Sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations trends

Sexual Exploitation And Abuse In Peace Operations Trends-Free PDF

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Jasmine Kim Westendorf and Louise Searle, such behaviour from other forms of misconduct also has the effect of obscuring. significant differences in the form function and causes of the behaviours it encom. passes We attempt to disentangle the behaviours SEA encompasses in order to. better understand why it occurs supplementing a gender analysis with an under. standing of the local international normative and systemic factors that intersect. with gender orders and structures to create conditions in which SEA is perpetrated. in four distinguishable forms, We then move on to investigate the steps taken to date to prevent and respond. to SEA by interveners We examine the policy frameworks of the UN and inter. national humanitarian community demonstrating that the effectiveness of these. policies has been undermined by multiple factors These include the cyclical and. reactive nature of policy development the gulf between policy development at. international level and its implementation in missions and the focus on individu. alized compliance rather than structural and contextual issues which is under. pinned by framing SEA as one particular sort of misconduct Policies are further. undermined by the isolation of SEA policy from other relevant policy frame. works the assumption that relevant authorities see it as within their interests to. prevent SEA and ensure accountability and the UN s genetic defect which holds. it hostage to both member state interests and bureaucratic imperatives We argue. that a more complex understanding of the factors that give rise to SEA and the. structural and political conditions that have undermined policy responses opens. space for a more robust response to the global scourge of SEA. SEA by interveners what do we know, The UN defines sexual exploitation as any actual or attempted abuse of a position. of vulnerability differential power or trust for sexual purposes including but. not limited to profiting monetarily socially or politically from the sexual exploi. tation of another while sexual abuse is the actual or threatened physical intrusion. of a sexual nature whether by force or under unequal or coercive conditions 4. SEA first emerged as a peacekeeping issue during the UN Transitional Authority. in Cambodia UNTAC in 1993 when the number of prostitutes in Cambodia rose. from 6 000 before the mission to more than 25 000 in 1993 The widespread use of. prostitutes involved violence and the sexual abuse of girls with women reporting. that UNTAC customers could be more cruel than Cambodians 5 The UN response. was threefold the head of mission dismissed the issue s significance declaring that. boys will be boys 6 mission leadership advised peacekeepers not to wear uniforms. when visiting brothels or park UN vehicles directly outside and an additional. 800 000 condoms were shipped to the country to prevent the spread of HIV 7. UNSG Secretary General s Bulletin special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual. abuse ST SGB 2003 13 2003 p 1, Sandra Whitworth Men militarism and UN peacekeeping Boulder CO Lynne Rienner 2004 pp 67 68. Judy Ledgerwood UN peacekeeping missions the lessons from Cambodia AsiaPacific Issues no 11 Honolulu East. West Center 1994 http www seasite niu edu khmer ledgerwood PDFAsiaPacific htm. Olivera Simic Regulation of sexual conduct in UN peacekeeping operations New York Springer 2012 p 41. International Affairs 93 2 2017,INTA93 2 FullIssue indb 366 16 02 2017 13 35 13.
Sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations, In 1995 the issue of peacekeeper SEA arose again this time in Bosnia and. Herzegovina where evidence emerged that women and girls were being trafficked. to work as sex slaves in brothels frequented by UN personnel and later that. interveners were complicit in sex trafficking However it was not until 1999 that. negative media and rising public attention prompted the UN Mission in Bosnia. and Herzegovina and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. to develop policy responses which suggests a reluctance to recognise the direct. and indirect involvement of peacekeepers in trafficking 8 Once under way the. UN response adopted a more limited definition of trafficking than that set out. under international law and failed to provide adequate victim protection. Shortly thereafter independent consultants raised the alarm that UN and NGO. staff were abusing and exploiting local women and girls in refugee camps in Guinea. Liberia and Sierra Leone A subsequent Office of Internal Oversight Services. OIOS investigation in 2001 verified that SEA was prevalent documenting the. sexual relationship between a UN civilian staff member and a 17 year old refugee. in exchange for school fees the violent rape of girls by NGO staff the rape of. boys by peacekeepers in Sierra Leone the exchange of sex for food provided by. NGO staff and the refusal of international staff to take responsibility for children. fathered with local women 9 The Secretary General subsequently declared that. SEA by humanitarian staff cannot be tolerated It violates everything the UN stands. for Men women and children displaced by conflict or other disasters are among the most. vulnerable people on earth They look to the UN and its humanitarian partners for shelter. and protection Anyone employed by or affiliated with the UN who breaks that sacred. trust must be held accountable and when the circumstances so warrant prosecuted 10. In response the General Assembly adopted a resolution e xpressing its grave. concern at incidents of sexual exploitation and abuse against vulnerable populations. and directing the Secretary General to extend remedial and preventive measures. to all PKOs and humanitarian operations ensure that reporting and investigative. procedures are in place and maintain data on SEA 11 It encouraged all UN bodies. and NGOs to do the same The Secretary General consequently issued a bulletin. which established a zero tolerance policy on SEA for all UN staff and outlined. the duties of mission leadership in holding perpetrators accountable including. through referring cases to national authorities for criminal prosecution It also. mandated that all non UN entities or individuals working in cooperation with. the UN accept and implement those standards 12 This was a cornerstone of SEA. policy development and reinforced the mandate laid out in UN Security Council. Resolution 1325 for interveners to protect women from post conflict sexual and. gender based violence SGBV although as this article will show SEA policy has. Simic Regulation of sexual conduct p 42, UNSG Investigation into sexual exploitation of refugees by aid workers in west Africa A 57 465 2002 pp. UNSG Investigation into sexual exploitation of refugees by aid workers in west Africa p 1. UNGA A RES 57 306 2003 pp 1 2 emphasis in original. UNSG Secretary General s Bulletin special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual. International Affairs 93 2 2017,INTA93 2 FullIssue indb 367 16 02 2017 13 35 13. Jasmine Kim Westendorf and Louise Searle, been developed in isolation from the broader Women Peace and Security WPS. agenda set out in UNSCR 1325 which has undermined its effectiveness 13. A number of themes emerge from these early examples which have continued. to characterize the phenomenon of intervener SEA the widespread abuse of. children the perpetration of SEA by a wide range of military civilian UN. NGO and private actors repeated rounds of policy development that are unable. to effectively prevent or respond to SEA and the diversity of behaviours that SEA. encompasses, Sexual exploitation and abuse untangling the behaviours.
