Scientific Research Methodologies And Techniques Unit 2-Free PDF

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Methodology the study of the methods involved in some field. endeavor or in problem solving, Method a systematic codified series of steps taken to complete. a certain task or to reach a certain objective,Methodology is defined as. a collection of theories, the analysis of the principles of methods concepts or ideas. rules and postulates employed by a discipline,comparative study of. the systematic study of methods that are can,different approaches.
be or have been applied within a discipline or, a particular procedure or set of procedures critique of the individual methods. Methodology refers to more than a simple set of methods. it refers to the rationale and the philosophical assumptions that underlie a particular study. In recent years methodology has been,increasingly used as a pretentious. substitute for method in scientific and Wikipedia, L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 technical contexts 3. Nature of the scientific method, The scientific method attempts to minimize the influence. of the researchers bias on the outcome of an experiment. The researcher may have a preference for one,outcome or another and it is important that this.
preference not bias the results or their interpretation. Sometimes common sense and logic tempt us,into believing that no test is needed. Another common mistake is to ignore or rule out,data which do not support the hypothesis. http teacher pas rochester edu phy labs appendixe appendixe html. But there is no single universal formal scientific method. There are several variants and each researcher needs to tune the. process to the nature of the problem and his her working methods. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 4,2 OVERVIEW OF,RESEARCH METHODS. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 5,Classical phases,1 Research question Problem. 2 Background Observation,3 Formulate hypothesis,4 Design experiment.
5 Test hypothesis Collect data,6 Interpret Analyze results. 7 Publish findings,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 6. Classical phases,Research question What are you interested in. 1 Problem What do you have to know about it,Background Make observations gather background. 2 Observation information about the problem,An educated guess.
3 Formulate hypothesis It shall be possible to measure test it. It should help answer the original question,How will you test your hypothesis. 4 Design experiment What tests will answer your question. Test hypothesis Collect Test your hypothesis by executing your. 5 data experiments Collect data from them,Interpret Analyze What do your results tell you. 6 results Do they prove or disprove the hypothesis. It is OK to be wrong, 7 Publish findings Write papers for conferences journals. Write dissertation,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 7. Other variants,1 Define the question,2 Gather information and.
resources observe,3 Form hypothesis,4 Perform experiment. and collect data,5 Analyze data,6 Interpret data and draw. conclusions that serve,as a starting point for,new hypothesis. 7 Publish results,8 Retest frequently done,by other scientists. www sciencebuddies org mentoring project scientific method shtml. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 8,Other variants, L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 www makeitsolar com science fair information 01 the scientific method htm 9.
Other variants,1 Observe an event, 2 Develop a model or Ask Fred To Act Dramatically Cool. hypothesis which,makes a prediction A ask,3 Test the prediction F form a hypothesis. 4 Observe the result T test hypothesis,5 Revise the hypothesis A analyze the results. 6 Repeat as needed D draw conclusions,7 A successful C community. hypothesis becomes a,Scientific Theory,www gallimorelearning com index files Powerpoint.
Nordgren 2004,20for 20website Science 20PP scientificmethod ppt. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 10,Other variants,The Scientific Method Made Easy. Literature review,Problem and,hypotheses,Experiments System. analysis prototype,http www youtube com watch v zcavPAFiG14. Theory paper,new knowledge,M mmel 2006,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012.
In practice,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 12, Errors of experts who did not follow the Scientific Method. Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1 5 tons. Popular Mechanics forecasting the relentless march of science 1949. I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. Thomas Watson chairman of IBM 1943, Airplanes are interesting toys but of no military value. Marechal Ferdinand Foch Professor of Strategy Ecole Superieure de Guerre. Louis Pasteur s theory of germs is ridiculous fiction. Pierre Pachet Professor of Physiology at Toulouse 1872. Heavier than air flying machines are impossible,Lord Kelvin president Royal Society 1895. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 13,3 STEPS OF THE,SCIENTIFIC METHOD. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 14,Step 1 Formulate Research question Problem.
The most important step in research,Often comes from the thought. What we have now is not quite right good enough we can do better. The research question defines the area of interest but it is not a. declarative statement like a hypothesis, The central research question may be complemented by. a few secondary questions to narrow the focus, Research question must be capable of being confirmed or refuted. The study must be feasible,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 15. Research question Problem Examples,EXAMPLE 1 single question.
Which methods and tools should be developed to make current. manufacturing control supervision systems reusable and swiftly. modifiable,EXAMPLE multiple questions, Q1 What are the main components of logistics costs that determine. the logistics and transport network design, Q2 To what extent are the existing network design and evaluation. models sufficient and how can collaboration be incorporated in the. network design methodology, Q3 How can economies of scale and scope present in the newtork. be taken into account in the network design, Q4 Is it possible to set boundaries to the development path of the. network and search for a feasible path instead of searching solely. for a feasible solution,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012.
Research question Problem Examples, The main research questions which have guided this. EXAMPLES WITH SOME research work are, PROBLEMS Q1 Which are the main characteristics of a collaborative. network and of a collaborative networked environment. The main objective of this Q2 How can be assessed the performance of a CN. Q3 Which are the most relevant conceptual frameworks. work is to contribute to the, architectures reference models independent and industry. development of elements of a specific initiatives ICT platforms and their underlying. formal theory for technologies targeting interoperability in a collaborative. manufacturing systems in networked environment, order to allow the Q4 Which are the main requirements for interoperability in. establishment of a formal a networked environment, methodology for the design Q5 How can seamless interoperability be achieved.
