self compacting concrete Journal of the South african

Self Compacting Concrete Journal Of The South African-Free PDF

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Table 1 S ieve analysis and physical properties Table 2 Mix proportions of MK FA and combination of MK and FA blended SCC. of fine and coarse aggregates Quantities kg m3,Mix designation W B. Fine Coarse Water OPC MK FA SP F A C A,Sieve size aggregate aggregate. mm of of SCC 100 OPC 0 55 220 400 0 8 880 800,passing passing. SCC MK05 0 55 220 380 20 8 880 800, 20 00 100 00 100 00 SCC MK10 0 55 220 360 40 8 880 800. 12 50 100 00 90 10 SCC MK15 0 55 220 340 60 8 880 800. 10 00 100 00 10 40 SCC MK20 0 55 220 320 80 8 880 800. SCC MK25 0 55 220 300 100 8 880 800,4 75 99 90 0 00.
SCC MK30 0 55 220 280 120 8 880 800,2 36 99 10 0 00. SCC FA05 0 55 220 380 20 8 880 800,1 18 83 10 0 00. SCC FA10 0 55 220 360 40 8 880 800, 0 60 58 30 0 00 SCC FA15 0 55 220 340 60 8 880 800. 0 30 10 00 0 00 SCC FA20 0 55 220 320 80 8 880 800. 0 15 0 70 0 00 SCC FA25 0 55 220 300 100 8 880 800. SCC FA30 0 55 220 280 120 8 880 800,Pan 0 00 0 00,SCC MK05 FA05 0 55 220 360 20 20 8 880 800. Bulk density kg m 3 1 752 00 1 640 00,SCC MK10 FA10 0 55 220 320 40 20 8 880 800.
Specific gravity g cm3 2 53 2 78 SCC MK15 FA15 0 55 220 280 60 60 8 880 800. Water absorption 2 01 0 36 SCC MK20 FA20 0 55 220 240 80 80 8 880 800. MATERIALS AND METHODS Table 3 Physical properties of OPC MK and FA. Bulk density in kg m3 Blaine,Materials Materials,passing 45. gravity surface area, Ordinary Portland cement OPC conforming loose dense micron sieve. to Indian standard code IS 8112 1995 was,OPC 1 18 1 27 3 13 86 318. used The sieve analysis of fine aggregate, F A and coarse aggregate C A was carried MK 0 50 0 52 2 58 99 2 350. out in accordance with the IS 383 1970 code,FA 0 94 1 20 2 10 95 400.
provision The results of the sieve analysis,as well as physical properties of F A and C A. are presented in Table 1 Commercially avail Table 4 Chemical composition of OPC MK and FA. able MK was used for this study and FA was Loss of. Material SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na 2O K 2O, obtained from the Tuticorin thermal power ignition. station Tamilnadu state India conforming to OPC 20 25 5 04 3 16 63 31 4 20 0 08 0 51 3 08. IS 3812 1981, The physical and chemical analyses MK 51 80 43 75 0 82 0 09 0 03 0 07 0 02 0 34. of OPC MK and FA were carried out as,FA 58 35 27 60 4 82 1 45 1 80 2 46 1 53 3 45. per the relevant Indian standard IS code,provisions Superplasticisers SPs were.
used to increase the workability of SCC normal SCC were prepared with a water to de moulded and immersed in a water curing. For this work a sulphonated naphthalene binder W C MK or FA or MK FA ratio of tank up to the time of testing. polymer based SP with a specific gravity of 0 55 and 2 of superplasticiser These mixes. 1 220 1 225 was used as a high range water were designated as SCC 100 OPC and Test methods. reducer conforming to IS 9103 1999 and SCC MK05 FA05 MK05 FA05 SCC To check the fresh state properties of SCC. ASTM C 494 Type F depending on the MK30 FA30 MK20 FA20 The mix propor slump flow test V funnel test at T5min and. dosages used to improve the performance tions are presented in Table 2 L box tests were performed in the laboratory. of SCC The SCC was mixed with a concrete according to EFNARC 2005 specifications. mixer for five minutes in a laboratory For Mineralogical and particle size analyses of MK. Mix proportion and preparation all mixes three cube specimens of 100 mm and FA were carried out by X ray diffraction. of the specimen size were cast for compressive strength test XRD analysis and particle distribution curve. The mix design which was based on previ ing which were used for ultrasonic pulse respectively All the mechanical property tests. ous study Sonebi 2004 was modified using velocity UPV testing before compressive were performed after 28 days of water curing. EFNARC 2005 guidelines to produce M30 strength testing Three cylindrical specimens The compressive and splitting tensile strength. grade SCC without segregation and bleeding of 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height test was carried out according to IS 9013 1997. For this study seventeen SCC mixes MK were also cast for determining the split and IS 5816 1999 Ultrasonic pulse velocity tests. and FA ranging from 0 5 10 20 and ting tensile strength After casting all the and dynamic modulus of elasticity tests were. 30 and a combination of MK and FA rang specimens were left in the casting room for performed as per IS 13311 part 1 1992 and the. ing from 10 20 30 and 40 with one 24 hours After 24 hours the specimens were Poisson s ratio was taken as 0 24 0 24. 98 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering Volume 56 Number 2 August 2014. 90 Table 5 F resh state properties of MK and,80 FA and combination of MK and FA. blended SCC,60 Slump funnel L box,Mix designation flow at 5 min test. 50 mm T5 min H2 H1,Cumulative passing,40 SCC 100 OPC 740 3 9 0 94. SCC MK05 735 4 2 0 90,30 SCC MK10 710 4 9 0 85,SCC MK15 690 5 8 0 82. SCC MK20 678 6 3 0 74,SCC MK25 656 7 2 0 63,SCC MK30 610 7 9 0 59.
