Rootstocks and Grafting of Tomatoes Peppers and Eggplants

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The European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 2 Special Issue 1 62 73 2008 Global Science Books. Confrontation of soil borne pathogens,by alternative methods. Crop Calcium Solar Steam Use of Biological Resistant Grafting. rotation cyanamide radiation chemical control cultivars. Perlka retardants, Fig 1 Alternative measures to methyl bromide which can be used for the control of soil borne diseases. plant In consequence there is a loss of yield and income Bletsos et al 1998 moreover the resistance may break. Lee 1994 Oda 1995 Bletsos et al 2003 Bletsos 2006 down as new strains of the disease appear Nicklow 1983. Until 2005 soil borne diseases were controlled by soil Kaloo 1993 In general the selection for resistance re. fumigation with methyl bromide MB However the use of quires many years of work and there is always the danger. MB has been suspended since 2005 in developed countries of inducing new resistant strains of pathogens. and under the Montreal Protocol it is expected to be sus Grafting of cultivated vegetable plants on to wild resis. pended in developing countries within the near future Ano tant species is a method which is both practical in its ap. nymous 1998 for the following reasons plication and environmentally friendly but above all it. a It constitutes a health hazard for the users during offers the grower the possibility to grow pathogen sensitive. application Ristaino and Thomas 1997 Geoffrey et al cultivars that have good quality traits and are in demand in. 1998 the market Lee 1994 Oda 1995 Bletsos et al 2003. b It increases the residues of Bromium Br in fresh. produce to concentrations that are dangerous for the GRAFTING HISTORY. health of the consumers Roughan and Roughan 1984, c It causes pollution of the underground water War Grafting is a technique through which the shoot parts of two. ren et al 1997 and different plants of the same or different species are phy. d It escapes into the atmosphere and has a negative sically joined together and subsequently grow as a single. effect on the ozone layer resulting in an increase in the plant Janick 1986. amount of ultra violet radiation which reaches the earth Aristoteles 384 322 BC and Theophrastus 371 287. surface and leading to an increased risk of skin cancer BC referred to the use of grafting while during Roman. eye disorders and crop damage Robock 1996 Diffey times fruit trees were grafted on a commercial scale and St. 2004 Paul in a letter to the Romans refers to the grafting of the. The restriction of MB for soil fumigation has a negative olive tree Olea europaea L Hartmann et al 2002 Al. effect on the intensive cultivation of the Solanaceae on the though grafting was applied mainly to tree crops Chinese. same soil due to the fact that the cultivated cultivars and growers were grafting marrows Cucurbita moschata Duch. hybrids are sensitive to soil borne diseases Hence other on to marrows autografting from the 5th century AD and. methods of soil disinfestation must be adopted Fig 1 the Koreans from the 17th century so as to produce big mar. Crop rotation restricts the spread of soil borne diseases rows or pumpkins which were used to store rice. Cirulli et al 1990 but is difficult to employ for vegetable The first reference to heterografting i e the grafting of. crops because the area under cultivation is more or less two different species concerned the grafting of watermelon. restricted and continuously in use every year Additionally Citrulus lanatus Thunb Matsum and Nakai on to mar. the overwintering forms of these pathogens can survive for row at the beginning of the 1920s by Japanese growers. more than 20 years Garber 1973 Ashita 1927 From the early 1930s and subsequently Ko. Chemical control of diseases with calcium cyanamide rean and Japanese growers applied grafting commercially to. Perlka is used in restricted areas greenhouses for the watermelons on Lagenaria Lagenaria siceraria Mol. control of Verticillium on eggplant Solanum melongena L Standl rootstocks Lee 1994 Eggplant was grafted for the. Bletsos 2006 first time on Solanum integrifolium Poir during the 1950s. Solar radiation as described by Katan et al 1976 in followed by tomato during the 1960s From 1960 1970. Israel is applied with satisfactory results for the control of grafting has been commercially applied to watermelons cu. Verticillium on tomatoes Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cumbers Cucumis sativus L melons Cucumis melo L. Morgan et al 1991 or Verticillium and Fusarium on pota tomatoes eggplants and peppers Capsicum annuum L. toes Solanum tuberosum L and eggplants Melero et al Oda 1995 1999. 