Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

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IAEA SAFETY RELATED PUBLICATIONS,IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS. Under the terms of Article III of its Statute the IAEA is authorized to establish. or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life. and property and to provide for the application of these standards. The publications by means of which the IAEA establishes standards are issued in. the IAEA Safety Standards Series This series covers nuclear safety radiation safety. transport safety and waste safety and also general safety i e all these areas of safety. The publication categories in the series are Safety Fundamentals Safety Requirements. and Safety Guides, Safety standards are coded according to their coverage nuclear safety NS. radiation safety RS transport safety TS waste safety WS and general safety GS. Information on the IAEA s safety standards programme is available at the IAEA. Internet site,http www ns iaea org standards, The site provides the texts in English of published and draft safety standards The. texts of safety standards issued in Arabic Chinese French Russian and Spanish the. IAEA Safety Glossary and a status report for safety standards under development are. also available For further information please contact the IAEA at P O Box 100. A 1400 Vienna Austria, All users of IAEA safety standards are invited to inform the IAEA of experience. in their use e g as a basis for national regulations for safety reviews and for training. courses for the purpose of ensuring that they continue to meet users needs. Information may be provided via the IAEA Internet site or by post as above or by. e mail to Official Mail iaea org,OTHER SAFETY RELATED PUBLICATIONS.
The IAEA provides for the application of the standards and under the terms of. Articles III and VIII C of its Statute makes available and fosters the exchange of. information relating to peaceful nuclear activities and serves as an intermediary among. its Member States for this purpose, Reports on safety and protection in nuclear activities are issued in other. publications series in particular the Safety Reports Series Safety Reports provide. practical examples and detailed methods that can be used in support of the safety. standards Other IAEA series of safety related publications are the Provision for the. Application of Safety Standards Series the Radiological Assessment Reports Series and. the International Nuclear Safety Group s INSAG Series The IAEA also issues reports. on radiological accidents and other special publications. Safety related publications are also issued in the Technical Reports Series the. IAEA TECDOC Series the Training Course Series and the IAEA Services Series and. as Practical Radiation Safety Manuals and Practical Radiation Technical Manuals. Security related publications are issued in the IAEA Nuclear Security Series. TRAINING COURSE SERIES No 1,Safe Transport,of Radioactive Material. Fourth Edition,INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY VIENNA 2006. The originating Section of this publication in the IAEA was. Radiation Safety Section,International Atomic Energy Agency. Wagramer Strasse 5,P O Box 100,A 1400 Vienna Austria.
SAFE TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL,IAEA VIENNA 2006. IAEA TCS 01 04,ISSN 1018 5518,Printed by the IAEA in Austria. August 2006, Since 1957 the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA has exerted efforts. towards developing and maintaining its Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive. Material The IAEA s Transport Regulations are used worldwide as the basis for the safety. requirements of relevant international organizations including the United Nations Economic. and Social Council International Civil Aviation Organization International Maritime. Organization UN Economic Commission for Europe Universal Postal Union and. MERCOSUR MERCOSUL as well as the national transport regulations of many IAEA. Member States Indeed Member States recognized at the IAEA General Conference in 1998. that compliance with regulations which take account of the Agency s Transport Regulations. is providing a high level of safety during the transport of radioactive materials. Meeting its statutory obligation to foster the exchange and training of scientists and. experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy the IAEA has developed a standardized. approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the. Transport Regulations Under this approach and compatible with a train the trainer concept. the IAEA provides training at the international level on the full requirements of its Transport. Regulations to Member States competent authorities responsible for regulating the safe. transport of radioactive material in their respective countries In turn those that have been. trained by the IAEA are expected to disseminate their knowledge at a national level on. applicable aspects of the Transport Regulations, This training manual is an anchor of the standardized approach to training it contains. all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to. gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that. radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations nomenclature for dangerous. goods is transported safely The explanations in the text refer where needed to the. appropriate requirements in the IAEA s Transport Regulations additional useful information. is also provided, Thus this training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their.
supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training. courses on the safe transport of radioactive material Enclosed with the training manual is a. CD ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the. IAEA s training courses The visual aids are presented in modules that are keyed to the. chapters of the training manual, IAEA training courses are mainly intended for national competent authorities for. radioactive material and address the full requirements of the Transport Regulations. However training is also needed at courses not usually organized by the IAEA for regulatory. staff needing only certain aspects of the Transport Regulations e g non nuclear fuel cycle. requirements or for non regulatory personnel e g consignors and carriers emergency first. responders and drivers visual aids for such courses are also available on the CD ROM. Training courses for Member States national purposes may be based on these other sets of. visual aids the contents of which need only be expanded to address applicable national. requirements, This edition of the training manual is based on the IAEA s Regulations for the Safe. Transport of Radioactive Material TS R 1 2005 Edition It includes the updated training. manual for the comprehensive training programme duration 2 weeks and two annexes one. relating to a new training manual for a short training programme for public authorities other. than competent authorities duration half day and the other a new training manual for a short. training programme for cargo personnel including cargo handlers and vehicle crew duration. half day This edition features exercises that have been included at the end of every chapter. to help students gauge their own understanding of the topics addressed in each chapter. Prepared answers can be obtained by training course administrators from the IAEA on. The Secretariat wishes to express its gratitude to all experts who have contributed to. the preparation of this manual, Information about the IAEA s transport safety training programme may be obtained. M E Wangler, Head Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material Unit. Div of Radiation Transport and Waste Safety,IAEA P O Box 100.
A 1400 Vienna Austria,Tel 43 1 2600 Ext 21262,Fax 43 1 26007. e mail M E Wangler iaea org,EDITORIAL NOTE, The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by the. publisher the IAEA as to the legal status of such countries or territories of their authorities and. institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. The mention of names of specific companies or products whether or not indicated as registered does. not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights nor should it be construed as an endorsement. or recommendation on the part of the IAEA,1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 1 Objectives 2,1 2 Course overview 3,1 3 The International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA 5. 1 3 1 Statute 5,1 3 2 Mission and functions 6,1 3 3 Roles and responsibilities 6.
1 3 4 Services and information 9,1 4 Uses of radioactive material 10. 1 4 1 Food irradiation 10, 1 4 2 Health care product and consumer product irradiation 10. 1 4 3 Insect control 11,1 4 4 Nuclear applications in medicine 11. 1 4 5 Nuclear applications in industry 12,1 4 6 Nuclear reactors 12. 1 5 The IAEA s transport safety programme 13,1 5 1 Organization 13.
1 5 2 Missions and functions 13,1 5 3 Roles and responsibilities 14. 1 5 4 Interfaces with transport safety regulatory organizations 14. 1 6 IAEA Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material 17. 1 6 1 History and development 17,1 6 2 Basic philosophy 19. 1 6 3 Scope 20,1 6 4 Units 22,1 7 Documents supporting the regulations 22. 1 8 Overview of competent authority responsibilities 23. 1 9 Interfaces between transport and other aspects of radioactive material 24. 1 9 1 Interfaces with waste management programmes and. with facilities 24,1 9 2 Interfaces with other materials 25. 1 9 3 Interfaces with safeguards and physical protection functions 25. REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 1 25,EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 1 28.
2 REVIEW OF RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION 31,2 1 Basic atomic and nuclear structure 31. 2 1 1 Atoms and nuclei 31,2 1 2 Elements 32,2 1 3 Isotopes 33. 2 1 4 Notation 33,2 1 5 Prefixes 34,2 2 Radioactivity 35. 2 2 1 Chart of the nuclides 35,2 2 2 Radioactive decay and half life 36. 2 2 3 Quantities and units 36,2 3 Radiation 37,2 3 1 Ionization 38.
