Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia Comparative effects of

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Comparative effects of mature coconut water Cocos nucifera and. glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic. P P Preetha et al, Among the various synthetic drugs glibenclamide monohydrate 150 mg kg 1 bw after fasting the animals. has been widely used in the management of non insulin for 24 h The rats were then kept on 5 glucose solution. dependent diabetes mellitus Figueroa Valverde et al for the next 24 h to prevent hypoglycemia After 72 h rats. 2012 The aim of the present study was to investigate the with fasting blood glucose more than 250 mg dL 1 were. effects of lyophilized mature coconut water LMCW in considered diabetic and included in the study Lyophilized. comparison with glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic mature coconut water LMCW was fed daily using an. rats intragastric tube for 45 days After the experimental period. animals were fasted overnight and they were sacrificed. Materials and Methods by sodium pentothal injection Blood and tissues were. collected for various estimations, Collection of mature coconut water and the preparation of. lyophilized mature coconut water LMCW Biochemical estimations. Coconut water from mature coconuts Cocos Serum glucose was determined Trinder. nucifera L Arecaceae of 10 12 months of age West 1969 using Agappe diagnostics Ernakulam Kerala. Coast Tall variety grown in the University campus were India Serum insulin was measured with an automated. used for this study The coconuts were dehusked and liquid immunochemiluminometric ICL assay according to. endosperm was collected filtered and pooled The pooled the manufacturer s instruction and was provided by. mature coconut water was then lyophilized at 4 oC in a Bayer Diagnostics ADVIA Centaur insulin assay. freeze drying chamber Savanth Instruments USA The Estimation of glycated hemoglobin was done using a. lyophilized mature coconut water was stored at 0 oC and Micromat2 hemoglobin Acc test using a micromat II. used for the experiment It was freshly reconstituted with instrument Catalogue No 280 00016XI Biorad Liver. distilled water prior to administration to rats glycogen was estimated by the method of Carroll et al. 1956 Blood urea was estimated by modified Berthelot. Animals and experimental design method Wheatherburn 1967 Serum and urinary nitrate. concentration was estimated using the Griess reaction. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between Green et al 1982 Serum protein was estimated by the. 160 190 g were used for the study The rats were housed method of Lowry et al 1951 Albumin was estimated based. individually in polypropylene cages in room maintained on bromocresol green method using Agappe Diagnostics. at 25 1 oC with alternate exposure to light and dark for Albumin Kit Doumasa et al 1971 Serum glutamate. 12 h The rats were maintained on a standard Chow diet oxaloacetate transaminase SGPT and Serum glutamate. Sai Feeds Bangalore India and water ad libitum prior pyruvate transaminase SGOT was assayed by DNPH. to dietary manipulation The protocol was approved by the method Reitman Frankel 1957 using the enzyme kit. animal ethics committee of the University of Kerala BC from CML Biotech P Ltd Ernakulam India Quantitative. TR 1 2004 determination of alkaline phosphatase was done as. described by King King 1954 using the enzyme kit, Dose response study procured from Dr Reddy s laboratories Hyderabad India. Creatinine in serum was estimated as per Bowers Wong. For dose response study rats were divided into 1980 Activity of nitric oxide synthase was estimated by. seven groups of six rats each Group A Control rats the method of Salter Knowles 1997 Concentration. Group B Diabetic control Group C Diabetes LMCW of plasma L arginine was estimated as described by. 100 mg kg 1 bw Group D Diabetes LMCW 250 mg Gopalakrishnan Nagarajan 1979. kg 1 bw Group E Diabetes LMCW 500 mg kg 1 bw, Group F Diabetes LMCW 750 mg kg 1 bw Group G Statistical analysis. Diabetes LMCW 1000 mg kg 1 bw, After the optimization of the dose of LMCW The results are expressed as the mean values.
further experiments were carried out with 24 rats which with their standard deviation Intergroup comparison was. were divided into four groups of six rats each performed by one way ANOVA followed by Duncan s. Group I Normal control variance Significance was set at p 0 05. Group II Diabetic control,Group III Diabetes LMCW 1000 mg kg 1 bw Results. Group IV Diabetes glibenclamide 0 6 mg kg 1,bw Concentration of blood glucose. Diabetes was induced in rats of groups II III and, IV by a single intraperitoneal i p injection of alloxan Dose dependant response of LMCW in alloxan. Rev Bras Farmacogn Braz J Pharmacogn, Comparative effects of mature coconut water Cocos nucifera and. glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic. P P Preetha et al, induced diabetic rats were also evaluated and found that Concentration of blood urea serum creatinine serum and.
