Steel Forgings ASTM International

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Steel Forgings,Design Production Selection,Testing and Application. E d w a r d G N i s b e t t,ASTM Stock No MNL53,ASTM I n t e r n a t i o n a l. 100 B a r r H a r b o r Drive,PO Box C700,West Conshohocken PA 19428 2959 USA. INTERNATIONAL,Standards Worldwide,Printed in U S A. Library of Congress,Library of Congress Cataloging in PublicationData.
Nisbett Edward G, Steel forgings design production selection testing and application Edward G Nisbett. ASTM Stock No MNL53,ISBN 0 8031 3369 3,1 Steel forgings I Title. TS320 N59 2005,2005020481, Copyright 2005 ASTM International West Conshohocken PA All rights. reserved This material may not be reproduced or copied in whole or in part. in any printed mechanical electronic film or other distribution and storage. media without the written consent of the publisher. Photocopy Rights, Authorization to photocopy items for internal personal or educa. tional classroom use or the internal personal or educational classroom. use of specific clients is granted by ASTM International provided that. the appropriate fee is paid to the Copyright Clearance Center 222 Rose. wood Drive Danvers MA 01923 Tel 978 750 8400 online http llwww. copyright com, The Society is not responsible as a body for the statements and opin.
ions expressed in this publication,Printed in Bridgeport NJ. September 2005, THIS PUBLICATION Steel Forgings Design Production Se ec tee A01 on Steel Stainless Steel and Related Alloys The author. tion Testing and Application was sponsored by ASTM Commit is Edward G Nisbett. Chapter 1 Introduction Why Steel Forgings 1,Chapter 2 Why Use Forgings 5. Steel Plate 5,Hot Rolled Bar 5,Steel Castings 5,Steel Forgings 6. Chapter 3 Effect of Steel Making 15,Steel Refining 15.
Ladle Refining Furnace 16,Vacuum Degassing 16,Steel Cleanliness and Inclusion Shape Control 19. Chapter 4 Forging Ingots 20,Vacuum Arc Remelting 20. Electroslag Remelting 21, Ingot Mold Design Ingot Production and Segregation 22. Forging Stock 22,Chapter 5 Types of Forging 24,Open Die Forging 24. Closed Die Forging 25,Extrusions 25,Rotary Forging Machines 26.
Ring Rolling 27,Forging Reduction 27,Chapter 6 Heating for Forging 32. Heat to Forge Furnaces 32,Reheating 33,Induction Heating 33. Chapter 7 Post Forge Practices 34,Chapter 8 Machining 36. Grinding 37,Chapter 9 Heat Treatment 40,Annealing 40. Micro Alloyed Forgings 40,Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings 40.
Heat Treatment Equipment 41,Furnaces 41,Batch Furnaces 42. Horizontal Furnaces 42,Vertical Furnaces 42,Continuous Furnaces 43. Induction Heating 43,Controlled Atmosphere Vacuum Furnaces 43. Cooling Quench Facilities 43,Liquid Quenching 43,Water Quenching 43. Oil Quenching 45,Polymer Quenching 45,Polymer Concentrations 45.
Spray Quenching 46,Alternate Heat Treatments 46,Heat Treatment Rigging 46. Hot Rigging 46,Cold Rigging 48,Tempering 50,Chapter 10 Mechanical Testing 53. Hardness Testing 54,Tension Testing 55,Impact Testing 57. Fracture Toughness Testing 57,Fatigue Testing 57,Chapter 11 Nondestructive Examination 59. Surface Examination 59,Visual Examination 59,Magnetic Particle Examination 60.
Liquid Penetrant Examination 61,Volumetric Examination 62. In Service Inspection 65,Chapter 12 Surface Treatment 66. Direct Hardening 66,Nitriding 67,Gas Nitriding 68,Ion Nitriding 69. Carburizing 69,Salt Bath Treatments 70,Cold Working 71. Chapter 13 Manufacturing Problems and Defects 72,Base Material Choice 72.
Ingot Defects 72,Ingots Size and Choice 74,Billet Bloom Size and Source 74. Heating for Forging 75,Induction Heating 76,Forging Operations and Sequence 76. Machining 76,Post Forge Handling Heat Treatment 76. Chapter 14 A Word about ASTM International Committee A01 on Steel Stainless Steel. and Related Alloys and General Requirement Specifications for Forgings 78. Writing Standards 78,ASTM International Steel Forging Standards 78. General Requirements Specifications 79, General Requirement Specifications for ASTM Steel Forging Specifications 79.
A 788 04 Steel Forgings General Requirements 79, Specification A 961 A 961M 04a Common Requirements for Steel Flanges Forged Fittings. Valves and Parts for Piping Applications 82, Chapter 15 Steel Forgings for the Fittings Industry 84. A 105 A 105M 03 Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications 84. A 181 A 181M 01 Carbon Steel Forgings for General Purpose Piping 85. A 182 A 182M 04 Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges Forged Fittings and. Valves and Parts for High Temperature Service 86, A 350 A 350M 04a Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Forgings Requiring Notch Toughness Testing. for Piping Components 86, A 522 A 522M 04 Forged or Rolled 8 and 9 Nickel Alloy Steel Flanges Fittings Valves and. Parts for Low Temperature Service 88, A 694 A 694M 00 Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe Flanges Fittings Valves and.
