Reclaiming city streets for people ec europa eu

Reclaiming City Streets For People Ec Europa Eu-Free PDF

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The quality of the environment in urban areas is of vital importance I hope that cities and their citizens will consider this approach as part of the. It is one of the main factors that determine whether a city is a healthy solution to the growing levels of road traffic This complements our earlier. place to live whether we enjoy living there and whether we want publications Cycling the way ahead for towns and cities and Kids on the. our children to grow up there move which give examples of other case studies I am convinced that traffic. management is the key to making our cities more attractive places to live in. One of the key issues affecting the quality of the environment and the. and to improving the quality of our urban environment. quality of life in our towns and cities is road traffic Heavy motor traffic. means poor air quality unacceptable levels of noise and a weakened sense. of neighbourhood and local community Traffic also gives rise to high costs. for the economy through delays caused by congestion. Every year more than 3 million cars are added to the car fleet in Europe. Total road traffic kilometres in urban areas will grow by 40 between 1995. and 2030 Local authorities and citizens need to decide how to respond to. these pressures and decide what sort of place they want their town or city to. be in the future One option is to try to eliminate congestion by building. more roads but the costs financial social and environmental can be. high and the relief short lived More and more cities are opting for a. different approach where they work together with their citizens to ensure. that they have access to the goods and services they need without having to. depend on road traffic, There are many traffic management techniques and approaches and any. given city will probably need to develop a package of measures to manage. traffic effectively This new handbook sets out some case studies where road. space has been reallocated for other uses New attractive and popular public. areas can be created on sites that were once blocked by regular traffic jams Margot WALLSTR M. If these are properly planned they need not result in road traffic chaos Member of the European Commission. contrary to what might be expected responsible for Environment. PRESENTING,d THE CASE STUDIES,Kajaani Finland,Wolverhampton England. Vauxhall Cross London England,Nuremberg Germany,c PROVIDING. Strasbourg France,FINDING Gent Belgium,SOLUTIONS Cambridge England GUIDELINES. Oxford England,his chapter presents the,T he traditional response to the.
problem of traffic congestion has,T experiences of a small selection of. European cities where urban,R edistributing road space in favour. of non car modes can represent a, been to increase the road space technically challenging and politically. IDENTIFYING available for cars In this chapter the. planners with the political support of sensitive planning option in urban. local leaders have had the vision and areas where road congestion is. THE ISSUES theory of traffic evaporation is,explored as a concept which. the courage often in the face of already a problem This chapter. considerable opposition to take brings together best practice from a. challenges the logic of this approach, he quality of life in many away congested road space from.
T European cities is affected by the,negative impacts of increasing traffic. This theory supports the proposition,that reducing road capacity for cars. private cars In each case study after,an initial settling in period the. wide range of expertise and,experience in dealing with these. in congested city centres can issues in particular that drawn from. levels This chapter looks at ways in predicted traffic chaos did not the schemes described in this. represent a sustainable efficient, which a dominance of car traffic materialise and some of the traffic document The objective is to assist.
planning solution In addition once, affects our lives in urban areas and evaporated politicians and planners working to. freed from domination by car traffic, suggests that there is a growing reclaimed urban spaces can become develop more sustainable transport. consensus from the global to the accessible vibrant living places strategies for Europe s towns and. local level that the situation is cities,unsustainable. Page 10 Page 14 Page 20 Page 50,8 Traffic evaporation in urban areas. Introduction,TRAFFIC EVAPORATION,IN URBAN AREAS, he challenge facing urban planners and politicians in many European In the attractive car free spaces created in these cities pedestrians and cyclists.
towns and cities is that of balancing the demand for increasing personal now enjoy a cleaner quieter and safer environment These cases illustrate the. mobility and economic growth with the need to respect the environment potential for more effective uses of urban road space as exchange space rather. and provide an acceptable quality of life for all citizens than just movement space recognising the social importance of streets and. While it is clear that provision for car based mobility will continue to be an. important part of traffic management planning finding ways to encourage more Favouring more sustainable transport modes is an approach which promotes. use of alternative modes of transport public transport cycling and walking is social inclusion and accessibility for the nearly 30 of European households. the goal of any sustainable urban policy Where road space is restricted which have no access to a private car Such strategies are also more equitable. providing adequate space for these alternative modes may require a reallocation for they reduce those negative impacts of urban traffic and congestion which are. of highway capacity When the roads under consideration are already highly experienced by everyone regardless of whether they are able to enjoy the. congested it is typically assumed that reducing the capacity available for cars will benefits of car use. result in increased traffic congestion in the surrounding streets However as the. The purpose of this handbook is to show that such schemes can be highly. evidence in this document demonstrates this is not necessarily the case. successful they can represent a very positive sustainable planning option for. The experience in a number of European cities is that cities The case studies here demonstrate the importance of well planned. traffic problems following the implementation of a scheme are usually far less integrated strategies combined with effective public consultation and. serious than predicted communication Above all however they show the need for vision and courage. after an initial period of adjustment some of the traffic that was previously on the part of the implementing local authority. found in the vicinity of the scheme disappears or evaporates due to drivers. changing their travel behaviour, as