1989 Morgan et al 1991 Bletsos et al 2002 This method Early on Korean growers grafted seedlings when they. is not used extensively because at the time that temperatures were already large and the success rate was 50 Ashita. are high enough for application crops are still being grown 1930 and 1934 In addition a worker was able to graft only. Steam is highly effective but expensive to apply and re 150 seedlings per day Subsequently seedlings were grafted. quires specialized high cost equipment at an early stage of development and to keep the graft in. The use of chemical growth retardants has not had en place moist straw or paper was used with this method wor. couraging results with respect to fungal pathogens Tjamos kers could graft 800 1200 seedlings per day Today the. et al 1981 rootstock and scion are held in place by various types of. Biological control using fungi Talaromyces flavus or plastic clips and one worker can graft more than 1500 seed. bacteria Bacillus sp is still under experimentation and lings a day whereas a robot can graft over 10 000 seedlings. evaluation Tjamos and Velios 1997 a day, The use of resistant cultivars offers a satisfactory solu The discovery of polyethylene film and its application. tion for the control of some soil borne diseases With resis to agriculture from the beginning of the 1960s facilitated. tant cultivars it is possible to improve yield and quality the rapid production of seedlings in plastic covered green. through environmentally friendly procedures that require houses and helped to establish commercial enterprises for. a low input from the grower and therefore reduces the cost the production and distribution of grafted vegetable seed. of production Johnson and Jellis 1992 The production of lings Scientific research for the discovery and creation of. resistant cultivars by selection within the cultivated crops is new rootstocks was intensified towards the end of the1960s. difficult because of the low degree of genetic diversity and in the same decade the percentage of grafted vegetables. Kaloo 1993 whereas the transfer of genes to cultivated watermelon cucumber melon eggplant and tomato under. crops from wild species many of which possess resistance commercial production rose to 59 of the total area under. to soil borne pathogens poses a number of difficulties cultivation in Japan and 81 in Korea Lee 1994. Grafting Solanum vegetables Bletsos and Olympios, In Europe vegetable grafting started commercially from.
the early 1990s initially in response to the need to grow. produce without residues but more recently because of the. restrictions imposed on the use of MB for soil fumigation. and the increase in demand for vegetables grown under IPM. and organic systems, In the USA growers engaged in organic farming have. recently started to graft vegetables to reduce infection from. soil borne pathogens and nematodes In the developing. countries of America e g Mexico and Guatemala projects. are being financed by the UN to explain to growers the ad. vantages of grafting vegetables and how to do it, In Greece grafting was first carried out with water. melon during 1970 1980 and today grafting is commerci. ally used for 90 of all watermelons 30 cucumbers 20. melons 20 tomatoes 15 eggplants and 10 peppers, The production and distribution of grafted vegetable seed. lings is carried out by modern commercial enterprises. which buy rootstocks for grafting from relevant seed produ. GRAFTING TECHNOLOGY, The grafting of vegetables is a technical procedure that is. carried out manually or with the aid of special equipment. simple machines or robots The following steps are in. a Selection of the rootstock and scion,b Application of the selected grafting method.