1000 mg kg 1 of LMCW was effective in reducing blood urinary nitrite. glucose when compared to other doses in rats Table 1. Significant increase of blood glucose levels were observed Concentration of blood urea serum creatinine. in alloxan induced diabetic rats 275 32 4 25 mg dL 1 and urinary nitrite were significantly increased in alloxan. when compared to normal control rats 96 42 2 31 mg induced diabetic rats when compared to normal control. dL 1 Treatment of diabetic rats with LMCW 1000 mg rats On the other hand diabetic rats treated with LMCW. kg 1 and glibenclamide showed significant reduction and glibenclamide reversed these changes when compared. of blood glucose 129 23 1 95 and 120 2 3 mg dL 1 to diabetic rats Table 2 Figure 2. respectively when compared to diabetic control, Table 2 Concentration of blood urea serum and urinary nitrite. Table 1 Dose response study of mature coconut water Cocos Blood urea Serum nitrite Urinary Nitrite. nucifera L Arecaceae in alloxan induced diabetic rats Groups. mg dL 1 mol L 1 mg dL 1, Groups Concentration of blood glucose mg dL 1 I 19 36 3 21 13 23 2 35 32 47 3 62. A 96 42 2 31 II 39 99 1 73a 9 51 1 98a 20 13 2 15a. B 275 32 4 25a III 22 09 2 95b 11 68 2 35b 33 15 2 27b. C 244 32 2 75b IV 21 27 2 52b 12 13 3 26b 24 68 1 83b. D 216 14 1 65 b Values expressed as mean SD of six rats Significance accepted at. E 182 29 2 17b p 0 05 a indicates values are significantly different from group I b. indicates values are significantly different from group II. F 156 75 2 52b,G 129 23 1 95b, Values expressed as mean SD of six rats Significance accepted at. p 0 05 a indicates values are significantly different from group I b. indicates values are significantly different from group II. Concentration of plasma insulin glycosylated hemoglobin. HbA1c and liver glycogen,Figure 1 shows the concentration of plasma. insulin glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and liver, glycogen in control and experimental rats Alloxan induced.
diabetic rats showed significant decrease in plasma insulin. and liver glycogen compared to normal control On the. other hand treatment of diabetic rats with LMCW and. glibenclamide increased the insulin level and concentration. of liver glycogen along with reduction of HbA1c level Figure 2 Concentration of creatinine in serum mg dL 1 Values. expressed as mean SD of six rats Significance accepted at. p 0 05 a indicates values are significantly different from group. I b indicates values are significantly different from group II. Concentration of serum protein serum albumin and A G. Table 3 shows the concentration of serum protein, serum albumin and A G ratio in control and experimental. rats Significant decrease in the concentration of serum. protein serum albumin and A G ratio were observed in. alloxan induced diabetic rats when compared to normal. Figure 1 Concentration of plasma insulin IUmL 1 control rats Treatment of diabetic rats with LMCW and. glycosylated hemoglobin and liver glycogen mg 100 g 1 glibenclamide showed an increase in the concentration. tissue Values expressed as mean SD of six rats Significance of serum protein serum albumin and A G ratio when. accepted at p 0 05 a indicates values are significantly different compared to diabetic control. from group I b indicates values are significantly different from. Rev Bras Farmacogn Braz J Pharmacogn, Comparative effects of mature coconut water Cocos nucifera and. glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic. P P Preetha et al, Table 3 Concentration of serum protein serum albumin and A G hemoglobin HbA1c levels were found to have reduced. ratio in diabetic rats treated with LMCW The non enzymatic. Serum protein Serum albumin irreversible covalent bonding of glucose with hemoglobin. Groups A G ratio, g dL 1 g dL 1 in the circulation results in the formation of HbA1c and the. I 8 19 2 12 4 84 1 80 1 44 0 52 concentration of HbA1c reflects the average blood glucose. levels over a period of time Venkatesan Sorimuthu,II 4 70 1 78a 2 21 0 72a 0 89 0 41a.