a result the urban environment becomes more liveable in many respects. This handbook illustrates the concept of traffic evaporation using case studies. from a selection of European cities Many of these cities have gone ahead with. road space reallocation schemes despite predictions that traffic chaos would. result However in each case any initial problems of traffic congestion were. short lived and after a settling in period a proportion of the traffic was found to. have evaporated,10 Identifying the issues,IDENTIFYING THE ISSUES. GROWING TRAFFIC PROBLEMS IN,EUROPE S CITIES, c E urope is the most urbanised continent in the world at present over 80 of its. population lives in towns and cities At the same time car use in Europe is growing. In the EU between 1975 and 1995 the daily distance travelled per person doubled A. further doubling of traffic is predicted by 2025, Half of all journeys in urban areas are less than 5 km long and a third are less than 3. The challenges that increasing traffic and congestion pose in terms of environmental social. and economic costs for urban communities are illustrated in the diagram opposite. 1 Source http europa eu int comm transport, THE MAIN PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASING URBAN TRAFFIC.
AND CONGESTION, N e g at iv e i m p a c t o n u r b a n q u a l i t y o f l i f e. EQUITY VISUAL INTRUSION, Nearly 30 of households in Europe have no access to. Diminished quality of the urban, a car they pay the price of traffic without enjoying. environment caused by parked cars and,mobility benefits offered by car ownership. other infrastructure,ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY NOISE AND VIBRATION.
Traffic congestion pollution and accidents result in. Transport is one of the main sources of, significant direct and indirect costs The total bill. urban noise pollution,has been estimated at EUR 502 billion per year. across the EU Member States 2,LOSS OF URBAN LIVING SPACE ENERGY CONSUMPTION. INCREASING MOTORISED VEHICLE Transport consumes 4 more energy every. Motorised transport infrastructure such as roads and. car parking takes up highly valuable city centre land DOMINANCE AND CONGESTION year which represents a doubling of energy. and spoils and threatens existing open spaces used every 20 years 4. AIR POLLUTION, Multiple effects including global warming health problems SEVERANCE. building decay The Department of Health in the United Congested urban roads cause severance of. Kingdom estimates the health costs of particulates in urban communities which can have a social cost. areas of Britain to be up to GBP 500 million per year 3. ACCIDENTS COMPETITIVENESS, Over 40 000 deaths on Europe s roads year of these Traditional centres face competition from.
four times more fatalities occur in urban areas 5 less congested out of town retail centres. Ne g a t i v e i m p ac t o n u r b an q u a l i t y o f li f e. 2 External costs of transport accident environmental and congestion costs of transport in western Europe March 2000 INFRAS 3 Economic appraisal of the health effects of air pollution prepared by the ad hoc group on the economic appraisal of the health. consulting group for policy analysis and implementation www infras ch and IWW Universitaet Karlsruhe Germany effects of air pollution 1999. www iww uni karlsruhe de 4 Source Eurostat, Source European Environment Agency indicators on transport and environment integration in the EU 2000. Global pressure for change demonstrates 10 when people were asked to identify effective solutions to solve. environmental problems linked to traffic in towns priority was given to improving. The past two decades have seen growing international concern over the impact. the quality of more sustainable transport modes and greatly reducing the. of human activities on climate and the atmosphere Increasing levels of. dominance of car traffic, greenhouse gas emissions are central to these concerns 6 The rapidly growing. transport sector consumes an increasing proportion of total energy and. contributes a growing percentage of global air emissions More sustainable. transport strategies 7 are needed as a matter of international priority. Improve public transport,Citizens in Europe are calling for change. Create more pedestrianised areas, In Europe a majority of citizens are calling for changes to promote modes of. Greatly reduce car traffic, transport which are more respectful of their environment In 1999 70 of.
Europeans said they were more worried than they were in 1994 about the quality Create more cycle lanes. of the air they breathe They put air pollution at the top of their list of Greatly reduce the number of parking space. in town centres, environmental concerns and quoted car traffic problems as the main reason for. Build new express routes within towns, their discontent as far as the environment in which they lived was concerned 8. Make motorists pay a toll to enter a town, Recent surveys have shown that most EU citizens identify as a priority the need. to address the issue of too many cars in urban areas and the pollution noise Increase the price of fuel. and dangers they present In 2002 more than two thirds of those surveyed Don t know. considered environmental factors to be the most important influences on their. quality of life and half identified traffic congestion and over reliance on the car as. key concerns where they lived 9 Furthermore as the chart opposite Nothing. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80, 6 The Kyoto Protocol 1997 set the key target of the reduction of specified greenhouse gases to at least 5 below 1990 levels by Source Eurobarometer 1999 51 1. 7 The September 2001 EC White Paper Communication COM 2001 370 European transport policy for 2010 time to decide sets out. a European strategy for tackling the problems of rising personal motorised mobility. 8 Source European Commission Eurobarometer http europa eu int comm environment. In your opinion which one of these would make, Source Flash Eurobarometer April 2002 EC Environment DG.
9 it possible to most effectively solve environmental. 10 Source Eurobarometer 1999 problems linked to the traffic in town. 14 Finding solutions,FINDING SOLUTIONS,THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM. As car ownership and use have increased over the past 30 years the reaction to. the pressure created by additional traffic demand has often been to increase the. level of supply in other words provide additional road space This traditional. approach of providing supply to meet demand is no longer always appropriate. The quality of the environment in urban areas is of vital importance It is one of the main factors that determine whether a city is a healthy place to live whether we enjoy living there and whether we want our children to grow up there One of the key issues affecting the quality of the environment and the quality of life in our towns and cities is road traffic Heavy motor traffic means

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