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SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, For Wladimiro della Porta and Vittorio Diani in memoriam. SECOND EDITION,AN INTRODUCTION,DONATELLA DELLA PORTA. AND MARIO DIANI, 1999 2006 by Donatella della Porta and Mario Diani. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING,350 Main Street Malden MA 02148 5020 USA. 9600 Garsington Road Oxford OX4 2DQ UK, 550 Swanston Street Carlton Victoria 3053 Australia.
The right of Donatella della Porta and Mario Diani to be identified as the Authors of. this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright Designs and Patents. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval. system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical. photocopying recording or otherwise except as permitted by the UK Copyright. Designs and Patents Act 1988 without the prior permission of the publisher. First edition published 1998, Second edition published 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Della Porta Donatella 1956, Social movements an introduction Donatella della Porta and Mario Diani. Includes bibliographical references and index,ISBN 13 978 1 4051 0282 7 pbk alk paper. ISBN 10 1 4051 0282 9 pbk alk paper 1 Social movements I Diani. Mario 1957 II Title,HN17 5 D45 2006,303 48 4 dc22,2005011636. A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 10 on 12 5 pt Dante,by SNP Best set Typesetter Ltd Hong Kong.
Printed and bound in the United Kingdom,by TJ International Padstow Cornwall. The publisher s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable. forestry policy and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid free. and elementary chlorine free practices Furthermore the publisher ensures that the text. paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on,Blackwell Publishing visit our website. www blackwellpublishing com,Preface to the Second Edition vii. 1 The Study of Social Movements Recurring Questions Partially. Changing Answers 1, 1 1 Four Core Questions for Social Movement Analysis 5. 1 2 What is Distinctive about Social Movements 20,1 3 On This Book 29.
2 Social Changes and Social Movements 33, 2 1 Social Structure Political Cleavages and Collective Action 36. 2 2 States Markets and Social Movements 42,2 3 Knowledge Culture and Conflicts 47. 2 4 Structural Transformations New Conflicts New Classes 52. 2 5 Summary 62,3 The Symbolic Dimension of Collective Action 64. 3 1 Culture and Action The Role of Values 67, 3 2 Culture and Action The Cognitive Perspective 73. 3 3 Problems and Responses 85,3 4 Summary 87,4 Collective Action and Identity 89.
4 1 How Does Identity Work 93,4 2 Multiple Identities 98. 4 3 Does Identity Facilitate Participation 100,4 4 How Is Identity Generated and Reproduced 105. 4 5 Summary 113,5 Individuals Networks and Participation 114. 5 1 Why Do People Get Involved in Collective Action. The Role of Networks 117,vi CONTENTS,5 2 Do Networks Always Matter 121. 5 3 Individuals and Organizations 126,5 4 Individual Participation Movement Subcultures.
and Virtual Networks 131,5 5 Summary 134,6 Social Movements and Organizations 135. 6 1 Organizational Dilemmas in Social Movements 140. 6 2 Types of Social Movement Organizations 145, 6 3 How Do Social Movement Organizations Change 150. 6 4 From Movement Organizations to Social Movement Networks 156. 6 5 Summary 161, 7 Action Forms Repertoires and Cycles of Protest 163. 7 1 Protest A Definition 165,7 2 Repertoires of Action 168. 7 3 The Logics and Forms of Protest 170,7 4 Strategic Options and Protest 178.
7 5 Factors Influencing Repertoire Choice 181,7 6 The Cross National Diffusion of Protest 186. 7 7 Cycles of Protest Protest Waves and Protest Campaigns 188. 7 8 Summary 191, 8 The Policing of Protest and Political Opportunities for Social. Movements 193,8 1 The Policing of Protest 197, 8 2 Political Institutions and Social Movements 201. 8 3 Prevailing Strategies and Social Movements 206. 8 4 Allies Opponents and Social Movements 210, 8 5 Discursive Opportunity and the Media System 219. 8 6 Summary 221,9 Social Movements and Democracy 223.
9 1 Social Movement Strategies and Their Effects 226. 9 2 Changes in Public Policy 229,9 3 Social Movements and Procedural Changes 233. 9 4 Social Movements and Democratic Theory 239,9 5 Social Movements and Democratization 245. 9 6 Summary 248,References 261,Index of Names 329,Index of Subjects 341. PREFACE TO THE,SECOND EDITION, Many things have happened since the first edition of this book appeared in. January 1999 Only a few months later in November of the same year what. would have become known as the battle of Seattle drew public opinion s atten. tion worldwide towards the sustained challenge that broad coalitions of very het. erogeneous actors were mounting against neoliberal globalization and its main. institutional protagonists such as the IMF or the WTO All of a sudden neolib. eralism turned from being regarded as the only possible path to development. on the basis of the TINA There Is No Alternative to free market dogma and. the so called Washington consensus into a highly disputed and increasingly. unpopular option Leading financiers economists and policymakers as well as. political leaders across the left right spectrum were confronted with the claim. that another world was indeed possible, Time will tell whether the last few years have actually seen the emergence of.
