that induces low physiological strain then. they might have the potential to control the contest and avoid fatigue However if the. external demands imposed on a boxer induce physiological strain or when successive high. intensity actions compromises rates of recovery fatigue will probably limit subsequent. performance 5, In professional boxing fatigue might manifest as a transient decline in punch impulsiveness. frequency or precision poor decision making and limited defensive actions Repeated high. intensity actions are associated with a decrease in phosphocreatine 10 reduced activity or. inhibition of glycolysis 11 increased cellular hydrogen ions 31 altered calcium sensitivity. 2 impaired sodium potassium pump function 2 and skeletal muscle damage 15. However performance is suggested to be an integrative multifactorial process 29 and it is. likely that a combination of mechanisms determine short term recovery 26 When boxers. are required to perform above their critical intensity 8 or with limited recovery. physiological perturbations in skeletal muscle cardiovascular functioning metabolic strain. and pain sensation 22 integrate to alter perceived exertion voluntary activation of the. neuromuscular system and manifest as fatigue 26 Skilful boxers can control the pace of the. contest and if required limit the attack of an opponent by using footwork to control the ring. and direction of activity defensive tactics such as holding and the 1 minute interval between. rounds to recover These tactics allow at least partial restoration of homeostasis achieved by. speeding recovery e g repaying an oxygen debt or limiting physiological strain in the first. Practical applications Conditioning training recommendations. Of primary importance for many professional boxers is the development of aerobic capability. Athletes with well developed aerobic energy systems are likely to recover from high intensity. activity faster 4 or perform at intensities that do not exceed their critical intensity 17. Precise quantification of aerobic capacity and an understanding of physiological. characteristics of a professional boxer is important to monitor changes and programme. individual training intensities,INSERT FIGURE 2 HERE. Data derived from assessments figure 2 might assist in identifying strengths and areas for. improvement relating to energy system dominance running economy substrate utilisation. and provide heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data required to prescribe and monitor. training intensities It is important that conditioners understand the physiological. characteristics of their athletes develop methods to assess characteristics and use information. derived from these tests to design specific training programmes to develop these qualities. We recommend preparing professional boxers by developing aerobic capability in a sport. specific manner based upon their strengths and areas for improvement Using information. derived from valid and reproducible tests it is possible to tailor training programmes in an. appropriate way to develop physiological capabilities while boxing training bag work pads. sparring might develop these more specifically, There is compelling evidence that High Intensity Interval Training HIIT improves aerobic. capacity 7 20 25 27 The mechanisms by which adaptations occur are complex and it is. unclear as to what type of stimulus and interventions provide optimal benefits for a particular. physiological characteristic Three possible sites for the main effects of HIIT are the active. myocytes utilisation and cellular buffering capillary structures extraction and. myocardium delivery It is likely that HIIT induces central peripheral and neuromuscular. adaptations with training demands being influenced by 9 variables 7 Despite this. complexity HIIT s strength is in its variety of application and it is clear that the choice of. HIIT should be dictated by a boxer s individual strengths and areas for improvement training. and competitive schedule and additional environmental lifestyle constraints. INSERT TABLE 1 HERE, Table 1 provides an overview of conditioning recommendations for a typical 12 week. preparatory period Sprint interval training demands the recruitment of high threshold motor. units and is a potent stimulus for rapid improvements in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. 12 making this type of training ideal for improvements in force production and aerobic. capability early in the training phase These peripheral adaptations should be progressed by. using high intensity interval training for around 6 weeks to stimulate myocardial adaptations. and muscle capillarization that contribute to improvements in aerobic capacity 27 Finally a. taper phase 2 weeks before competition which also includes a reduction in boxing specific. technical training volume is recommended This reduction should be athlete specific but a. volume decrease of around 40 to 60 of total training load is recommended 6 It should be. noted that the aim of this training structure is not intended to replicate the potential time. motion demands of boxing Rather evidence based interventions are used as stimuli for. improvements in aerobic capacity and to a lesser extent mechanical force production. Adaptations in these areas can be utilised to facilitate increases in boxing specific technical. training volume and more specifically used as base for high quality open sparring which. requires an adequate standard of aerobic fitness To this extent conditioning training is. usually constrained by the coaches decision to increase the volume of open sparring. however a period of around 6 weeks of focussed conditioning is typical Thus optimising. training stimuli and adaptation using evidence based training prescription is paramount in the. preparation of a professional boxer,Effective punching.
Striking an opponent with a clean hit irrespective of force will gain favour with judges and. potentially disrupt an opponent s acute strategy More forceful single punches or repeated. high force punches are intended to position an opponent for a sustained attack leading to. contest termination or display skill technical ability and dominance during the contest. Forceful punches are also used as a defensive tactic to limit the advance of an opponent and. their attacking strategy, In principle three factors contribute to the effectiveness of a single punch Firstly movements<. Title Strength and conditioning for professional boxing Recommendations for physical preparation Abstract Professional boxing is a popular pan global sport that attracts considerable interest and revenue It is a high intensity sport that requires a range of well adapted physiological

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