Small scale poultry production

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FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH,SMALL SCALE POULTRY PRODUCTION. technical guide,E B Sonaiya,Department of Animal Science. Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile Ife Nigeria,S E J Swan. Village Poultry Consultant,Waimana New Zealand, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. Small scale poultry production iii,Chapter 1 1,Introduction 1.
Chapter 2 7,Species and Breeds 7,Chapter 3 13,Feed Resources 13. Chapter 4 23,General Management 23,Chapter 5 37,Incubation and Hatching 37. Chapter 6 41,Chapter 7 59,Breed Improvement 59,Chapter 8 65. Production Economics 65,Chapter 9 69,Marketing 69,Chapter 10 85. Research and Development for Family Poultry 85,Bibliography 109.
Foreword iv, Keeping poultry makes a substantial contribution to household food security throughout the. developing world It helps diversify incomes and provides quality food energy fertilizer and a. renewable asset in over 80 percent of rural households. Small scale producers are however constrained by poor access to markets goods and. services they have weak institutions and lack skills knowledge and appropriate technologies. The result is that both production and productivity remain well below potential and losses and. wastage can be high However adapted breeds local feed resources and appropriate vaccines. are available along with proven technologies that can substantially improve productivity and. income generation, FAO recognizes the important contribution that poultry can make to poverty alleviation and. has programmes that focus on small scale low input family based poultry production These. programmes target the more vulnerable households especially those affected by natural. disasters HIV Aids and conflict This manual provides a comprehensive and valuable technical. guide for those in government service or aid agencies wishing to embark on projects that. exploit the potential of small scale poultry production to improve the livelihoods of the rural. poor All aspects of small scale poultry production are discussed in this book including feeding. and nutrition housing general husbandry and flock health Regional differences in production. practices are described, FAO acknowledges and commends the effort that the authors have put into making such a. comprehensive and valuable reference for those involved in poultry production in the. developing world The views expressed are however those of the authors and do not. necessarily reflect those of FAO Members of the International Network for Family Poultry. Development INFPD have been involved in producing and reviewing this document and their. contribution is also gratefully acknowledged A major aim of the INFPD is to bring together and. disseminate technical information that supports small scale poultry producers throughout the. Small scale poultry production 1,Introduction,The socio economic Importance of Family Poultry. Family poultry is defined as small scale poultry keeping by households using family labour and. wherever possible locally available feed resources The poultry may range freely in the. household compound and find much of their own food getting supplementary amounts from the. householder Participants at a 1989 workshop in Ile Ife Nigeria defined rural poultry as a flock. of less than 100 birds of unimproved or improved breed raised in either extensive or intensive. farming systems Labour is not salaried but drawn from the family household Sonaiya 1990b. Family poultry was additionally clarified as small flocks managed by individual farm families. in order to obtain food security income and gainful employment for women and children. Branckaert as cited in Sonaiya 1990c Family poultry is quite distinct from medium to large. scale commercial poultry farming, Family poultry is rarely the sole means of livelihood for the family but is one of a number of.
integrated and complementary farming activities contributing to the overall well being of the. household Poultry provide a major income generating activity from the sale of birds and eggs. Occasional consumption provides a valuable source of protein in the diet Poultry also play an. important socio cultural role in many societies Poultry keeping uses family labour and women. who often own as well as look after the family flock are major beneficiaries Women often. have an important role in the development of family poultry production as extension workers. and in vaccination programmes, For smallholder farmers in developing countries especially in low income food deficient. countries LIFDC family poultry represents one of the few opportunities for saving. investment and security against risk In some of these countries family poultry accounts for. approximately 90 percent of the total poultry production Branckaert 1999 In Bangladesh for. example family poultry represents more than 80 percent of the total poultry production and 90. percent of the 18 million rural households keep poultry Landless families in Bangladesh form. 20 percent of the population Fattah 1999 citing the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics 1998. and they keep between five and seven chickens per household In LIFDC countries family. poultry produced meat and eggs are estimated to contribute 20 to 30 percent of the total animal. protein supply Alam 1997 and Branckaert 1999 taking second place to milk products 38. percent which are mostly imported Similarly in Nigeria family poultry represents. approximately 94 percent of total poultry keeping and accounts for nearly four percent of the. total estimated value of the livestock resources in the country Family poultry represents 83. percent of the estimated 82 million adult chickens in Nigeria In Ethiopia rural poultry accounts. for 99 percent of the national total production of poultry meat and eggs Tadelle et al 2000. Poultry are the smallest livestock investment a village household can make Yet the poverty. stricken farmer needs credit assistance even to manage this first investment step on the ladder. out of poverty Poultry keeping is traditionally the role of women in many developing countries. Female headed households represent 20 to 30 percent of all rural households in Bangladesh. Saleque 1999 and women are more disadvantaged in terms of options for income generation. In sub Saharan Africa 85 percent of all households keep poultry with women owning 70. percent of the poultry Gu ye 1998 and Branckaert 1999 citing World Poultry 14. Income generation is the primary goal of family poultry keeping Eggs can provide a regular. albeit small income while the sale of live birds provides a more flexible source of cash as. required For example in the Dominican Republic family poultry contributes 13 percent of the. income from animal production Rauen et al 1990 The importance of poultry to rural. households is illustrated by the example below from the United Republic of Tanzania see Table. 1 1 Assuming an indigenous hen lays 30 eggs per year of which 50 percent are consumed and. the remainder have a hatchability of 80 percent then each hen will produce 12 chicks per year. 2 Introduction, Assuming six survive to maturity with 50 percent mortality and assuming that three pullets. and three are cockerels the output from one hen projected over five years would total 120 kg of. meat and 195 6 8 kg eggs, Table 1 1 Projected output from a single initial hen United Republic of Tanzania. Time N of hatching eggs N of cockerels N of pullets N of cocks N of hens N of culls. 20 15 3 3 1,40 45 9 9 6,60 135 27 27 18,Total 195 39 40 12 13 25. Source Kabatange and Katule 1989, A study on income generation in transmigrant farming systems in East Kalimantan Indonesia.
