Some real world applications of wireless sensor nodes

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We report on two full scale field applications of Motes what we tried to achieve what went right and what went wrong. The first case is the Tokachi Port Japan campaign where we installed twenty 2 D accelerometer Motes for the blast. induced liquefaction experiment in November 2001 The second case study is the instrumentation of a full size three. story wood frame building that underwent strong shaking on the UCB Richmond Field Station seismic shake table in. December 2001 These were the first field applications of Mote technology and much was learned that has led to recent. hardware and software improvements We have worked directly with Professor Culler author of TinyOS and Prof Pister. builder of smart dust since the smart dust idea took form during the summer of 2001 Prof David Culler beautifully. describes the Berkeley Smart Dust ideal, Spread thousands of wireless sensor nodes casually over an arbitrary area of interest They self organize into a. network conveying arbitrary information from any point to any other at whatever bandwidth is demanded while. operating at incredibly low energy usage i e off most of the time to run for years on small batteries and. harvested energy and being extremely responsive in times of key activity without ever bothering you about. design considerations intended usage faults or constraints. 2 THE MOTE,2 1 Hardware, The Motes are simple robust and are designed to be built from readily available components The basic structure of the. original Mote baseboard the Rene consists of an Atmel AT90LS2343 4SC microcontroller and the RFMonolithics. TR1000 amplitude modulation 916 5 MHz Hybrid ASH Transceiver Atwood et al 2000 The devices were fitted with. a Microchip Tech Inc AT90LS2343 4SC IC serial EEPROM to act as non volatile flash memory The Rene boards were. powered by two AA sized alkaline batteries and did not have any on board power control circuitry The most common. antenna was an 80 mm long copper wire Some of the later Crossbow packaged devices used a stubby 80 mm whip At. the time there was little direct optimization of hardware variables such as antenna design micro controller choice or. memory type For instance the Atmel micro controller was chosen over the StrongArm and TI MSP430 because there. was a gcc free compiler available through Gnu We now see that the MSP430 is a much more powerful controller 16. bit vs 8 bit uses less power than the Atmel has better internal analog to digital convertors has pre implemented. UARTs etc Dust Inc and University of Twente currently make excellent use of the TI chip. The detachable sensor board incorporated a two degree of freedom Analog Devices ADXL202e 2g MEMS accelerometer. and connected to the main board through a Hirose H series 51 pin 1 mm header The Intel Laboratory at Berkeley. directed at the time by Prof Culler later tried to develop a five sensor weather board This board is currently being sold. by Crossbow Inc as the MTS420CA sensorboard The weather board holds an ADXL202e accelerometer the Sensirion. SHT11 humidity and temperature sensor combination the Taos TSL2550d light intensity sensor and the Intersema. MS5534AP pressure and temperature sensor combination. 2 2 TinyOS tiny operating system, A key innovative capability of the Mote is its pervasive support of fluid software i e 1 it has the ability of processing. storage and data management functionality 2 it can arbitrarily and automatically distribute itself among information. devices and along paths through scalable computing platforms integrated with network infrastructure 3 it can compose. itself from preexisting hardware and software components 4 it can satisfy its needs for services while advertising the. services it can provide to others 5 it can negotiate interfaces with service providers while adapting its own interfaces to. meet components it serves Recent progress in this area is the development of TinyOS an embedded operating system for. Motes TinyOS migrates the event based model being developed for clusters into a very light weight form for Motes. The heart of TinyOS TOS 2004 communications must be able to scale to thousands or millions of nodes within a. single network and be flexible to dynamic topology changes It must also be tolerant of failures due to lossy links or. Proc of SPIE Vol 5391 345, Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 09 Jun 2010 to 169 229 223 95 Terms of Use http spiedl org terms. failed nodes and support concurrency intensive operations required by networked sensors with minimal hardware. requirements TinyOS implements the Active Messages model Mainwaring and Culler 1999 von Eicken et al 1992. with intra and inter device connectivity to meet these requirements Buonadonna and Hill 2000 Motes automatically. detect the best routing topology and propagate all data to collection points Woo and Culler 2003 The TinyOS group. has currently demonstrated the ability to deploy a self configuring network of devices but this work needs to be extended. to support larger collections of devices This will be done by improving networking protocols and by reducing the total. amount of data being communicated back to a central location through automatic data aggregation inside the networks. Because the Motes will be widely distributed system power consumption must be limited and software can play a major. role in controlling the efficient use of the various hardware resources This is particularly important in the case of the. power hungry radio components Thus future revisions of the software will focus on reducing power consumption as a. primary goal while improving current levels of functionality. 3 DENSE PAK STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING, The greatest public safety risk associated with natural hazards comes from the built environment Knowledge of the.