a new major political force in the shape of the global justice movement s active. across the five continents We think they have as we shall try to point out. throughout this book but we might be wrong Whatever the case the last years. have certainly seen new problems arising for social movement analysts and there. fore also for a book like ours The first edition of Social Movements was strongly. embedded in and reflective of the experience of the new social movements. that is to say the movements which had developed since the late 1960s on issues. such as women s rights gender relations environmental protection ethnicity. and migration peace and international solidarity with a strong new middle. class basis and a clear differentiation from the models of working class or nation. alist collective action that had historically preceded them While there are surely. continuities between those movements and the current wave of global justice. campaigns there are also many suggestions that the overall patterns of collec. tive action they display is significantly different from those we had grown accus. tomed to After many years in the doldrums to borrow Leila Rupp and Verta. Taylor s felicitous expression working class action seems to be back with a. viii PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION, vengeance over all mobilizations by the dispossessed be they unskilled workers. on precarious employment in the US populations affected by famine and disease. in West Sudan or local communities threatened by new dams in India have. gained increasing attention and visibility Basic survival rights and social entitle. ments seem to play a more balanced role in contemporary mobilizations along. side more postmaterial ones related to quality of life than was the case in the. recent past, It is not for us to discuss here whether the oblivion in which collective action. on social inequality has been left in the past decades was due to its actual. diminished relevance or to oversights on the part of most social movement. researchers surely not all as people like Colin Barker or Paul Bagguley in the. UK or Judith Stepan Norris Maurice Zeitlin Rick Fantasia Kim Voss or Gio. vanni Arrighi in the US have constantly reminded us Either way the conse. quence for this new edition of Social Movements has been that the context within. which we had located our work appeared to us after only five years very dif. ferent Our first response has been that of changing most of the examples of col. lective action processes with which we start each chapter of the book In this. new edition they mostly refer to instances of conflicts or personal experiences. of activism somehow linked with global justice campaigns or perhaps mobi. lizations on a transnational scale Adapting our conceptual framework has. been unsurprisingly far more difficult At the end we have gone for a mini. malist solution instead of trying to formulate a radically new approach inspired. by the new phenomena we have shown how established analytical categories. could be used and when necessary modified to account for recent. developments, The degree to which we have been successful is obviously a matter for the. readers to evaluate There is no doubt however that we are as usual indebted. to many people who in different ways have made this a better book than it. would have been otherwise At Blackwell Susan Rabinowitz first and later. Ken Provencher have proved both patient and supportive editors while Hank. Johnston has presented us with an exceptionally thorough and helpful review of. our first draft Three anonymous colleagues reviewed our proposal for the. second edition again providing valuable insight and advice Among members of. our inner circle we would like first of all mention Chuck Tilly for his relent. less critical appreciation Thanks also to Massimiliano Andretta Delia Baldas. sarri Colin Barker Bob Edwards Olivier Fillieule Marco Giugni Doug. McAdam John McCarthy Hanspeter Kriesi Lorenzo Mosca Friedhelm Neid. hardt Alessandro Pizzorno Herbert Reiter Chris Rootes Dieter Rucht David. Snow and Sidney Tarrow Finally Christina Tischer proved a very reliable. assistant with the bibliography of the book while Sarah Tarrow did nothing. to damage her reputation as an outstanding language editor on chapters 2. PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION ix,Acknowledgments, Parts of sections 5 2 and 5 3 previously appeared in M Diani Networks and. Participation in The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements edited by D Snow. S Soule and H Kriesi Oxford Blackwell 2004 pp 339 59 The publishing press. il Mulino graciously granted permission to reproduce materials that originally. appeared in M Bianchi and M Mormino Militanti di Se Stesse Il Movimento. delle Donne a Milano in Altri Codici edited by A Melucci Bologna il Mulino. 1984 pp 159 60,THE STUDY OF SOCIAL,MOVEMENTS RECURRING.
QUESTIONS PARTIALLY,CHANGING ANSWERS, In the late 1960s the world was apparently undergoing deep dramatic transfor. mations even a revolution some thought American civil rights and antiwar. movements the Mai 1968 revolt in France students protests in Germany Britain. or Mexico the worker student coalitions of the 1969 Hot Autumn in Italy the. pro democracy mobilizations in locations as diverse as Francoist Madrid and. communist Prague the growth of critical Catholicism from South America to. Rome the early signs of the women s and environmental movements that would. shape the new politics of the 1970s all these phenomena and many more. suggested that deep changes were in the making, Accordingly the study of social movements developed at an unpre. cedented pace into a major area of research If at the end of the 1940s. critics lamented the crudely descriptive level of understanding and a. relative lack of theory Strauss 1947 352 and in the 1960s complained that in. the study of social changes social movements have received relatively little. emphasis Killian 1964 426 by the mid 1970s research into collective. action was considered one of the most vigorous areas of sociology Marx. and Wood 1975 At the end of the 1980s commentators talked of an explosion. in the last ten years of theoretical and empirical writings on social move. ments and collective action Morris and Herring 1987 138 see also Rucht. Today the study of social movements is solidly established with specialized. journals book series and professional associations The excitement and opti. mism of the roaring 1960s may be long gone but social and political events over. the last four decades have hardly rendered the investigation of grassroots activism. any less relevant or urgent To the contrary social movements protest actions. and more generally political organizations unaligned with major political parties. or trade unions have become a permanent component of Western democracies. It is no longer possible to describe protest politics grassroots participation and. symbolic challenges as unconventional Instead references to a movement. 2 THE STUDY OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, society seem increasingly plausible Neidhhardt and Rucht 2002 Melucci 1996. Meyer and Tarrow 1998b, To be sure there has been considerable fluctuation in the intensity of collec. tive action over this period as there has been in its degree of radicalism its spe. cific forms and its capacity to influence the political process However forecasts. that the wave of protest of the late 1960s would quickly subside and that busi. ness as usual as represented by interest based politics organized according to. traditional political divisions would return in its wake have largely been proved. wrong In different ways and with a wide range of goals and values various. forms of protest have continued to emerge in recent years Kriesi et al 1995. CONTENTS Preface to the Second Edition vii 1 The Study of Social Movements Recurring Questions Partially Changing Answers 1 1 1 Four Core Questions for Social Movement Analysis 5 1 2 What is Distinctive about Social Movements 20 1 3 On This Book 29 2 Social Changes and Social Movements 33 2 1 Social Structure Political Cleavages and Collective Action 36 2 2 States Markets and Social

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