Renewable Biomass Energy iitmicrogrid net

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producing electricity Because of potential ash build up The steps involved in this process are illustrated in Figure 3. which fouls boilers reduces efficiency and increases costs 7. only certain types of biomass materials are used for direct. combustion,2 Gasification, Gasification is a process that exposes a solid fuel to high. temperatures and limited oxygen to produce a gaseous fuel. The gas produced by the process as shown in Figure 2 is a mix. of gases such as carbon monoxide carbon dioxide nitrogen. hydrogen and methane The gas is then used to drive a high. efficiency combined cycle gas turbine Gasification has. several advantages over burning solid fuel One is, convenience one of the resultant gases methane can be. treated in a similar way as natural gas and used for the same. Figure 3 Pyrolysis Process, Flash pyrolysis is used to produce bio crude a combustible. fuel Heat is used to chemically convert biomass into pyrolysis. oil The oil which is easier to store and transport than solid. biomass material is then burned like petroleum to generate. electricity Pyrolysis can also convert biomass into phenol oil. a chemical used to make wood adhesives molded plastics and. foam insulation,4 Digestion, Biomass digestion works by utilizing anaerobic bacteria. These microorganisms usually live at the bottom of swamps or. Figure2 Gasification Process in other places where there is no air consuming dead organic. matter to produce methane and hydrogen We put these. Another advantage of gasification is that it produces a fuel that bacteria to work for us By feeding organic matter such as. has had many impurities removed and could therefore cause animal dung or human sewage into tanks called digesters and. fewer pollution problems when burnt Under suitable adding bacteria we collect the emitted gas to use as an energy. circumstances it can also produce synthesis gas a mixture of source This process is a very efficient means of extracting. carbon monoxide and hydrogen which can be used to make usable energy from such biomass Usually up to two thirds of. hydrocarbon e g methane and methanol for replacing fossil the fuel energy of the animal dung could be recovered. fuels Hydrogen itself is a potential fuel without much Another related technique is to collect methane gas from. pollution which can conceivably substitute oil and petroleum landfill sites A large proportion of household biomass waste. in a foreseeable future 7 such as kitchen scraps lawn clipping and pruning ends up at. 3 Pyrolysis the local tip Over a period of several decades anaerobic. bacteria at the bottom of such tips could steadily decompose. In its simplest form pyrolysis represents heating the biomass the organic matter and emit methane The gas can be extracted. to drive off the volatile matter and leaving behind the and used by capping a landfill site with an impervious layer of. charcoal This process has doubled the energy density of the clay and then inserting perforated pipes that would collect the. original material because charcoal which is half the weight of gas and bring it to the surface 7. the original biomass contains the same amount of energy. making the fuel more transportable The charcoal also burns at 5 Fermentation. a much higher temperature than the original biomass making For centuries people have used yeasts and other. it more useful for manufacturing processes More microorganisms to ferment the sugar of various plants into. sophisticated pyrolysis techniques are developed recently to ethanol Producing fuel from biomass by fermentation is just. collect volatiles that are otherwise lost to the system The an extension of this process although a wider range of plant. collected volatiles produce a gas which is rich in hydrogen a material from sugar cane to wood fiber can be used For. potential fuel and carbon monoxide These compounds are instance the waste from a wheat mill in New South Wales is. synthesized into methane methanol and other hydrocarbons used to produce ethanol through fermentation Ethanol is then. mixed with diesel to produce diesehol a product used by 2 On a small scale there is most likely a net loss of energy. trucks and buses in Australia 7 as a lot of energy must be used for growing the plant. Technological advances will inevitably improve the mass biomass is difficult to store in the raw form. method For example scientists in Australia and the U S have 3 One of the disadvantages of biomass is that direct. substituted a genetically engineered bacterium for yeast in the combustion of biomass can be harmful to the environment. fermentation process The process has vastly increased the as burning biomass releases carbon dioxide which. efficiency by which waste paper and other forms of wood contributes to the warming of the atmosphere and possible. fiber is fermented into ethanol climatic change Burning also creates soot and other air. Biofuels Biomass is converted into transportation fuels such pollutants. as ethanol methanol biodiesel and additives for reformulated 4 Over collecting wood can destroy forests Soils bared of. gasoline Biofuels are used in pure form or blended with trees erode easily and do not hold rainfall Increased run. gasoline off can cause flooding downstream, 5 When plant and animal wastes are used as fuel they.
