REVISION PHOTOSYNTHESIS amp CELLULAR RESPIRATION 12 JUNE

Revision Photosynthesis Amp Cellular Respiration 12 June-Free PDF

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Solutions for all Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p121. Light and Dark Phases, Light phase this occurs in the grana of the chloroplast It contains chlorophyll that absorbs. the light energy, Some of the light energy is used to make ATP Adenosine triphosphate. The rest of the energy is used to split water molecules and make energy rich Hydrogen. atoms Oxygen is released, The ATP and the hydrogen are used in the dark phase. Dark phase this occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. Glucose molecules are produced from the carbon dioxide ATP and energy rich hydrogen. The light energy absorbed in the light phase is stored in the bonds of the glucose molecule. Solutions for all Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p125. Importance of Photosynthesis,Production of oxygen,Absorption of carbon dioxide. Production of food,Factors affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis.
Light intensity the greater the intensity of light the greater the rate of photosynthesis. Solutions for all Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p135. Concentration of carbon dioxide an increase in carbon dioxide will increase the rate of. photosynthesis, Solutions for all Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p135. Temperature enzymes work optimally at 37 C Lower temperatures mean lower rate of. photosynthesis, Solutions for all Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p135. Starch Test in Leaves, The first thing you need to be able to do is to test for starch The test for starch goes as. You will need the following,o A beaker containing water. o Tripod stand and wire gauze,o Bunsen burner or spirit burner.
o Test tube containing methylated spirits,o White tile. o Iodine solution,o Dropper or pipette, Solutions for all Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p128. If you don t have access to a laboratory you can still perform the experiment but with a few. o A small pot containing water,o A stove or gas stove. o Some methylated spirits keep away from the flame always. o Something to take the leaf out of the hot water fork or tweezers. o White paper with plastic over it,o Iodine solution from pharmacy. o Remove a leaf from a healthy growing plant,o Put the leaf in boiling water.
o When the leaf has gone soft flaccid take it out of the water and put it into methylated. spirits Keep the spirits away from flame, o The chlorophyll will move out of the leaf and into the methylated spirits. o Remove the leaf from the methylated spirits and wash it in the boiling water. o Put the leaf onto the white tile and flatten it out. o Drop a few drops of iodine solution onto the leaf and watch for a colour change. Cellular Respiration, Cellular respiration is defined as a series of metabolic processes that take place within a cell. in which biochemical energy is harvested from organic substance e g glucose and stored. as energy carriers ATP for use in energy requiring activities of the cell http www biology. online org dictionary Cell respiration, Simply put chemical energy is transferred to ATP and the ATP molecules provide energy to. all the processes of the cells, The transformation of energy occurs in the mitochondrion in the cells The mitochondrion is. specially adapted for this, Solutions for All Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p183.
Recap from Grade 10, A mitochondrion has two membranes an inner and an outer membrane. Between the membranes is a space The inner membrane is folded and these. folds are called cristae and the space in the centre of the inner membrane is. called the matrix, The cristae increase the surface area of the inner membrane and so increase ATP. production,Aerobic Respiration, Aerobic respiration occurs when glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen A lot of. energy many ATP molecules is produced, Aerobic respiration is summarised in the equation below. Solutions for All Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p184. There are three stages in aerobic respiration namely glycolysis the Krebs cycle and. oxidative phosphorylation, Glycolysis This occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell Glucose is broken down into pyruvic.
acid and energy rich hydrogens are given off, The hydrogens move into the mitochondria to be used in oxidative phosphorylation. Two ATP molecules are produced during glycolysis, The Krebs cycle breaks down the pyruvic acid completely into energy rich hydrogens and. carbon dioxide The hydrogens will be used in oxidative phosphorylation and the carbon. dioxide will be breathed out, Oxidative phosphorylation takes the energy from the energy rich hydrogens to make ATP. The energy depleted hydrogens combine with oxygen to make water This is either breathed. out as water vapour or excreted via the kidneys, Solutions for All Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p185. Anaerobic Respiration, Anaerobic respiration occurs when glucose is broken down and there is no oxygen present.
Very little energy is produced, There are two types of anaerobic respiration the respiration that occurs in organisms that. are not human is called alcoholic fermentation Anaerobic respiration in the human body is. called lactic acid fermentation,Alcoholic fermentation in primitive organisms. Solutions for All Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p191. Lactic acid fermentation in humans, Solutions for All Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p191. Anaerobic respiration only occurs in humans when the oxygen supplied to muscles is used up. and the muscles still require energy This produces lactic acid and leads to the muscle. fatigue during and stiffness after exercising,Question 1. Adapted from Solutions for all Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p141. a Give the correct word or term for each of the following. i the light independent stage of photosynthesis,ii the green pigment found in a chloroplast.
iii the molecule that is an important energy carrier in a cell. iv the liquid inside chloroplasts,v the by product of photosynthesis 5. b List the raw materials that a photosynthesising plant gets from its environment 3. c Complete the table below that compares the light phase and the dark phase. of photosynthesis 4, d Draw a fully labelled diagram of the apparatus that you would use in an investigation to. Find out which gas is needed for the process of photosynthesis 6. REVISION PHOTOSYNTHESIS amp CELLULAR RESPIRATION 12 JUNE 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we revise the process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration the practical procedures for testing for starch in green leaves the process of cellular respiration Key Concepts Structures of the Leaf Solutions for all Life Sciences Grade 11 Macmillan p119 Process of Photosynthesis

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