Q6 Which are the main differences and similarities between. and analysis of,existing conceptual frameworks, manufacturing systems Q7 How can conceptual frameworks be compared and. which are the criteria to support such an analysis and. evaluation, It states the idea but is Q8 Do the conceptual frameworks and the technological. solutions compete or complement each other,not formulated as a research. Q9 Which is the path to be followed to allow heterogeneous. question and sounds and geographically distributed organizations to naturally. vague inter operate,Too many no hierarchy some redundancy. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012,Step 2 Background Observation.
High reliability low newness,How has the work been done previously. Encyclopedias,What similar work has been leading up to. this point Monographs,Study state of the art reviews. Review papers,Tutorial papers,literature review projects informal. discussions etc,Original journal papers,Optional realization of preliminary.
experiments, What distinguishes previous work from Other original papers. conferences,what you want to do symposia,Who What will be impacted by this. Low reliability high newness,You may iterate between Step 2 and Step 1. M mmel 2006,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 18,Step 3 Formulate hypothesis. A scientific hypothesis states the predicted educated guess. relationship amongst variables, Serve to bring clarity specificity and focus to a research problem.
But are not essential, You can conduct valid research without constructing a hypothesis. On the other hand you can construct as many hypothesis as appropriate. Stated in declarative form Brief and up to the point. A possible format formalized,If then because, In the case of a PhD dissertation one hypothesis after tested becomes a. thesis being defended,One dissertation may include more than one thesis. Sometimes people refer to the dissertation as the thesis. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 19,Characteristics of a hypothesis. Should be simple specific and conceptually clear, ambiguity would make verification almost impossible.
Should be capable of verification, i e There are methods and techniques for data collection and analysis. Should be related to the existing body of knowledge. i e Able to add to the existing knowledge,Should be operationalisable. i e Expressed in terms that can be measured,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 20. Hypothesis example, Shop floor control supervision reengineering agility can be. achieved if manufacturing systems are abstracted as compositions of. modularized manufacturing components that can be reused whever. necessary and whose interactions are specified using configuration. rather than reprogramming, Often PhD dissertations fail to make explicit their hypothesis.
Sometimes the reader can hardly find them implicit in a section. of contributions of the dissertation,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012. Hypothesis independent dependent variables, The hypothesis shall contain two types of variables. Independent Variable s,Dependent Variable s, Independent Variable the one the researcher controls. It is what you the researcher change to cause a certain effect. Dependent Variable the one you measure or observe,It s the effect of the researcher s change. If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light then people with a high exposure to UV light will. have a higher frequency of skin cancer, If temperature affects leaf color change then exposing the plant to low temperatures will result.
in changes in leaf color,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 22. Step 4 Design experiment, Includes planning in detail all the steps of the experimental phase. In engineering research it often includes the design of a prototype. system architecture, Identify the variables that will be manipulated and measured. the research outcomes must be measurable,In other words. What needs to be controlled in order to get an umbiased answer. to the research question,Therefore it is necessary to not only.
design a prototype system but, also the thesis validation method All sciences are. How to validate the thesis vain and full of,errors that are not. The plan should allow others to repeat it born of experience. It should be feasible Mother of all,certainty and that. Plan intermmediate milestones are not tested by Leonardo. experience,If you fail to plan you planned to fail. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 23,Step 5 Test hypothesis Collect data.
Implementation of methods e g prototyping and auxiliary tools. e g simulation,Pilot testing and refinement,Field vs Laboratory work. Any ethical considerations,Confirm results by retesting. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 24,Test hypothesis perform experiments. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012,Step 6 Interpret Analyze results. What did your experiment show,Qualitative data analysis.
Quantitative data analysis,Descriptive and inferential statistics clustering. What might weaken your confidence in the results critical spirit. Discussion regarding,Literature,Research objectives. Research questions,Consider next steps,Recommendations for further research. L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 26,Interpret Analyze results. Young or old lady,perspectives,HINT Use the girls face as the old woman s nose.
L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 27,Step 7 Publish findings. A research result is not a contribution to the field if no one knows. about it or can use it,Write scientific papers make presentations. Intermediate results,Conferences Publish or perish. Collect feedback,Consolidated results Reviewed Indexed. Journals Science Citation Index,Web of Science, Be careful in selecting where you publish Sponsors.
IEEE IFIP IFAC,Write dissertation,L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 28. Attributes of a good thesis, It should be contestable proposing an arguable point with which people could. reasonably disagree,A strong thesis is provocative. it takes a stand and justifies the discussion you will present. It is specific and focused, A strong thesis proves a point without discussing everything about. 2 OVERVIEW OF L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 5 RESEARCH METHODS 1 Research question Problem 2 Background Observation 3 Formulate hypothesis Classical phases L M Camarinha Matos 2009 2012 6 4 Design experiment 5 Test hypothesis Collect data 6 Interpret Analyze results 7 Publish findings Research question

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