Ethanol Ethanol the most widely used biofuel is made by cannot be added to the soil as fertilizer Soil without. fermenting biomass in a process similar to brewing beer fertilizer is depleted of nutrients and produce fewer crops. Currently most of the 1 5 billion gallons of ethanol used in the 6 Biomass has less energy than a similar volume of fossil. U S each year is made from corn and blended with gasoline to fuels 8. improve vehicle performance and reduce air pollution. Methanol Biomass derived methanol is produced through 6 BIOMASS PROJECTS IN THE NORTH AMERICA. gasification The biomass is converted into a synthesis gas. syngas that is processed into methanol Most of the 1 2 6 1 OKEELANTA COGENERATION PLANT SOUTH BAY. billion gallons of methanol annually produced in the U S are FLORIDA. made from natural gas and used as solvent antifreeze or to The Okeelanta Cogeneration Plant is a 74 MW biomass. synthesize other chemicals About 38 percent is used for cogeneration project located next to the Flo Sun Inc. transportation as a blend or in reformulated gasoline Okeelanta Sugar Mill in Palm Beach County Florida U S. Biodiesel Biodiesel fuel made from oils and fats found in Generating Co USGen and Flo Energy Corp an affiliate of. micro algae and other plants is substituted for or blended with Flo Sun Inc joined together to construct and operate the. diesel fuel facility It is the largest bagasse biomass cogeneration plant in. the U S The plant provides process steam and power to the. 3 BIOMASS ENERGY GENERATION Okeelanta Sugar Mill and Florida Crystals Refinery and sells. 3 1 BENEFITS OF BIOMASS ENERGY its excess electricity to FPL. Some of the advantages of using biomass as a source of Fuels Each year about two thirds of fuel requirements are. energy are illustrated below met by bagasse and the remainder by wood waste The. sugarcane harvesting and grinding season lasts about 6. 1 Biomass energy is an abundant secure environmental months from October through late March or early April. friendly and renewable source of energy Biomass does Bagasse cannot be stored for a long time without deterioration. not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere as it absorbs the of its fuel value so many bagasse fired cogeneration plants. same amount of carbon in growing as it releases when rely on a supplemental fuel such as wood waste or coal during. consumed as a fuel the off season when bagasse is not produced as a by product. 2 One of the major advantages of biomass is that it can be of sugar mill The fuel at the Okeelanta Cogeneration plant is. used to generate electricity with the same equipment or in not dried before combustion Wood wastes used as fuel at the. the same power plants that are now burning fossil fuels plant include urban wood wastes land clearing wood wastes. 3 Biomass energy is not associated with environmental and construction debris. impacts such as acid rain mine spoils open pits oil spills One type of wood waste is melaleuca a pest tree that. radioactive waste disposal or the damming of rivers threatens to overwhelm everglades 9 Melaleuca trees which. 4 Biomass fuels are sustainable The green plants from soak up about 50 gal of water a day were imported decades. which biomass fuels are derived fix carbon dioxide as ago from Australia to dry out land in the Everglades to make it. they grow so their use does not add to the levels of buildable The gnarly trees have successfully taken root and. atmospheric carbon In addition using refuse as a fuel smothered native vegetation They have no native predators. avoids polluting landfill disposal When cut down they grow back When burned their. 5 Alcohols and other fuels produced by biomass are seedlings spread giving birth to yet more trees They burn. efficient viable and relatively clean burning well in the Okeelanta boiler and the plant now receives as. 6 Biomass is easily available and can be grown with many as 10 truckloads a day from land clearing activities in. relative ease in all parts of the world the Everglades Before the Okeelanta Cogeneration plant. started its operation the district had no options other than to. 3 2 CONSTRAINTS TO BIOMASS ENERGY USE haul melaleuca to the landfill or burn it on site 9. 