2 3 2 Alpha radiation 38,2 3 3 Beta radiation 39,2 3 4 Gamma radiation 39. 2 3 5 Neutron radiation 40,2 4 Fission 41,2 4 1 Criticality 41. EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 2 43,3 REVIEW OF RADIATION PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 47. 3 1 Some quantities and units 47,3 1 1 Absorbed dose 47. 3 1 2 Radiation weighting factors and equivalent dose 47. 3 1 3 Tissue weighting factors and effective dose 48. 3 1 4 Committed equivalent dose 49,3 1 5 Committed effective dose 49.
3 1 6 Collective equivalent dose and collective effective dose 49. 3 1 7 Collective effective dose commitment 49,3 1 8 Radiation level 49. 3 2 Background radiation levels 50,3 2 1 Natural background radiation 50. 3 2 2 Man made background radiation 51,3 3 Biological effects 51. 3 3 1 Short term biological effects 51,3 3 2 Long term biological effects 52. 3 4 The system of radiation protection 53,3 4 1 Principles 54.
3 4 2 Justification 54,3 4 3 Dose limits 54,3 4 4 Optimization 55. 3 4 5 Dose constraints 56,3 5 Control of the radiation hazard 56. 3 5 1 Time 56,3 5 2 Distance 56,3 5 3 Shielding 57. 3 6 Control of the contamination hazard 57,3 6 1 Containment 57. 3 6 2 External and internal personal contamination 57. 3 6 3 Protective clothing 57,3 6 4 Fixed and removable contamination 57.
3 7 Controlled areas 58,3 8 Radiation protection programmes 58. 3 9 Non compliance 58,3 10 Basics of Q system 59,REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 3 60. EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 3 60,4 REGULATORY TERMINOLOGY 65. 4 1 SPECIAL FORM 65,4 2 A1 and A2 65,4 3 Specific activity 65. 4 4 Exemptions 65,4 5 Excepted material 66,4 6 Low specific activity material 66.
4 6 1 LSA I 66,4 6 2 LSA II 66,4 6 3 LSA III 66,4 7 Surface contaminated objects 66. 4 8 Fissile material 66,4 9 Fissile excepted 67, 4 10 Consignment consignor consignee carrier and conveyance 67. 4 11 Exclusive use 67,4 12 Packaging containment and confinement 67. 4 12 1 Excepted packages 67,4 12 2 Industrial packages 68. 4 12 3 Type A packages 68,4 12 4 Type B packages 68.
4 12 5 Type C packages 69,4 12 6 Fissile packages 69. 4 12 7 Overpacks freight containers intermediate,bulk containers and tanks 69. 4 13 Low dispersible radioactive material 69,4 14 Transport index 69. 4 15 Criticality safety index 69,4 16 Special arrangement 70. 4 17 Competent authority 70, 4 18 Quality assurance and compliance assurance 70.
REFERENCE FOR CHAPTER 4 70,EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 4 70. 5 BASIC SAFETY CONCEPTS MATERIALS AND PACKAGES 75,5 1 Basic safety concepts 75. 5 1 1 Inherent safety 75,5 1 2 Passive safety 76,5 1 3 Active safety 78. 5 1 4 Summary of objectives of Transport Regulations 78. 5 2 Radioactive material 78,5 3 Packages 79,5 4 Optimization 80. EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 5 81,6 ACTIVITY LIMITS AND MATERIAL RESTRICTIONS 83.
6 1 Derivation of A1 A2 limits 83,6 1 1 Background 83. 6 1 2 Basis of the Q system 84,6 1 3 Dosimetric models and assumptions 86. 6 1 4 Alpha emitters 92,6 1 5 Neutron emitters 92,6 1 6 Bremsstrahlung radiation 93. 6 1 7 Tritium and its compounds 93,6 1 8 Radon and its progeny 93. 6 1 9 Assessment of low specific activity material having unlimited. Transport of Radioactive Material TS R 1 2005 Edition It includes the updated training manual for the comprehensive training programme duration 2 weeks and two annexes one relating to a new training manual for a short training programme for public authorities other than competent authorities duration half day and the other a new training manual for a short training programme for

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