Our review of available data on intervener SEA suggests that the range of SEA. perpetrated is diverse encompassing opportunistic sexual abuse transactional sex. networked sexual exploitation and planned sadistic attacks It also suggests that. instances of SEA are driven by different motivating and or permissive factors and. it is useful to understand SEA in terms of whether and how individual cases involve. transactions the extent to which they have been planned or involve multiple. perpetrators and whether they are networked It is also helpful to understand. which actions are criminal In thus attempting to distinguish those elements of. the actions loosely grouped together as SEA that can be differentiated we aim to. reach a better understanding of the form and function of specific instances of SEA. as well as to identify the factors that give rise to such actions As Grady s study of. UN data collection on SEA allegations demonstrated the UN has abandoned and. developed new taxonomies of SEA annually 14 this makes tracking trends or using. the data virtually impossible and highlights the need for categories that are robust. but broad enough to be useful in understanding the nature of specific instances of. SEA A sound understanding of the factors that give rise to different forms of SEA. is fundamental to understanding the ineffectiveness of policy responses to date. and developing better responses in future,Opportunistic sexual abuse. Soldiers have a long history of perpetrating SGBV in conflict and post conflict. situations and rape and sexual violence have taken place on a mass scale in many. conflicts in which PKOs have been deployed While conflict related sexual violence. CRSV may sometimes be used strategically in aid of military objectives often. characterized as a weapon of war it may also be perpetrated opportunistically. for private reasons or as a practice of war which Wood argues is not ordered. even implicitly or institutionalized but is tolerated for a variety of reasons 15. Given the myriad reasons rape occurs during war it is not surprising that soldiers. also perpetrate such violence when deployed as peacekeepers. UNSC S RES 1325 on Women Peace and Security 31 Oct 2000. Kate Grady Sex statistics peacekeepers and power Modern Law Review 79 6 2016 pp 935 41. Elizabeth Wood Conflict related sexual violence and the policy implications of recent research International. Review of the Red Cross 96 894 2014 p 473,International Affairs 93 2 2017. INTA93 2 FullIssue indb 368 16 02 2017 13 35 13,Sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations. Sexual abuse according to the UN includes sexual assault rape and other. intrusions of a sexual nature and is perpetrated by both individuals and groups. Nord s and Rustad found rape reported in 11 of 36 PKOs they investigated. although specific data were unavailable in nearly half the operations so the real. figure is likely to be higher 16 From January to April 2016 the OIOS recorded 36. allegations of sexual abuse across UN PKOs including 15 cases of sexual assault. ten involving minors suggesting the widespread perpetration of rape as a form of. SEA in PKOs 17 However it is unlikely that these statistics accurately reflect the. scale of this form of SEA Grady s research suggests that UN data are unreliable. owing to poor data management potential false allegations and a likely under. reporting of SEA 18, Putting aside questions of scale many non UN investigations have documented. the perpetration of what appears to be opportunistic rape by interveners including. in the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC Haiti Sierra Leone and Guinea. For example in 2015 Human Rights Watch documented rapes in CAR including. that of two girls aged 18 and 14 who were gang raped by armed MINUSCA. peacekeepers near their base the older girl having been seeking food or money. from the peacekeepers and threatened with death if she resisted while the younger. had simply been walking by 19, As noted above this violence often occurs in contexts where sexual violence has.
long been a norm contemporary civil wars are characterized by extensive CRSV. which draws on deeper social constructs of masculinity that also produce SGBV. outside war 20 Further military peacekeepers are first and foremost soldiers. and reports of peacekeeper rape seem to revolve around military peacekeepers. rather than civilian peacekeepers or aid workers who appear more in accounts. of transactional sex Research has demonstrated that the deliberate militarization. of masculinity within armies as a training mechanism produces sexually violent. behaviours which goes some way towards explaining this form of violence 21 In. some cases there are also parallels between the normalization of sexual violence. in peacekeepers home countries and their perpetration of sexual abuse when on. deployment with a UN mission The main factor distinguishing this form of SEA. is that it is opportunistic in so far as it is for the private purposes of the rapist s. and does not include the pre planning or coordination characteristic of other. forms of SEA, Ragnhild Nord s and Siri Rustad Sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeepers International Interactions 39. 4 2013 p 518, UN Conduct and Discipline Unit CDU Status of allegations investigations and actions sexual exploi. tation and abuse 2016 https cdu unlb org Statistics DetailedOverviewofAllegationsfrom2015onward. StatusofAllegationsInvestigationsandActionsSexualExploitationandAbuse aspx. Grady Sex statistics peacekeepers and power p 942, Human Rights Watch HRW Central African Republic rape by peacekeepers Nairobi 4 Feb 2016 https www. hrw org news 2016 02 04 central african republic rape peacekeepers. Sara Meger Rape of the Congo Journal of Contemporary African Studies 28 2 2010 pp 119 35. Sexual exploitation and abuse untangling the behaviours Our review of available data on intervener SEA suggests that the range of SEA perpetrated is diverse encompassing opportunistic sexual abuse transactional sex networked sexual exploitation and planned sadistic attacks It also suggests that

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