1 Biomass is still an expensive source of energy both in Operating Experience From February 1998 to February. terms of producing biomass and converting it into 1999 the Okeelanta plant has run at a steady rate as required. alcohols as a very large quantity of biomass is needed to meet the sugar mill s energy demand The Okeelanta sugar. mill and refinery have no off season They run year round recent years not because of problems at the plant but because. except for scheduled maintenance shutdowns processing of the very low market prices for hydroelectric energy in the. extract from cane and processing sugar Pacific Northwest Originally rated at 42 5 MW net the. Kettle Falls plant can operate continuously at 46 MW net. Environmental Performance Annual aggregate emission. On average the plant generates 1000 kWh of electricity for. level is about 75 less than previous levels produced by the. every 1 5 t of sawmill waste burned This is equivalent to a net. sugar mill s 50 year old boilers even though the new plant. plant heat rate of about 14 100 Btu kWh 24 2 thermal. produces 74 MW of electricity and meets all steam and power. efficiency HHV basis, requirements that were previously handled by the mill s. boilers The cogeneration plant s air quality permits would Economic Information In 1983 dollars the estimated capital. link the two facilities After the cogeneration plant has cost at completion of the project was 82 5 million This is. operated long enough to establish its reliability the sugar mill about 1940 kW in 1983 dollars or about 3100 kW in 1998. will be required to dismantle the old boilers 9 dollars using the GDP deflator index This figure includes all. capitalized items including electrical transmission required to. Economic Information The reported total capital cost for the. integrate the output into the system Using wood waste as a. Okeelanta plant was 194 5 million based on 74 MW this is. renewable resource for power generation has proven to be a. equivalent to about 2800 kW in 1998 dollars The Osceola. successful operation for Avista Corporation and a sound. plant s total capital cost was reported as 162 million based. environmental solution for the wood products industry Long. on 52 MW this is equivalent to about 3300 kW in 1998. term residents in the Kettle Falls area reported major. dollars The Okeelanta Cogeneration Plant provides many. reductions in haze after the plant went into operation The. environmental benefits and should serve as a reliable energy. plant improved air quality by eliminating numerous wigwam. source for the sugar mill and the electric utility. burners in Stevens County,6 2 KEATTLE FALLS STATION KEATTLE FALLS. 6 3 RIDGE GENERATING STATION AUBURNDALE,WASHINGTON. Avista Corporation previously known as the Washington. Because of its low lying geography and high water table. Water Power Company WWP has operated since 1983 a 46. Florida has a stronger incentive than most states to find. MWe net wood fired steam turbine power plant at Kettle. alternatives to land filling solid wastes Landfills that begin at. Falls Washington Avista is an investor owned utility. ground level and rise as high as 200 ft are commonly the. company located in Spokane Washington The plant site is 86. highest elevations in Florida coastal counties State legislation. miles north of Spokane next to the Columbia River Fuel. and incentive programs since the 1970s have caused Florida to. consists primarily of lumber mill wastes from mills in. have the largest capacity of waste to energy WTE facilities. northeastern Washington and some in Canada The facility. of any state, began commercial service in December 1983 With the plant s. The Ridge Generating Station Limited Partnership owns. opening WWP became the first utility in the nation to operate. an independent power producing unit between Auburndale. a stand alone power plant of this size fired entirely by woo. Renewable Biomass Energy Nisha Sriram Unlike fossil fuels biomass is renewable in the sense that synthesize other chemicals

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