SCC FA05 725 6 0 0 90,SCC FA10 740 6 0 0 93,SCC FA15 768 5 0 0 96. 10 100 1 000 10 000 SCC FA20 785 5 0 1 00,Particle size nanometer. OPC MK FA MK FA SCC FA25 786 4 0 1 00,SCC FA30 824 4 0 1 00. Figure 1 Particle distribution curve of OPC MK FA and MK FA. SCC MK05 FA05 720 4 2 0 91,SCC MK10 FA10 710 5 0 0 85. Q Quartz SCC MK15 FA15 695 6 0 0 79,150 M Mulite,SCC MK20 FA20 640 6 0 0 71.
50 Fresh state properties of SCC,The fresh state properties of SCC containing. MK FA or a combination of MK and FA,Intensity a u,50 were studied and are presented in Table 5. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90,From the results the slump flow values. 800 for different concrete mixes were calculated,Si Si Silica. in the range of 610 824 mm According to,600 values recommended by EFNARC 2005 for.
fresh state properties of SCC as presented,400 in Table 6 all the mixtures examined fall. under the categories of slump flow classes,1 2 and 3 SF1 SF2 and SF3 These classes. in concrete mixes are used to indicate that,these mixes are suitable for applications. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 such as deep foundation construction SF1. 2 degree and for normal applications such as the,building of columns deep beams etc SF2. Figure 2 X, ray diffraction XRD pattern of MK and FA and SF3 From the results it is clear that the.
slump flow or filling ability value gradually, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION size was observed on FA The fineness of reduced with the increments of the replace. the MK and FA may be the result of good ment level of MK and MK FA This condi. Physical and chemical pozzolanic reactions occurring in the tion may be caused by the high reactivity and. analyses of OPC and MK cement The XRD patterns of MK and FA higher surface area of MK when compared to. Physical and chemical properties of the used in this study are shown in Figure 2 OPC and FA It may also be due to the low. OPC MK and FA used are presented in From other references Jutice Kurtis 2007 est fineness modulus of fine aggregate FA. Tables 3 and 4 respectively Additionally Parande et al 2011 the FA was mainly in see Table 1 Similar trends in the slump. the particle size distribution curve for the crystalline form and MK in amorphous flow values were reported in Vejmelkova et al. binding materials is presented in Figure 1 form but it slightly deviated from amor 2011 and in Guneyisi and Gesoglu 2008. From the particle size distribution curve phous forms to crystalline forms at an angle The V funnel times for different concrete. it is noted that MK FA and their combina of 26 8092 showing a high quartz and mixes also appear in Table 5 From the. tions are finer than OPC and lesser particle silica phase in the pozzolan results it can be noted that the V funnel. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering Volume 56 Number 2 August 2014 99. times varied in the range of 3 9 7 9 seconds Table 6 EFNARC recommended values for fresh state properties of SCC. all concrete mixes could be categorised into,Slump flow test V funnel test L box test. the VF1 class According to the EFNARC, 2005 guidelines a V funnel time exceeding Blocking. Slump flow Slump flow Viscosity V funnel Passing, 25 sec is not recommended Table 5 From classes mm classes times s ability classes. the results the V funnel times for all con, crete mixes satisfied this requirement SF1 550 650 VF1 8 PA1.