Parts for High Pressure Transmission Service 89, A 707 A 707M 02 Forged Carbon and Alloy Steel Flanges for Low Temperature Service 89. A 727 A 727M 00 Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Components with Inherent Notch. Toughness 89, A 836 A 836M 02 Specification for Titanium Stabilized Carbon Steel Forgings for Glass Lined. Piping and Pressure Vessel Service 89,Chapter 16 Forging Related Test Methods 91. Magnetic Particle Examination 91, A 275 A 275M 98 Test Method for the Magnetic Particle Examination of Steel Forgings 91. A 966 A 966M 96 Magnetic Particle Examination of Steel Forgings Using Alternating Current 92. A 456 A 456M 99 Magnetic Particle Examination of Large Crankshaft Forgings 92. A 986 A 986M Magnetic Particle Examination of Continuous Grain Flow Crankcase Forgings 93. Ultrasonic Examination 93, A 388 A 388M 04 Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings 93.
A 745 A 745M 94 Ultrasonic Examination of Austenitic Steel Forgings 95. A 418 99 Ultrasonic Examination of Turbine and Generator Steel Rotor Forgings 95. A S03 A 503M Ultrasonic Examination of Forged Crankshafts 95. A 531 A 531M 91 Ultrasonic Examination of Turbine Generator Steel Retaining Rings 96. A 939 96 Ultrasonic Examination from Bored Surfaces of Cylindrical Forgings 96. General Comments 96,Portable Hardness Testing Standards 96. A 833 Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Comparison Hardness Testers 96. A 956 02 Leeb Hardness Testing of Steel Products 97. Other Portable Hardness Testing Methods 98,Heat Stability Testing 98. A 472 98 Heat Stability of Steam Turbine Shafts and Rotor Forgings 98. Macro Structure Tests 99, A 604 93 Macroetch Testing of Consumable Electrode Remelted Steel Bars and Billets 99. Chapter 17 Steel Forgings for the Pressure Vessel Industry 100. A 266 A 266M 03 Carbon Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel Components 100. A 336 A 336M 04 Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and High Temperature Parts 101. A 372 A 372M 03 Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Thin Walled Pressure Vessels 102. A S08 A 508M 04b Quenched and Tempered Vacuum Treated Carbon and Alloy Steel. Forgings for Pressure Vessels 103, Chemical Composition of Actual Grade 2 Forgings 103. Forging Dimensions 103,Heat Treatment 104, Nil Ductility Test Temperature Per ASTM Specification E 208 104.
A 541 A 541M 9S Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel. Components 104, A 592 A 592M 04 High Strength Quenched and Tempered Low Alloy Steel Forged Fittings. and Parts for Pressure Vessels 105, A 649 A 649M 04 Forged Steel Roils Used for Corrugating Paper Machinery 105. A 723 A 723M 03 Alloy Steel Forgings for High Strength Pressure Component Application 106. A 765 A 765M 01 Carbon Steel and Low Alloy Steel Pressure Vessel Component Forgings with. Mandatory Toughness Requirements 107, A 859 A 859M 04 Age Hardening Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel Components 108. A 965 A 965M 02 Steel Forgings Austenitic for Pressure and High Temperature Parts 108. Chapter 18 Steel Forgings for Turbines and Generators 109. A 288 91 Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Magnetic Retaining Rings for Turbine. Generators 109, A 289 A 289M 97 Alloy Steel Forgings for Nonmagnetic Retaining Rings for Generators 109. A 469 A 469M 04 Vacuum Treated Steel Forgings for Generator Rotors 109. A 470 03 V a c u u m T r e a t e d carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Turbine Rotors and Shafts 111. A 471 94 Vacuum Treated Alloy Steel Forgings for Turbine Rotor Disks and Wheels 113. A 768 95 Vacuum Treated 12 Chromium Alloy Steel Forgings for Turbine Rotors and Shafts 113. A 891 98 Precipitation Hardening Iron Base Superalloy Forgings for Turbine Rotor Disks and Wheels 113. A 940 96 Vacuum Treated Steel Forgings Alloy Differentially Heat Treated for Turbine Rotors 113. A 982 00 Steel Forgings Stainless for Compressor and Turbine Airfoils 114. Chapter 19 Steel Forgings for General Industry 115. A 290 02 Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Rings for Reduction Gears 115. A 291 03 Steel Forgings Carbon and Alloy for Pinions Gears and Shafts for Reduction Gears 116. A 427 02 Wrought Alloy Steel Rolls for Cold and Hot Reduction 116. A 504 A 504M 04 Wrought Carbon Steel Wheels 116, A 521 A 521M 04 Steel Closed Impression Die Forgings for General Industrial Use 117.
A 551 94 Steel Tires 117, A 579 A 579M 04a0 Superstrength Alloy Steel Forgings 117. A 646 A 646M 04 Premium Quality Alloy Steel Blooms and Billets for Aircraft and A e r o s p a c e Forgings 118. A 668 A 668M 04 Steel Forgings Carbon and Alloy for General Industrial Use 118. A 711 A 711M 04 Steel Forging Stock 119, A 729 A 729M 05 Alloy Steel Axles Heat Treated for Mass Transit and Electric Railway. Service 119, A 8371A837M 03 Steel Forgings Alloy for Carburizing Applications 120. A 909 03 Steel Forgings0 Microalloy for General Industrial Use 120. A 9831A 983M 040 Continuous Grain Flow Forged Carbon and Alloy Steel Crankshafts for. Medium Speed Diesel Engines 120, A 1021 02 Martensitic Stainless Steel Forgings and Forging Stock for High Temperature. Service 122,Chapter 20 The Role of the Purchaser 124.
Chapter 21 Forging Failure A n a l y s i s 126,Forging 126. Hydrogen Damage 126,Fatigue 127,Chapter 22 Postscript 131. Foreword THIS PUBLICATION Steel Forgings Design Production Se ec tee A01 on Steel Stainless Steel and Related Alloys The author tion Testing and Application was sponsored by ASTM Commit is Edward G Nisbett

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