Science and Technology Policymaking A Primer

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Science and Technology Policymaking A Primer, Scientific and technical knowledge and guidance influences not just policy related to science and. technology but also many of today s public policies as policymakers seek knowledge to enhance. the quality of their decisions Science and technology policy is concerned with the allocation of. resources for and encouragement of scientific and engineering research and development the use. of scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the nation s response to societal challenges and. the education of Americans in science technology engineering and mathematics. Science and engineering research and innovations are intricately linked to societal needs and the. nation s economy in areas such as transportation communication agriculture education. environment health defense and jobs As a result policymakers are interested in almost every. aspect of science and technology policy The three branches of government executive. congressional and judiciary depending on each branch s responsibility use science and. technology knowledge and guidance to frame policy issues craft legislation and govern. The science and engineering community however is not represented by one individual or. organization On matters of scientific and technical knowledge and guidance its opinions are. consensus based with groups of scientists and engineers coming together from different. perspectives to debate an issue based on the available empirical evidence In the end consensus is. achieved if there is widespread agreement on the evidence and its implications which is. conveyed to policymakers Policymakers then determine based on this knowledge and other. factors whether or not to take action and what actions to take If there are major disagreements. within large portions of the community however consensus is not yet achieved and taking policy. actions in response to a concern can be challenging. Several organizations when requested by the federal government or Congress provide formal. science and technology policy advice federal advisory committees congressionally chartered. honorific organizations and federally funded research and development corporations In addition. many other organizations and individuals international intergovernmental organizations policy. institutes think tanks the public professional organizations disciplinary societies universities. and colleges advocacy special interest industry trade associations and labor also provide their. thoughts These organizations may agree on the scientific and technical knowledge regarding an. issue but disagree on what actions to take in response as their values on a proposed policy may. differ Policymakers may be overwhelmed with an abundance of information from these. organizations, Despite these challenges scientific and technical knowledge and guidance can provide. policymakers with an opportunity to make their decisions based on the best information available. along with other factors they might take into account such as cultural economic and other. values so that societal and economic benefits are enhanced and losses are mitigated. Congressional Research Service,Science and Technology Policymaking A Primer. Overview of U S Science and Technology Policy 1,Science and Technology Policy Facets 2. Historical Changes in U S Science and Technology Policy 4. Definition of Research and Development 6,Industries Linked to Science and Technology 6.
What are Some Perspectives on Science and Technology Policy 7. Science and Technology Community and Policymakers 7. Federal Funding of Research 9,Policy for Science and Science for Policy 10. Policy for Technology and Technology for Policy 10. Who Makes Decisions Regarding Science and Technology Policy in Congress 14. Committees 15,Caucuses 16, Who Makes Decisions Regarding Science and Technology Policy in the Executive. The President and the White House 19,Office of Science and Technology Policy 19. Office of Management and Budget 21, Other White House Science and Technology Policy Related Offices 21. Agency Leadership 22,Federal Agencies 22, Who Makes Decisions in the Judicial Branch Regarding Science and Technology Policy 24.
What Organizations Provide Science and Technology Advice to Policymakers 25. Federal Advisory Committees 26, Congressionally Chartered Honorific Organizations 29. Federally Funded Research and Development Corporations FFRDCs 29. International Intergovernmental Organizations 30,Other Sources of Advice 31. Policy Institutes 31,Public and Individual Opinion Leaders 31. Professional Organizations and Disciplinary Societies 32. Universities and Colleges 33,Advocacy Special Interest or Action Groups 34. Industry and Trade Associations 34, What are the Opportunities and Challenges of the Current Science and Technology Policy.
Decisionmaking Process 36, Figure 1 Projected Federal Obligations for Research and Development by Agency and. Character of Work FY2007 9,Congressional Research Service. Science and Technology Policymaking A Primer, Figure 2 Major Alternative Perspectives in the Scientific and Technology Community on. the Allocation of Resources for Research 11, Figure 3 One Perspective on the Relationship of Federal Investment to Innovation 12. Figure 4 Pasteur s Quadrant Model of Science and Engineering Research 13. Figure 5 Organizations and Individuals Who Influence Science and Technology Policy. Decisionmaking 27, Table 1 The Relationship Between Science and Technology and Policymaking 3.