see Table 1 2 showed that family poultry accounted for about 53 percent of the total income. and was used for food school fees and unexpected expenses such as medicines Ramm et al. Flock composition is heavily biased towards chickens in Africa and South Asia with more. ducks in East Asia and South America Flock size ranges from 5 100 in Africa 10 30 in. South America and 5 20 in Asia Flock size is related to the poultry farming objectives of. x home consumption only,x home consumption and cultural reasons. x income and home consumption and,x income only,See Table 1 3. In Bangladesh Jensen 1999 the average production rate per local hen of 50 eggs year was. regarded by some as low productivity However if it is considered that 50 eggs per hen per year. represents four hatches from four clutches of eggs laid incubated and hatched by the mother. hen and the outcome is 30 saleable chicken reared per year assuming no eggs sold or eaten 80. percent hatchability and 25 percent rearing mortality then it is a remarkably high productivity. PRODUCTION SYSTEMS, Family poultry are kept under a wide range of conditions which can be classified into one of. four broad production systems Bessei 1987,x free range extensive. x backyard extensive,x semi intensive and,x intensive.
Indicative production levels for the different systems are summarized in Table 1 4. Small scale poultry production 3, Table 1 2 Annual budget for a family farm with 0 4 ha irrigated paddy 0 1 ha vegetable. garden 100 ducks and two buffaloes in Indonesia,Unit Rupees. Annual expenses,Crops 1 198 000,Ducks 1 147 200,Subtotal 2 345 200. Annual revenue,Maize 240 kg 96 000,Rice 4 000 kg 2 000 000. Cassava 600 kg 60 000,Peanut 60 kg 60 000,Soybean 60 kg 30 000.
Mixed garden 150 000,Subtotal Crops 2 396 000,Buffaloes meat 150 kg 300 000. draft 30 days 180 000,Subtotal Buffaloes 480 000,Ducks eggs 13 140 eggs 5 256 000. Subtotal Animals 5 736 000, Annual net return to family labour from crops 1 198 000. Annual net return to family labour from livestock,Buffaloes 480 000. Ducks 4 108 800, Total return to family labour from agriculture 5 786 800.
Source Setioko 1997, Table 1 3 Flock size and poultry farming objectives in Nigeria. Objectives Flock size of sample,Home consumption only 1 10. Home consumption and cultural reasons 1 10,Income and home consumption 11 30 44. Income only 50 10 5,Source Sonaiya 1990a,4 Introduction. Free Range Extensive Systems, In Africa Asia and Latin America 80 percent of farmers keep poultry in the first two extensive.
systems Under free range conditions the birds are not confined and can scavenge for food over. a wide area Rudimentary shelters may be provided and these may or may not be used The. birds may roost outside usually in trees and nest in the bush The flock contains birds of. different species and varying ages,Backyard Extensive Systems. Poultry are housed at night but allowed free range during the day They are usually fed a. handful of grain in the morning and evening to supplement scavenging. Semi Intensive Systems, These are a combination of the extensive and intensive systems where birds are confined to a. certain area with access to shelter They are commonly found in urban and peri urban as well as. rural situations In the run system the birds are confined in an enclosed area outside during. the day and housed at night Feed and water are available in the house to avoid wastage by rain. wind and wild animals, In the European system of free range poultry keeping there are two other types of housing. The first of these is the ark system where the poultry are confined overnight for security. against predators in a building mounted on two rails or skids usually wooden which enable it. to be moved from place to place with draught power A typical size is 2 2 5 m to hold about. The second type of housing is the fold unit with a space allowance stock density for. adult birds of typically 3 to 4 birds per square metre birds m2 both inside and at least this. outside The fold unit is usually small enough to be moved by one person Neither of these two. systems is commonly found in developing countries,Intensive Systems. These systems are used by medium to large scale commercial enterprises and are also used at. the household level Birds are fully confined either in houses or cages Capital outlay is higher. and the birds are totally dependent on their owners for all their requirements production. however is higher There are three types of intensive systems. x Deep litter system birds are fully confined with floor space allowance of 3 to 4 birds m. within a house but can move around freely The floor is covered with a deep litter a 5 to. 10 cm deep layer of grain husks maize or rice straw wood shavings or a similarly. absorbent but non toxic material The fully enclosed system protects the birds from thieves. and predators and is suitable for specially selected commercial breeds of egg or meat. producing poultry layers breeder flocks and broilers. x Slatted floor system wire or wooden slatted floors are used instead of deep litter which. allow stocking rates to be increased to five birds m2 of floor space Birds have reduced. contact with faeces and are allowed some freedom of movement. x Battery cage system this is usually used for laying birds which are kept throughout their. productive life in cages There is a high initial capital investment and the system is mostly. confined to large scale commercial egg layer operations. Intensive systems of rearing indigenous chickens commercially is uncommon a notable rare. exception being in Malaysia where the industry developed in response to the heavy demand for. Small scale poultry production 3 Table 1 2 Annual budget for a family farm with 0 4 ha irrigated paddy 0 1 ha vegetable garden 100 ducks and two buffaloes in Indonesia Unit Rupees Annual expenses Crops 1 198 000 Animals Buffaloes Ducks 1 147 200 Subtotal 2 345 200 Annual revenue Crops Maize 240 kg 96 000

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