integrity of structures can significantly reduce the risk of occupants and users by providing information about the collapse. potential To achieve this goal we proposed to develop a dense pak structural health monitor to enable buildings and. bridges to monitor themselves with inexpensive Motes that locally sense and determine structural condition Coupled. with computational models residing in the Mote itself and on line through peer to peer networks the monitoring system. will obtain updated ground motion hazard estimates from reliable information sources estimate damage and losses and. provide occupants and users with emergency information The key to this approach are the sensor Motes such systems. must be inexpensive to install and maintain during original construction and after construction. Following an earthquake a structure will self diagnose its ability to withstand loads and aftershocks in a safe manner and. provide occupants with customized information about the optimal emergency action through internaly and externaly. distributed networks PDA s and alarms The alarms will be integrated into a variety of other emergency scenarios fire. medical and security Instead of the current time consuming and chaotic manual procedure of inspectors tagging a. building waveforms monitored during the event will be compared in real time to numerical models and base state. measurements of safe building behavior determining the building safety and integrity notifying occupants of unsafe. conditions in a process of self tagging Individual building monitor systems are linked through the wide area network to. distributed regional emergency response centers which prioritize the response of emergency personnel. Local structural details may have significant effects on the whole system as well as the local responses posing challenges. for the interpretation of recorded system response after earthquake loading From the collected data evolution of system. performance can be assessed an essential task for performance based engineering Safak 1997 A study of the. Dumbarton Bridge San Francisco Bay by Fenves et al 1992 emphasized the impact of articulation and longitudinal. constraints at hinges on seismic response Arici and Mosalam 2000 examined an instrumented portion of the Sylmar I5. I4 Interchange Bridge where accelerometers were placed on either side of an expansion joint designed to isolate span. sections During the first smaller earthquake the two substructures of the bridge separated by the expansion joint. responded in an independent manner During the second large earthquake both sides of the joint behaved identically. implying that the joint did not behave as expected i e the structure did not function as designed Such specifics of the. response can only be captured through dense pak measurements. The dense pak system used for diagnosis of post earthquake condition is in fact a Smart Building network to provide. on going information about structural condition and early warning of inadequate safety from a variety of causes The. wealth of data will lead to new economic opportunities for firms that provide analysis and evaluation for building owners. based on dense detailed sensed information e g Senera Inc This is particularly important in high tech and biotech. 346 Proc of SPIE Vol 5391, Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 09 Jun 2010 to 169 229 223 95 Terms of Use http spiedl org terms. manufacturing facilities data server farms and other industrial and commercial buildings where valuable building. contents are at risk because of excessive vibration or other movements. 3 1 Structural System Identification and Evaluation. By far the most common approach to structural damage prognoses has been the application of global modal analysis e g. McConnell 1995 The method has shown some success but it is now commonly accepted that modal analysis is far too. insensitive to yield usable information for practical cases Farrar et al 2001 A prime example is the modal analysis. work undertaken on the abandoned I 40 bridge across the Rio Grande river in Albuquerque NM It was only after the. main longitudinal plate girder was cut more than 2 3 through that any change was seen in the modal parameters The first. two modes dropped by a mere 7 6 and 4 4 percent respectively Farrar and Doebling 1997 which would be considered. noise in a blind prediction case, Global modal analysis is doomed for several reasons Structures of interest are complex systems with a great number of. degrees of freedom Because evolving damage is local a structure will redistribute internal forces to stiffer members as. particular beams columns etc are weakened It is only when damage is sufficient to affect the performance of the entire. structure that will it be visible through global modal analysis well after the safety of the structure is exceeded. We tried to implement a new approach to structural health prognosis based on the evaluation of local damage leveraging. ubiquitous cheap wireless Motes requiring a dense array of sensor nodes placed in swarms at key structural points. throughout a structure e g a dozen autonomous nodes each carrying a 3 D accelerometer distributed around a key beam. column connection A structural engineer can identify zones in the structure where critical loading is expected Using a. variety of techniques e g Stubbs and Park 1996 DeHoop an DeHoop 2000 Jain et al 2001 we will optimize locations. as to extracting the maximum amount of information from the system of the sensor clusters. For the proposed scenario of perhaps thousands of nodes monitoring a large structure it is not feasible to merely send. back all the recorded signals from all the multi sensored nodes to a common hub Advances in information technology. are key to realization of this health prognosis system for several reasons. A system of thousands of sensors would be hopelessly complex to address from a central server require too much power. from the wireless nodes and would overwhelm the radio bandwidth Tests on the current sensor node incarnation show. that broadcasting 1 bit of information costs almost 11 000 times the power as local computation on a single bit. Intelligent local arrays can monitor the evolution of local damage in real time since the nodes function as a local network. able to evaluate data and make decisions rather than merely collect data The nodes can locally evaluate system changes. amongst themselves and encode the data by sharing decisions and evaluations rather than raw data. Damage prognosis requires seamless integration of the measuring and modeling process with constant updating of the. model and information sensed,3 2 Approach to structural data interpretation. Development of analytical tools to capture the evolution of system response in terms of damage initiation and damage. propagation understanding the interaction between the structural system and its components is essential for. performance based design The so called system identification SI approach is a powerful and tidy statistical based tool. to quantify and assess system damage parameters and has been so applied by many structural researchers e g Udwadia. 1985 Beck 1978 Gersch and Brotherton 1982 Safak 1988 Werner et al 1994 Arici and Mosalam 2000 Baise and. Glaser 2000 Glaser and Baise 2000, System identification requires a model whether black box e g a linear filter model or white box a physical model. Identification can be made through the extended Kalman filter EKF Hoshiya and Saito 1984 Lin and Zhang 1994. Koh and See 1994 which has been successfully applied to the identification of various physical systems Physical. Proc of SPIE Vol 5391 347, Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 09 Jun 2010 to 169 229 223 95 Terms of Use http spiedl org terms.
Some real world applications of wireless sensor nodes Steven D Glaser 1 College of Engineering University of California 440 Davis Hall Berkeley CA USA 94720 1710 ABSTRACT This paper presents two case histories of the use of wireless sensor Mote technologies These are devices that incorporate communications processing sensors sensor fusion and power source into a package currently

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