Table 2 Federal Science and Technology Policy Related Advisory Committee Categories 27. Author Contact Information 38,Congressional Research Service. Science and Technology Policymaking A Primer, cientific and technical knowledge and guidance influences many of today s public policies. The following definition is used by some science and technology policy analysts as a. cornerstone of thinking about science and technology S T policy decisionmaking. Science and technology policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for scientific. research and technical development It includes government encouragement of science and. technology as the roots of strategy for industrial development and in economic growth but it. also includes the use of science in connection with problems of the public sector Because of. the close association of basic research with higher education this aspect of science and. technology policy is difficult to separate from overall educational policy and from. scientific and technical workforce policy 1, Because science and technical knowledge and guidance influences public policy decisionmaking. on many other issues some think that science and technology policy does not need to be a. separate field of inquiry 2 Others however view S T policy as different from other public policy. issue areas These differences include the rapidity of change in science and technology novelty of. many issues in science and technology scale complexity and interdependence among. technologies irreversibility of many scientific and technological effects public worries about real. or imagined threats to human health and safety and the challenges to deeply held social values 3. This report will provide a basic understanding of science and technology policy including the. nature of S T policy how scientific and technical knowledge is useful for public policy. decisionmaking and an overview of the key stakeholders in science and technology policy Note. that the report places a greater emphasis on the executive branch science and technology. policymaking as the federal government supports public policy decisionmaking as well as. performing and funding research and development,Overview of U S Science and Technology Policy. The nation s first formal science and technology policy decision may well have been in the U S. Constitution itself in 1787 when the Congress was given power. To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts by securing for limited Times to. Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries 4. At the request of President Washington Congress passed its first science and technology policy. related act regarding patents in 1790 5 These actions led to today s Patent and Trademark Office. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Science Growth and Society A New Perspective Report. of the Secretary General s Ad Hoc Group on New Concepts of Science Policy Paris Organisation for Economic. Cooperation and Development OECD 1971 pp 37 38 This report is called the Brooks report for the chair of the. committee that developed the report Harvey Brooks then a well known S T policy scholar at Harvard University. Guild K Nichols Technology on Trial Public Participation in Decisionmaking Related to Science and Technology. Paris Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD 1979 The OECD analysis was based on a. survey of developed nations,U S Constitution Article I Section 8 Clause 8.
Jeffrey K Stine A History of Science Policy in the United States 1940 1985 Report for the House Committee on. Congressional Research Service 1,Science and Technology Policymaking A Primer. The Constitution also identified the utility of scientific and technical policy guidance in the sense. of congressional power To coin Money regulate the Value thereof and of foreign Coin and fix. the Standard of Weights and Measures 6 This is the origin of today s National Institutes of. Standards and Technology NIST In addition the Constitution stated that No Capitation or. other direct Tax shall be laid unless in the Proportion to the Census of Enumeration herein. before directed to be taken 7 This is the origin of today s U S Census Bureau. Other constitutional propositions 8 not enacted included the power of Congress to establish a. university and seminaries for the promotion of the sciences and encourage by premiums. provisions the advancement of useful knowledge and discoveries 9 Advancement of science was. also used as part of the justification for freedom of speech 10. Prior to the Constitution Congress requested a geological survey in the Land Ordinance of 1785. to classify lands west of the Allegheny mountains that had become a source of contention in. writing the Articles of Confederation the precursor of today s U S Geological Survey USGS. Science and Technology Policy Facets, As illustrated in Table 1 science and technology policy has four facets science for policy. technology for policy policy for science and policy for technology 11 These facets cannot be. easily separated but can help provide a framework to better understand the policy decisions that. policymakers are addressing in a given situation This in turn can reflect how policymakers. consider the policy advice they are given by the scientific and technical community. Science and Technology Task Force on Science Policy 99th Cong 2nd sess Committee Print Washington DC GPO. 1986 http ia341018 us archive org 2 items historyofscience00unit historyofscience00unit pdf The report appendix. provides a chronology of federal science policy developments from 1787 to 1985 prepared by Michael E Davey of. U S Constitution Article I Section 8 Clause 5,U S Constitution Article I Section 9 Clause 4. For more discussion of science and technology policy in the early days of the United States see I Bernard Cohen. Science and the Founding Fathers Science in the Political Thought of Jefferson Franklin Adams and Madison New. York W W Norton Company 1995 and A Hunter Dupree Science in the Federal Government A History of. Policies and Activities Baltimore Johns Hopkins University Press 1986. Max Farrand ed The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 Volume 2 Journal August 18 1787 p 321 322. New Haven Yale University Press 1911 at http memory loc gov cgi bin ampage collId llfr fileName 002. llfr002 db recNum 327 itemLink D hlaw 30 temp ammem IMyH 230020327 linkText 1. Journals of the Continental Congress October 26 1774 p 108 available at http memory loc gov cgi bin ampage. collId lljc fileName 001 lljc001 db recNum 120 itemLink D hlaw 23 temp ammem IMyH 230010121. linkText 1, See Christopher T Hill Where Does Science and Technology Fit in Public Policy AAAS Leadership Seminar in. Science and Technology Policy powerpoint presentation November 14 2006 at http www aaas org programs. science policy leadership hill1106 pdf for a presentation on this topic. Congressional Research Service 2,Science and Technology Policymaking A Primer.
Table 1 The Relationship Between Science and Technology and Policymaking. Policy Influencing Science and Technology Science and Technology Informing Policy. Science Policy for Science Science for Policy, e g Should the U S federal government support e g Should the United States take action on. embryonic stem cell research climate change, Technology Policy for Technology Technology for Policy. e g Should the emerging field of nanotechnology e g Should policy actions be taken to enhance. be supported and regulated the implementation of new vehicle technologies. that might reduce the nation s fossil fuel,consumption. Source Congressional Research Service, Note For information on the policy issues in the table see the following CRS Report RL33540 Stem Cell. Research Federal Research Funding and Oversight by Judith A Johnson and Erin D Williams CRS Report RL33849. Climate Change Science and Policy Implications by Jane A Leggett CRS Report RL34401 The National. the education of Americans in science technology engineering and mathematics Science and engineering research and innovations are intricately linked to societal needs and the nation s economy in areas such as transportation communication agriculture education environment health defense and jobs As a result policymakers are interested in almost every aspect of science and

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