Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach

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Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform,Richard J Bonnie Robert L Johnson. Betty M Chemers and Julie A Schuck Editors,Committee on Law and Justice. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street NW Washington DC 20001. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern. ing Board of the National Research Council whose members are drawn from the. councils of the National Academy of Sciences the National Academy of Engineer. ing and the Institute of Medicine The members of the committee responsible for. the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri. ate balance, This study was supported by Contract Grant No 2009 JF FX 0102 between the. National Academy of Sciences and Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Pre. vention Any opinions findings conclusions or recommendations expressed in this. publication are those of the author s and do not necessarily reflect the views of the. organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Control Number 2013939486, Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press. 500 Fifth Street NW Keck 360 Washington DC 20001 800 624 6242 or 202. 334 3313 http www nap edu, Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America, Suggested citation National Research Council 2013 Reforming Juvenile Justice. A Developmental Approach Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform. Richard J Bonnie Robert L Johnson Betty M Chemers and Julie A Schuck. Eds Committee on Law and Justice Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and. Education Washington DC The National Academies Press. Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. The National Academy of Sciences is a private nonprofit self perpetuating society. of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research dedicated to. the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863 the Acad. emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific. and technical matters Dr Ralph J Cicerone is president of the National Academy. of Sciences, The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter. of the National Academy of Sciences as a parallel organization of outstanding. engineers It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members. sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the. federal government The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer. ing programs aimed at meeting national needs encourages education and research. and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers Dr Charles M Vest is presi. dent of the National Academy of Engineering, The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of. Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in. the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public The Insti. tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its. congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own. initiative to identify issues of medical care research and education Dr Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci. ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the. Academy s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy the. Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy. of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to. the government the public and the scientific and engineering communities The. Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr Ralph J Cicerone and Dr Charles M Vest are chair and vice chair respectively. of the National Research Council,www national academies org. Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. COMMITTEE ON ASSESSING JUVENILE JUSTICE REFORM, ROBERT L JOHNSON Chair University of Medicine and Dentistry of.
New Jersey New Jersey Medical School, RICHARD J BONNIE Vice Chair IOM member University of Virginia. CARL C BELL Community Mental Health Council Inc,LAWRENCE D BOBO Harvard University. JEFFREY A BUTTS John Jay College of Criminal Justice. GLADYS CARRI N New York State Office of Children Family. B J CASEY Weill Medical College of Cornell University. KENNETH A DODGE Duke University, SANDRA A GRAHAM University of California Los Angeles. ERNESTINE GRAY Orleans Parish Juvenile Court New Orleans LA. EDWARD P MULVEY University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. ROBERT D PLOTNICK University of Washington,ELIZABETH S SCOTT Columbia University. TERENCE P THORNBERRY University of Maryland College Park. CHERIE TOWNSEND Texas Juvenile Justice Department,BETTY M CHEMERS Study Director.
JULIE A SCHUCK Senior Program Associate,BARBARA BOYD Administrative Coordinator. Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. COMMITTEE ON LAW AND JUSTICE, JEREMY TRAVIS Chair John Jay College of Criminal Justice. CARL C BELL Community Mental Health Council Inc Chicago IL. JOHN J DONOHUE III Stanford Law School, MARK A R KLEIMAN Department of Public Policy University of. California Los Angeles, GARY LAFREE Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice. University of Maryland College Park, JANET L LAURITSEN Department of Criminology and Criminal.
Justice University of Missouri, GLENN C LOURY Department of Economics Brown University. CHARLES F MANSKI Department of Economics Northwestern. University, TERRIE E MOFFITT Department of Psychology Duke University. DANIEL S NAGIN Heinz College Carnegie Mellon University. RUTH D PETERSON Department of Sociology Ohio State University. ANNE MORRISON PIEHL Department of Economics and Program in. Criminal Justice Rutgers University, DANIEL B PRIETO Public Sector Strategy Innovation IBM Global. Business Services Washington DC, ROBERT J SAMPSON Department of Sociology Harvard University. DAVID WEISBURD Center for Evidence Based Crime Policy George. Mason University, CATHY SPATZ WIDOM Psychology Department John Jay College of.