The L box test results are also presented, in Table 5 According to the results the SF2 660 750 VF2 9 25 PA2. blocking ratio for different mixes varied from, 0 59 1 00 A satisfactory blocking ratio was SF3 760 850. observed in up to 15 MK 30 FA and 20,MK FA mixes the value of the ratio for the. rest of the mixes was found to be outside the,EFNARC recommended values Felekoglu. et al 2007 concluded that a blocking ratio,from 0 6 1 0 is acceptable for SCC to obtain.
satisfactory filling ability In this regard all,Compressive strength at 28 days N mm 2. concrete mixes were satisfactory i e within,the prescribed range except for the 30 MK. mix In summary all of the mixes exhibited,satisfactory fresh state properties according. to the criteria established by EFNARC 2005,and Felekoglu et al 2007 except for the 30 50. Mechanical properties of SCC,From the results it can be seen that SCC.
blended with MK and FA has a higher,compressive strength than normal SCC. SCC with 100 OPC Figure 3 The 40,strength improvement of SCC blended with. MK deteriorates with age a finding that,is confirmed by Revilla et al 2006 The. compressive strength of SCC blended with 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45. 15 FA was higher than that of normal Replacement level. SCC However the compressive strength of MK blended SCC FA blended SCC MK FA blended SCC. SCC decreased when the quantity of FA was, greater than 20 This may occur due to the Figure 3 C. ompressive strength of MK FA and MK FA blended SCC. increasing workability of the SCC blended, with FA because of the lower surface area those of normal SCC mixtures except for values for binary and ternary systems are.
of FA than MK and its relative lower water 30 of the FA mixture The utilisation of obtained at 25 FA the MK blended mix. demand Presence of more Al2O3 in MK MK and FA in combination resulted in a tures showed that the splitting tensile values. compared to FA further helps in sustaining better contribution to the splitting tensile were higher than the normal SCC up to. this hardening process A part of SiO2 in strength of SCC than other mixtures 30 in the case of binary systems and 40 in. FA primarily reacted with CaO and supple Although the range of variations in splitting the case of ternary systems Therefore 25. mented the hardening process taking place tensile strength of SCCs was not so wide FA 30 MK and 40 RHA MK are consid. in the MK FA blended SCC The above addi there was a noticeable distinction in the ered as the optimal limit Figure 4. tional hardening process enhanced the early strength values due to the inclusion of MK Ultrasonic pulse velocity UPV values for. compressive strength in MK and MK FA as well as MK FA As seen in the compres all the mixtures were measured before using. blended SCC Recent results from Safiuddin sive strength development at 28 days the the specimen for compressive strength test. et al 2010 and Shukla et al 2011 also led highest splitting tensile strengths were UPV values measured for MK FA and com. to similar conclusions This demonstrates obtained at 20 and 30 replacement levels bined blended SCC specimens are presented. the benefit of using FA in combination with of MK binary system and MK FA ternary in Figure 5 It was observed that compared. MK to produce SCC with a higher cement system respectively From this discussion with normal SCC 100 OPC the UPV val. replacement of around 40 20 MK 20 it is noted that the replacement level as ues increase due to the pozzolanic reaction. FA A comparison of the results shows that well as the splitting tensile strength can be of MK with Ca OH 2 and the discontinuity. the compressive strengths improved up to improved through the ternary systems It of the porosity network due to the fineness. 20 with MK up to 15 with FA and up to is also used to indicate the good synergic and chemical properties of the material The. 30 with MK FA effects occurring between MK and FA mixtures with a higher content of MK and. As compressive strength the 28 day The normal SCC exhibits a splitting ten MK FA with high amounts of alumina con. splitting tensile strengths of the binary and sile strength of 2 38 MPa at 28 days of cur tent exhibited a much better resistance to. ternary mixtures were generally higher than ing The equivalent splitting tensile strength ultrasonic wave penetration From the results. 100 Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering Volume 56 Number 2 August 2014. 4 0 of MK based SCC is higher and hence the,gain rate of UPV is faster than FA blended. SCC In the case of binary blended SCC,with MK and FA the UPV value is improved. 3 6 only up to 20 of MK while considering,Splitting tensile strength at 28 days N mm 2. the ternary blended SCC the replacement,level of cement is increased up to 40 due. to the good synergic and pozzolanic effects,3 2 between MK and FA When considering the.
quality of all mixes in terms of UPV values,IS 13311 part 1 1992 gives the range of UPV. is busy with a PhD in Civil Engineering at Anna University Chennai cement and waste materials to Indian standard code IS 8112 1995 was

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