2012 LMCW treated diabetic rats exhibited reduced,III 5 69 1 59b 2 88 0 92b 1 02 0 50b. level of HbA1c This may be due to the restoration of. IV 6 12 1 82b 3 14 1 05b 1 05 0 51b blood glucose levels thereby reducing the intensity of. Values expressed as mean SD of six rats Significance accepted at hemoglobin glycosylation during the experimental period. p 0 05 a indicates values are significantly different from group I b The effects were comparable to that of standard drug. indicates values are significantly different from group II glibenclamide In addition to this serum insulin level was. increased by the treatment with LMCW in diabetic rats. Activities of alkaline phosphatase ALP The reduction of blood glucose and HbA1c in LMCW. glutamate oxalo acetate transaminase SGOT and treated diabetic rats may be due to the increased level of. glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum SGPT insulin. Activities of ALP SGOT and SGPT in serum, were increased in diabetic rats when compared to normal. rats LMCW and glibenclamide treated rats resulted in. significant decrease in the activities of these enzymes. when compared to diabetic control Table 4, Table 4 Activities of alkaline phosphatase ALP glutamate. oxaloacetate transaminase SGOT and glutamate pyruvate. transaminase in serum SGPT,ALP SGOT SGPT,kA Units L 1 IU L 1 IU L 1. I 10 51 1 45 19 61 0 97 22 08 1 22,II 21 38 2 54 a.
39 37 1 67 a,45 27 0 92a,III 14 95 1 42b 25 41 1 48b 28 16 1 69b. Figure 3 Activity of nitric oxide synthase Ug 1 wet weight. IV 15 54 1 28 b,28 76 1 21 b,30 38 1 74b, and concentration of plasma L arginine mol mL 1 Values. Values expressed as mean SD of six rats Significance accepted at. expressed as mean SD of six rats Significance accepted at. p 0 05 a indicates values are significantly different from group I b. p 0 05 a indicates values are significantly different from group. indicates values are significantly different from group II. I b indicates values are significantly different from group II. Activity of nitric oxide synthase in liver and concentration. Liver glycogen level is considered as the best,of plasma L arginine. marker for assessing antihyperglycemic activity of any. drug Ahmed et al 2012 The increase in liver glycogen of. The activity of nitric oxide synthase in liver and. diabetic treated with natural products and glibenclamide is. concentration of plasma L arginine were significantly. due to the increased insulin response which in turn promotes. lowered in alloxan induced diabetic rats when compared. conversion of inactive form of glycogen synthase to the. to normal control rats Treatment of diabetic rats with. active form and enhances conversion of blood glucose into. LMCW and glibenclamide showed significant increase. glycogen Rawi et al 2011 The prevention of depletion. in the activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and. of glycogen in the liver is possibly caused by stimulation. concentration of plasma L arginine when compared to. of insulin release from existing pancreatic cells which. diabetic rats Figure 3,enhances glycolysis Ramkumar et al 2011 Increased. liver glycogen content in MCW treated diabetic rats. Discussion, suggests the stimulation of insulin release by LMCW.
from pancreatic cells which enhances upregulation of. In the preset study the antidiabetic effects of,glycolysis. mature coconut water MCW were compared with that of. Hyperglycemia induces elevation of the blood, standard drug glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic. urea and creatinine in serum which are considered as. rats Concentrations of blood glucose and glycosylated. significant markers of renal dysfunction Degradation of. Rev Bras Farmacogn Braz J Pharmacogn, Comparative effects of mature coconut water Cocos nucifera and. glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic. P P Preetha et al, protein and nucleic acid results in the formation of non arginine administration may provide multiple benefits. protein nitrogenous compound such as urea and creatinine to ameliorate diabetes induced endothelial dysfunction. The elevated levels of serum urea and creatinine in diabetic Pieper 1998 Chemical analysis of LMCW showed that. rats are due to catabolism of the protein and nucleic acids it contains L arginine 5 85 ascorbic acid 0 45. Wilson et al 2011 Treatment of diabetic rats with magnesium 0 42 potassium . ISSN 0102 695X Received 20 Dec 2012 Accepted 14 Feb 2013 Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia Comparative effects of mature coconut water Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy

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