Criminal Justice, PAUL K WORMELI Integrated Justice Information Systems. Ashburn VA,JANE L ROSS Director, Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. Recent findings from research on adolescent development and particu. larly increasing knowledge about the adolescent brain have led to deep and. growing concerns about the treatment of juveniles in the nation s justice. system There is a fundamental disconnect between what is now known. about the characteristic features of adolescents and the apparent assump. tions of that system One reflection of that disconnect is a recent series of. decisions from the U S Supreme Court forbidding the most severe penalties. for adolescent offenders especially the death penalty There has also been a. wide range of reforms in the administration of juvenile justice over the past. 15 years some of which reflect the emerging knowledge about adolescents. and some of which do not, The committee s charge was to take stock of the juvenile justice reforms. undertaken over the past 15 years in light of current knowledge about. adolescent development The study was requested by the Office of Juvenile. Justice and Delinquency Prevention OJJDP an agency of the U S Depart. ment of Justice In an austere fiscal environment with so many pressing. priorities OJJDP naturally wants to ensure that it supports the research. and programs that best harness the available scientific evidence. During the two years of our study we have been struck by the energy. and dedication of all the stakeholders and participants in the juvenile jus. tice system who took the time to appear before the committee and to help. us to carry out our charge A diverse array of the nation s institutions and. leaders both private and public are playing key roles in the movement for. Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. viii PREFACE, juvenile justice reform including elected officials in the states and localities. judges foundations advocacy organizations and research organizations. The central premise of this report is that the goals design and opera. tion of the juvenile justice system should be informed by the growing body. of knowledge about adolescent development If designed and implemented. in a developmentally informed way procedures for holding adolescents. accountable for their offending and the services provided to them can pro. mote positive legal socialization reinforce a prosocial identity and reduce. reoffending However if the goals design and operation of the juvenile. justice system are not informed by this growing body of knowledge the. outcome is likely to be negative interactions between youth and justice sys. tem officials increased disrespect for the law and legal authority and the. reinforcement of a deviant identity and social disaffection. Scientists commonly complain that policy makers are not paying atten. tion to the scientific evidence Our experience in studying juvenile justice. has been quite the reverse We have detected an impressive consensus. among stakeholder groups and public officials regarding the goals of the. juvenile justice system a genuine hunger for evidence about what works. and a willingness to embrace evidence based policies and programs This. report aims to consolidate the progress that has been made in both science. and policy making and to establish a strong platform for a 21st century. juvenile justice system, Advancing knowledge has helped to foster a climate of optimism.
However this energizing spirit of change has not taken root in all parts of. the country and it could dissipate if institutional structures are not put in. place to sustain it and to assure a continuing partnership among practitio. ners researchers and policy makers The locus of reform lies at the state. local and tribal levels and most of this report focuses on the opportunities. and challenges facing the courts law enforcement agencies schools social. service agencies and mental health agencies in communities throughout the. nation However OJJDP support and leadership are critically important if. the reform process is to succeed and the report urges Congress to embrace. the cause of juvenile justice reform by clarifying and reaffirming the mis. sion of OJJDP, Many people may argue that the lives of nation s youth most deeply. ensnared by the juvenile justice system will not be substantially improved. simply by reforming the juvenile justice system We do not claim that juve. nile justice reform can carry the burden of overcoming the many causes. of juvenile crime Also needed are stronger families better schools truly. equal opportunity and safe and healthy communities for the nation s youth. However this report shows that a harsh system of punishing troubled. Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. PREFACE ix, youth can make things worse while a scientifically based juvenile justice. system can make an enduring difference in the lives of many youth who. most need the structure and services it can provide. Robert L Johnson Chair,Richard J Bonnie Vice Chair. Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform, Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. Copyright National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach. Acknowledgments, This report would not have been possible without the efforts of many.
people each of whom has contributed time and expertise The commit. tee had the assistance and close cooperation of the staff of the Office of. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention OJJDP the report s sponsor. The committee benefited greatly from briefings received from senior staff. such as Andrea Coleman disproportionate minority coordinator Melodee. Hanes deputy administrator for policy Elissa Rumsey compliance moni. tor coordinator Jeff Slowikowski acting deputy administrator and Greg. Thompson associate administrator State Relations and Assistance Divi. sion The committee also appreciates the assistance and insight of other. OJJDP staff that briefed National Research Council NRC staff including. Janet Chiancone associate administrator Budget and Planning Division. Reforming Juvenile Justice A Developmental Approach The National Academy of Sciences is a private nonprofit self perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863 the Acad emy

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