Social Psychology Purdue

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Informative Social Influence Informative Social Influence. Baron and colleagues 1996 made students do an, eyewitness identification task If the task was easy. lineup exposure 5 sec conformity was low in,comparison to a difficult 1 2 sec exposure task. Baron et al 1996 8,Obedience to Authority,People comply to social. http www youtube com watch v t2PGnHHnRMk pressures How would they. Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University Center. respond to outright,Stanley Milgram designed a,study that investigates the. effects of authority on,Stanley Milgram,Milgram s Study Milgram s Study Results.
Both Photos 1965 By Stanley Miligram from the,film Obedience dist by Penn State Media Sales. Lessons from the Conformity and,Factors that Increase Obedience Studies. In both Asch s and Milgram s studies participants, were pressured against following their standards and. Authority is physically closer to participant be responsive to others. Victim is physically further from participant,Having Co Participants who willingly and. without question obey In Milgram s study participants were torn between. hearing the victims pleas their own values and the. experimenter s orders, Power of the Situation Role Playing Affects Attitudes.
Stanford Prison Study Zimbardo 1972 assigned the roles of guards and. http www prisonexp org psychology 2 prisoners to random students and found that guards. http www youtube com watch and prisoners developed role appropriate attitudes. v rmwSC5fS40w feature related,Originally published in the New Yorker. Phillip G Zimbardo Inc,The Chameleon Effect or,Conformity Obedience. Nonconscious Mimicry, Behavior is contagious modeled by one followed by Conformity Adjusting one s behavior or thinking. another We follow behavior of others to conform to coincide with a group standard Chartrand. Bargh 1999, Other behaviors may be an expression of compliance. obedience toward authority,Conformity Obedience, Group Pressure Conformity What Happens When We Don t.
Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity,adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some. Reactions to a Deviate,group standard Groups create. pressures toward,uniformity,Pressures to,change deviate. Pressure to,reject exclude, Bystander Intervention Reasons for Bystander Effect. http www youtube com watch v dT192AkivC8 Pluralistic Ignorance. Others aren t helping so help is probably not,needed similar to conformity.
Social Inhibition,Fear of standing out making a mistake. overblowing the situation etc,Diffusion of Responsibility. Just six months ago Social Inhibition,Social Inhibition Petty Williams Harkins. Latan 1977 Bystander Response to a,Cheeseburger,How are Conformity and Social Inhibition. Actions Can Affect Attitudes,Cognitive Dissonance, Why do actions affect attitudes One explanation is We don t like to hold inconsistent thoughts or.
that when our attitudes and actions are opposed we have a thought that is inconsistent with our. experience tension This is called cognitive behavior. dissonance When faced with an inconsistency for something. relatively important we experience cognitive,dissonance. We are motivated to reduce this dissonance,To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our. We change the belief attitude to come in line with. attitudes closer to our actions Festinger 1957,the behavior. 1 20 Study by Festinger Carlsmith,Severity of initiation by Aronson Mills. Attributing Behavior to Persons or to,Situations,Social Thinking.
Attribution Theory Fritz 1 Does his absenteeism signify. Heider 1958 suggested illness laziness or a stressful work. that we have a tendency to atmosphere, give causal explanations 2 Was the horror of 9 11 the work of crazed. for someone s behavior evil people or ordinary people corrupted. often by crediting either by life events,http www stedwards edu. the situation or the 3 Why was Derek Anderson smiling when. person s disposition,his team was losing so badly,Social thinking involves thinking about others. http www youtube com Fritz Heider especially when they engage in doing things that are. watch v sZBKer6PMtM 27 unexpected 28,Attributing Behavior to Persons or to. Fundamental Attribution Error,Situations, A teacher may wonder whether a child s hostility The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal.
reflects an aggressive personality dispositional disposition and underestimate the impact of the. attribution or is a reaction to stress or abuse a situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads. situational attribution to the fundamental attribution error. Dispositions are enduring,personality traits So if Joe is. a quiet shy and introverted We see Joe as quiet shy and introverted most of the. http www bootsnall org,child he is likely to be like. that in a number of, time but with friends he is very talkative loud and. situations extroverted,Effects of Attribution Attitude. How we explain someone s behavior affects how we A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to. react to it respond in a particular way to objects other people. and events, If we believe a person is mean we may feel dislike.
for the person and act in an unfriendly manner, Attitudes Can Affect Action Attitudes Can Affect Action. Our attitudes predict our behaviors imperfectly Not only do people stand for what they believe in. because other factors including the external situation attitude they start believing in what they stand for. also influence behavior, Democratic leaders supported Bush s attack on Iraq. under public pressure However they had their private. D MacDonald PhotoEdit,reservations, Cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking beliefs. Small Request Large Request Social Influence, In the Korean War Chinese communists solicited The greatest contribution of social psychology is its. cooperation from US army prisoners by asking them study of attitudes beliefs decisions and actions and. to carry out small errands By complying to small the way they are molded by social influence. errands they were likely to comply to larger ones,Foot in the Door Phenomenon The tendency for.
people who have first agreed to a small request to. comply later with a larger request,Individual Behavior in the Presence of. Group Influence Others, How do groups affect our behavior Social Social facilitation Refers. psychologists study various groups to improved performance. on tasks in the presence of,others Triplett 1898,noticed cyclists race times. One person affecting another were faster when they. competed against others,Michelle Agnis NYT Pictures. than when they just raced,Teams against the clock,Committees.