c Healing of the wounded cut surfaces,d Evaluation of the grafting success. e Acclimatization hardening of the grafted seedling. under suitable environmental conditions so as to become. strong enough to withstand the shock of transplantation. e g to the field or greenhouse, Fig 2 Methods of grafting of the Solanaceae crops A Tongue ap. For tomato in Greece seeds of the rootstock and scion. proach grafting B Hole insertion grafting C Splice grafting D Cleft. are sown in trays 65 33 cm with 128 individual cells per. grafting E Horizontal pin grafting, tray After grafting the seedlings are held under cover for. 6 10 days to heal following which they are transferred to. the greenhouse and held at 20 18 C day night By 35 37. days from sowing the grafted seedlings are ready for trans preferred because when grafted in the epicotyl lateral bran. plantation to the greenhouse or field Bletsos unpublished ches form from the region of the cotyledons and must be re. data In some high technology nurseries seedlings are moved before the grafting seedlings are sent to the growers. grafted under aseptic conditions to avoid contamination. with disease Tools clips and grafting aids, Selection of rootstock and scion Specially designed knives and hole making equipment have. been developed for use in manual grafting To keep together. Suitable rootstocks for grafting vegetables are those with the cut surfaces in contact after grafting different acces. good compatibility resistance to low temperature soil pa sories e g clips of various types are used Fig 3 For. thogens Fusarium Verticillium and nematodes encourage example. good growth of the scion increase production and do not a Simple plastic clips with a circular metallic spring. reduce produce quality These rootstocks belong to the same to open and close the clip are used mainly with the. or a related genus or they are F1 hybrids between related tongue approach and splice grafting methods Fig 3A. species A good number of rootstocks with some of the b Special elastic pipe like clips made from silicon. above characteristics are found on the market Growers with a splice to facilitate opening and closing with or. have the ability to select the most suitable rootstock for the without any other auxiliary accessories are used to sup. growing season they are interested in the cultivation me port the grafted seedlings in many nurseries and by. thod that they are going to follow greenhouse or open growers who are grafting Solanaceous species manually. field the soil and climatic conditions of the area and the or by robot Fig 3B. cultivar s to be grown Singh et al 2004 c Smaller elastic silicon based pipe like accessories. with a side splice are used for grafting small tomato. Grafting methods eggplant and pepper seedlings Fig 3C. d Plastic clips for use by robots Fig 3D, Growers and commercial nurseries throughout the world e Ceramic pins which are very useful for grafting.
produce and sell grafted seedlings of the Solanaceous vege manually or by robot Fig 3E These can also be used. tables using the following methods based on grafting in the with self adhesive tape and glue Oda and Nakajima. region of the hypocotyl or epicotyl Fig 2 1992, a Tongue approach grafting Fig 2A The clips vary in size and shape according to the manu. b Hole insertion grafting Fig 2B facturer are of low cost easy to use for various shoot dia. c Splice grafting Fig 2C meters and can be reused several times Grafted plants can. d Cleft grafting Fig 2D also be supported upright by special wooden or plastic. e Horizontal pin grafting Fig 2E as well as other sticks Fig 3F. approaches, During recent years grafting in the hypocotyl region is. The European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 2 Special Issue 1 62 73 2008 Global Science Books. pends on the method of grafting which is applied the condi. tions under which healing of the graft is conducted and the. subsequent acclimatization hardening process All these. are important factors for the survival of the grafted plants. when transplanted to the greenhouse or the open field Oda. The method of acclimatization depends on the means at. the grower s disposal Denna 1962 who did not have any. special means for acclimatization used plastic bags to en. close the grafted seedlings so as to maintain high humidity. until the union of rootstock and scion was complete On a. small scale Bletsos unpublished data acclimatized grafted. seedlings under inverted trays covered with transparent. plastic and the RH within was maintained at up to 100 by. spraying with water Similarly commercial growers fre. quently use plastic covered tunnels in which the RH is. maintained close to 100 level by sprinklers while at the. Fig 3 Clips and supports of various types that are used for grafting same time shading nets are employed to reduce incoming. vegetables A clips used with the cleft method B Pipe like clips of radiation lower the temperature and light intensity and thus. silicon with a splice C Pipe like clips for grafting small size seedlings reduce the incidence of wilting and accelerate healing No<. The area of land that is suitable for the cultivation of vege tables is rather restricted and remains approximately con stant from year to year Because of the repeated cultivation of crops on the same land rapid multiplication of soil borne diseases occurs resulting in an increasing number of crop infections by diseases such as Fusarium Verticillium etc These fungal diseases are

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