Social Loafing Deindividuation, The tendency of an individual in a group to exert less The loss of self awareness and self restraint in group. effort toward attaining a common goal than when situations that foster arousal and anonymity. tested individually Latan Williams Harkins,Mob behavior 40. Effects of Group Interaction Groupthink, Group Polarization A mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for. enhances a group s harmony in a decision making group overrides the. prevailing attitudes realistic appraisal of alternatives. through a discussion If a,group is like minded Attack on Pearl Harbor. discussion strengthens its Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis. prevailing opinions and,Watergate Cover up,Chernobyl Reactor Accident.
Power of Individuals Social Relations, The power of social Social psychology teaches us how we relate to one. Margaret Bourke White Life Magazine 1946 Time Warner Inc. influence is enormous another through prejudice aggression and conflict. but so is the power of the to attraction and altruism and peacemaking. individual,Non violent fasts and,appeals by Gandhi led to. the independence of,India from the British Gandhi,Prejudice Reign of Prejudice. Simply called prejudgment a prejudice is an Prejudice works at the conscious and more at the. unjustifiable usually negative attitude toward a unconscious level Therefore prejudice is more like. group and its members Prejudice is often directed,a knee jerk response than a conscious decision. towards different cultural ethnic or gender groups. Components of Prejudice,1 Beliefs stereotypes,2 Emotions hostility envy fear.
3 Predisposition to act to discriminate,How Prejudiced are People Racial Gender Prejudice. Over the duration of time many prejudices against Americans today express much less racial and. interracial marriage gender homosexuality and gender prejudice but prejudices still exist. minorities have decreased,Race Gender, Nine out of ten white respondents were slow when Most women still live in more poverty than men. responding to words like peace or paradise when About 100 000 000 women are missing in the world. they saw a black individual s photo compared to a There is a preference for male children in China and. white individual s photo Hugenberg India even with sex selected abortion outlawed. Bodenhausen 2003,Gender Social Roots of Prejudice,Although prejudice prevails against women more. Why does prejudice arise,people feel positively toward women than men. Women rated picture b feminized higher 665 for a,matrimonial ad Perrett 1998 Social Inequalities.
Social Divisions,Emotional Scapegoating,Professor Dave Perrett St Andrews University. Social Inequality In and Out Groups, Prejudice develops when people have money power Ingroup People with whom one shares a common. and prestige and others do not Social inequality identity Outgroup Those perceived as different from. increases prejudice one s ingroup Ingroup Bias The tendency to favor. one s own group,Mike Hewitt Getty Images,Scotland s famed Tartan Army fans. Emotional Roots of Prejudice Cognitive Roots of Prejudice. Prejudice provides an outlet for anger emotion by One way we simplify our world is to categorize We. providing someone to blame After 9 11 many categorize people into groups by stereotyping. people lashed out against innocent Arab them,Michael S Yamashita Woodfin Camp Associates. 55 Foreign sunbathers may think Balinese look alike 56. Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Cognitive Roots of Prejudice. In vivid cases such as the 9 11 attacks terrorists can The tendency of people to believe the world is just. feed stereotypes or prejudices terrorism Most and people get what they deserve and deserve what. terrorists are non Muslims they get the just world phenomenon. The New Yorker Collection 1981 Robert Mankoff from cartoonbank com All Rights Reserved. Hindsight Bias Aggression, After learning an outcome the tendency to believe Aggression can be any physical or verbal behavior.
that we could have predicted it beforehand may intended to hurt or destroy. contribute to blaming the victim and forming a It may be done reactively out of hostility or. prejudice against them proactively as a calculated means to an end. Research shows that aggressive behavior emerges,from the interaction of biology and experience. The Biology of Aggression Influences, Three biological influences on aggressive behavior Genetic Influences Animals have been bred for. are aggressiveness for sport and at times for research. Twin studies show aggression may be genetic In men. 1 Genetic Influences aggression is possibly linked to the Y chromosome. 2 Neural Influences, 3 Biochemical Influences Neural Influences Some centers in the brain. especially the limbic system amygdala and the, frontal lobe are intimately involved with aggression. Influences The Psychology of Aggression, Biochemical Influences Animals with diminished Four psychological factors that influence aggressive.
amounts of testosterone castration become docile and behavior are. if injected with testosterone aggression increases. Prenatal exposure to testosterone also increases 1 Dealing with aversive events. aggression in female hyenas,2 Learning aggression is rewarding. 3 Observing models of aggression,4 Acquiring social scripts. Aversive Events Environment, Studies in which animals and humans experience Even environmental temperature can lead to. unpleasant events reveal that those made miserable aggressive acts Murders and rapes increased with the. often make others miserable temperature in Houston. Jeff Kowalsky EPA Landov, Ron Artest Pacers attack on Detroit Pistons fans 65 66. Frustration Aggression Principle Learning that Aggression is Rewarding. A principle in which frustration caused by the When aggression leads to desired outcomes one learns. blocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal to be aggressive This is shown in both animals and. creates anger which can generate aggression humans. Cultures that favor violence breed violence Scotch. Irish settlers in the South had more violent tendencies. than their Quaker Dutch counterparts in the Northeast. Observing Models of Aggression Acquiring Social Scripts. Sexually coercive men are The media portrays social scripts and generates mental. promiscuous and hostile in tapes in the minds of the viewers When confronted. their relationships with with new situations individuals may rely on such social. women This coerciveness scripts If social scripts are violent in nature people. Social Psychology Chapter 16 PSY 12000 003 Fall 2010 Announcements This is the last week for experiments thMonday 13 at 9am is deadline for alternative papers contact Sue Phebus if you plan on doing this For only those on the list with 3 or more exams on same day you must contact Mary Ann Honors mhonors purdue edu by this Thursday to reschedule Top Cumulative Score 192

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